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The large misshapen leg, which is also often termed elephantiasis, arises from a repeated effusion and collection of a lymphatic and gelatinous matter in the cellular membrane under the skin, in censequence of inflammation of the lymphatic glands and vessels. The skin itself is much thickened in the protracted stages of the disease, and its vessels become greatly enlarged; its surface grows dark, rough, and sometimes scaly. As the effusion first takes place after a febrile paroxysm, in which the inguinal glands of the side about to be affected are inflamed, and the limb is subsequently augmented in bulk by a repetition of those attacks, Dr. Hendy termed the malady the glandular disease of Barbadoes, in which island it is endemial. In England it is often called the Barbadoes leg. Except when these paroxysms occur, the functions and constitution of the patients are not mainly injured, and they often live many years, incommoded only by carrying about ‘such a troublesome load of leg.’

In this country the disease is only seen in its inveterate stage, after repeated attacks of the fever and effusion have comletely . the organization of the integuments of the imb, and rendered it altogether incurable. In this state the swelling is hard and firm, does not pit on pressure, and is entirely free from pain. The skin is thickened and much hardened; its blood vessels are enlarged, particularly the external veins, and the lymphatics distended; and the cellular substance is flaccid and sometimes thickened, and its cells much loaded with a gelatinous fluid. The muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones are generally in a sound state.

In this advanced stage the disease is altogether irremediable. Little success indeed seems to have attended the practice employed in the earlier stages, which has chiefly been directed to alleviate the febrile paroxysms by laxatives and diaphoretics, and subsequently to strengthen the system by cinehona. Local bleeding has not been employed; but after the fever and inflammation have subsided, the practice of binding the limb in a strong bandage is strongly recommended as the best means of exciting absorption, and of reducing the swelling. (Dr. Bateman's Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases.)


ELETTA'RIA, a genus established by the late Dr. Maton of the plant yielding the lesser cardamoms. The name is that (elettari) under which it was first figured by Rheede, Hort. Mal. xi. t. 4, 5, and is softened into eluchee (Sanskrit ela), the common appellation of this substance over all India. The genus belongs to the natural family of Scitamineae, or Zingiberaceae of some authors; besides this it includes three other species, of which one E. cardamomum medium, is a native of the hilly countries in the vicinity of Silhet. Dr. Roxburgh concludes, from the form of the capsule and its acrid, aromatic taste, that it is the plant which produces the Cardamomum medium of the writers on materia medica. The whole of the species, differing chiefly in their radical inflorescence, are however by Dr. Roxburgh and some other botanists, referred to the genus Alpinia.

Elettaria Cardamomum is a native of the mountainous districts of the coast of Malabar, especially above Calicut, in the Wynaad district, between 11° and 12° of N. lat. where the best are produced. It is therefore well placed; for cardamoms formed a portion of the early commerce, which subsisted between this part of India and Arabia, whence they must have been made known to the Greeks, as they are described by Dioscorides and mentioned as early as the time of Hippocrates.

The cardamom plant delights in moist and shady places on the declivities of the hills. It is cultivated from partings of the root in the district of Soonda Balaghat, but the fruit is very inferior; but the best grows in a wild state, at least where no other measures are adopted, than clearing away the weeds from under the largest trees, which are felled close to the roots. The earth being loosened by the force of the fallen tree, young cardamom plants shoot forth in a month's time, and are sheltered by the shade of the branches. The tree-like herbaceous plants attain a height of from 9 to 12 feet. The root is as tortuous and tuberous as that of the ginger, and the leaves, with long sheathing footstalks, are from one to two feet in length, placed in two rows, and lanceolate in shape, like those of the Indian shot (Canna. indica) common in English gardens. The scapes, or flower- and fruit-bearing stalks, make their appearance in

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ELEUSIS, a celebrated town of Attica, on the borders of Megaris. In very antient times it is said to have been an independent state of some importance, and carried on a war with Athens, by the result of which it became subject to that city. . (Thucyd. ii., 15.) Eleusis owed its celebrity in the historical age to its being the principal seat of the mystical worship of Demeter, who, in search of her daughter, was said to have rested by the well Callichorus, at Eleusis, and to have taught Triptolemus the use of corn on the Rharian plain, near the city. This worship subsisted at Eleusis from the earliest period of history to the time of Alaric. Eleusis stood near the northern shore of the Gulf of Salamis. Its port was small and circular, and formed by two piers running out into the sea. Traces of a theatre have been found on a hill about half a mile from the sea. The temple of Demeter was commenced by Ictinus, in the administration of Pericles, and finished by Philo under the auspices of Demetrius Phalereus. It was originally a Doric building in antis, but was afterwards changed into a decastyle temple, with fluted columns. The upper part of an admirably executed colossal statue of Ceres, or Proserpine, brought from Eleusis by Dr. E. D. Clarke, is now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge. A modern village on the site is called Lefsina.

Coin of Eleusis.

British Museum. Actual size. Copper. Weight, 59 grains.

ELEUSI/NIA, the great mystic festival of Demeter celebrated at Eleusis in the month Böedromion. The lesser mysteries were celebrated in Elaphebolion at Agra, on the Ilissus, and were a sort of preparation for the Eleusinia. The great festival began on the 15th Boedromion, and lasted nine days. The first day was called the assembling (āyvpuéc); on it all who had been initiated in Elaphebolion were invited to complete their sacred duty. The second day was named &\doe ui Trai, “to the sea ye initiated '' from the words of the proclamation by which they were admonished to purify themselves. This purification took place in the betroi, two streamlets of salt water running into the gulf of Salamis, and which separated the territory of Eleusis from the rest of Attica. The third day was called sic \{xn usarat, from some ceremonies imitative of the marriage of Proserpine, which took place on that day. What was the name or employment of the fourth day is unknown. The fifth was called the ‘day of the torches,’ \aputrāčov jukoa, on account of a lampadephoria, or torch-procession, in which the initiated marched two and two round the temple. The initiation took place on the sixth and seventh days of the feast. The sixth day, which was called Iacchus, was the chief day of the Eleusinia. On this day the statue of Iacchus was carried in procession from the Cerameicus to Eleusis, and back again on the following day, which was named the return of the fully-initiated (voo Toijaw of trórrat). The seventh day was called Epidauria, in honour of AEsculapius, who did not arrive from Epidaurus to be initiated until after the return of the Epoptae. The ninth day was called TrAmuoxón. The ceremony of this day consisted in the symbollcal overturning of two vessels filled with wine. Those initiated at the lesser mysteries were called usarat, from pivo ‘to close up,' because they were bound to strict silence; those who had passed through the Eleusinian ceremonies were called iróirraw or popot, “contemplators,” because they had been admitted to see the sacred objects; they were also hailed as happy and fortunate (eidaihovsc, ÖAéiot). The initiation consisted in a set of rites not very ";" it is believed, from the free-masonry of modern Europe, though the effects were far from the same, and the initiated were not supposed to be bound to one another by any particular tie. Every Athenian was obliged to pass through these cere: monies once in the course of his life. Bastards, slaves, and prostitutes, as well as strangers, and in later time Christians and Epicureans, were excluded from the Eleusinia. To reveal any of the mysteries, or to apply to private purposes any of the hallowed solemnities, was considered a capital crime. The priests at Eleusis belonged to the house of the Eumolpidae. The chief priest was called the Hierophant, the second in rank the Torch-bearer (Čačoixos), the third the Sacred Herald (spokhovš), and the fourth the Altarpriest iri Boup). The other two festivals of Demeter, the Demetria and the Thesmophoria, must be distinguished from the Eleusinia. (Jul. Poll. i., § 37.) ELGINSHIRE, formerly and by some still called MORAYSHIRE, a small county of Scotland lying between 57° and 58° N. lat., and between 3° and 4° W. long. It is bounded on the north by the Moray Frith (AEstuarium Varar of Ptolemy); on the south by Inverness-shire and Banffshire; on the east by Banffshire; and on the west by Nairnshire and Inverness-shire. A portion of Invernessshire intersects and divides Elginshire into two separate parts to the north and south. The north part approaches to a circular figure, in diameter nearly 25 miles. The south part has about half this extent of area, and a very irregular outline. The line of sea-coast measures about 35 miles, and presents in some parts precipitous rocks, in others a beach of level sands. The low country forms a plain varying from five to twelve miles in width from the sea-shore to the mountainous district, and extending from the river Spey to the western boundary. It is intersected by small ridges running nearly parallel with the line of coast. On the southern course of the Spey are some considerable plains. The rest of the country, including the distinct southern rt, is hilly, and the cultivated land lies chiefly on the too, of the streams in the valleys. The number of entire arishes is fifteen; of eight others, five partially belong to }. three partially to Inverness, and one partially to Nairm. The soil of the eastern part of the large northern lain is principally sandy, with small fields of clay and peat. }. middle and western parts are chiefly clay and loan. The arable and pasture lands of the mountainous district are for the most part sand and sandy loam. Considerable tracts of peat moss occur in the south-east part, and patches of it here and there throughout the country. In the Agricultural Survey, published in 1811, the proportion of waste land is stated to be about three times the amount of that in cultivation, but since that time some extension of and improvements in agriculture have been made, though a great deal yet remains to be done. The rivers are the Spey, the Lossie, and the Findhorn, which flow in a north-east and nearly parallel course to the sea. The Spey, one of the most productive fishing rivers in- Scotland, has its source in the south west part of Invernessshire, and forms a great portion of the boundary line between Elgin and Banff. In the upper part of its course its branches extend 15 miles on each side, and it drains about 800,000 acres. It is not navigable except for floating timber-rafts from the large forests of Strathspey; but its salmon fishery is of great importance and rents for more than 8000l. a year. Since 1815 the depth of water to the extent of two miles out in the Speymouth Bay has diminished six feet, in consequence of the deposit of gravel carried down by the stream, the velocity of which is four or five miles an hour. This river is said to tlischarge into the sea a greater quantity of water than the Thames. The devastation occasioned by its great overflowings in 1829 is described by Sir T. D. Lauder in the work on the Great Floods in Moray. The Findhorn rises also in Inverness-shire, and passes through Elginshire near the western boundary. Fir timber from the extensive forests on its banks is floated down in separate logs. The entrance from the sea to the large aestuary at its mouth is rendered difficult by a bar of sand, though the port and quay at the village of Findhorn are commodious for small vessels. The salmon fishery is valuable, but inferior to that of the Spey. The Lossie is formed by the confluence of numerous streams in the centre of the shire; it passes to the north of the town of Elgin and falls into the sea on the eastern side of Loch Spynie. In a course of twenty miles it turns

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numerous corn mills and some manufacturing machinery near Elgin. There was formerly a salmon fishery on this river, but at present the number of fish which enter is too small to offer any encouragement to the fishers. There is a port for j shipping at the Lossiemouth, five miles north-east of Elgin. Large embankments of earth have been raised at great expense along each side of this river through the low plains between Elgin and the sea, in order to prevent a recurrence of the calamitous inundation which happened in 1829, of which a very interesting description is given in Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's ‘Account of the Great Floods in Moray;" a work containing much valuable information respecting this county. Near Lossiemouth is the large Loch Spynie, the drainage of which has been imperfectly made at an expense of 10,800l.; but the expectation of finding its bed suitable for cultivation has been disappointed. The drainage of two or three small lakes between Elgin and Alves has also been proposed. The south portion of the county contains several lakes surrounded with picturesque mountain scenery. That of Glenmore is circular, and two miles in diameter; and Loughnadurb, in the south-west extremity, is four miles in length. Chalybeate springs are found in all parts of the county, but none are much distinguished for medicinal qualities; and it is remarked as a curious fact that the old holy wells are of pure water exempt from any mineral tinge. The principal roads are, one which intersects the northern part of the county from Fochabers on the east to Burg Head on the north and Forres on the west, passing through the town of Elgin; one from Elgin to Craig-Elachie bridge, on the Spey; and two, one on the east from Fochabers, the other on the west from Forres, which communicate with the south portion of the county. A large proportion of Elginshire is covered with forests and plantations, chiefly of Scotch fir and larch. Many thousands of acres which, fifty years ago, were naked moor, are now clothed with various kinds of firs, interspersed with oaks, ash, and beeches. The aspect of the northern low country, although generally fertile and well-cultivated, is dull, flat, and unvaried; but in the southern highlands, especially in the parish of Knockando, on the o of the Spey, the scenery is often highly picturesque and romantic; having mountains covered with broom and heather, richly wooded slopes, deep and gloomy glens, with lofty rocks, torrents, and waterfalls, and mossy banks abounding in many varieties of beautiful flowers, overhung by the honeysuckle and the wild rose. This woody district is a sheltered resort of all the ordinary kinds of singing and game birds; of the roe-deer, fox, hare, rabbit, badger, &c. The summits of Cairngorm (blue mountains), in the southern extremity of the south division of the county, are seldom free from snow. the highest point is 4080 feet above the sea. James Roy's Cairn, in the south part of the north division, is considered the highest elevation in the county, and commands, in clear weather, a very extensive prospect. Geology and Mineralogy.—The rocks in the south consist of granite, felspar, mica, sandstone, slate, gravel, and rock crystal. The banks of the Spey towards its mouth exhibit secondary rocks of red sandstone which dip into the basin of the Moray Frith, and extend westward throughout the northern plain of the county. The upper beds are soft, and are cut into ravines by the rivulets. The rocks are covered with a great depth of sand, gravel, and other alluvial matter, so that the soil often on the same farm varies from strong clay to rich loam and light and gravelly sand. Numerous large granitic boulder stones, which are used for building, are found far from their parent rocks. (New Statistical Account of Scotland, part viii. p. 83.) Many large and inexhaustible quarries of freestone are wo especially near the coast. Those on Quarrywood Hill,

near Elgin, have supplied the stone for the handsome public edifices in that town... It is there found in large blocks adapted for pillars, millstones, and pavements; the colour is yellow and white, and it takes a fine polish. One or two quarries of slate supply the county with roofing materials. Neither coal nor any metallic ores of importance are found ; but peat occurs in various places. The beds of peat, which are generally from four to twelve feet in thickness, lie on gravelly sand or clay, and are covered at the surface with a mossy turf about ten inches deep. This peat is in general use for fuel, but when burning, it often emits a disagreeable smell of sulphur. A similar

smell rises from the surface of the fields of peat when

heated by the sun. It changes the colour of silver to a palace, containing a spacious old hall of the fourteenth

ieaden hue, and corrodes utensils of copper or iron. Numerous trunks of oak and fir trees, many of them large, intermixed with boughs of birch and alder and hazel nuts, are found deeply imbedded in the peat mosses. These are considered by the old bishop of Ross, in his description of Moray, to have been thus deposited by the Deluge; but closer observation shows this fossil timber to have fallen by the action of fire, and in some instances by the axe ; and geologists, judging from the quantities of marine shells and other fossil exuviae discovered beneath the surface, believe the northern plain to have been once the bed of the sea. Antiquities, Buildings, Bridges.—In the parish of St. Andrew's Lhanbryd is a small Druidical structure, supo to have been standing nearly 3000 years; another as been broken up to macadamize a piece of road. The ruins of the castle of the lords of Duffus stand on the margin of Loch Spynie ; the tumuli or cairns, the supposed tombs of antient warriors, which are remaining on the heights along the shore, and the ruins of the Roman, or, according to others, the Danish, fortifications at Burghead; all deserve the attention of the antiquarian. In the parish of Urquhart are the remains of Druidical lithoi, forming a circular temple. The magnificent priory of Pluscarden, near Elgin, is sufficiently entire to show the plan of the structure and its numerous offices. The surrounding wall encloses nearly twelve acres. The church at Birnie is of great antiquity, and contains vestiges of Druidical and Scandinavian art. It was one of the earliest consecrated laces of the Roman hierarchy in the north of Scotland. The curious old bell is described by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder. The ruins of the antient palace of the bishops of Moray, on the south bank of Loch Spynie, are those of a magnificent castle, whose lofty halls and deep vaults were fortified by towers, gates, and ditches. . The fortified castle on the lonely lake called Loughnadurb, in the mountain wilds of the south-west extremity, is a romantic ruin of a § besieged by King Edward I. in his war with Bruce. any more ruins and fragments of feudal castles and strongholds and monasteries are remaining, some of them famous in the legends of chivalry ; also several of the artificial hills of sand, on which the blaze, or signal fires, antiently flamed to summon the warriors to battle. In barrows, cairns, and caves, and on the site of camps, have been found skeletons, stone coffins, and Danish and Lochaber dirks and battle-axes made of copper. Near the town of Forres is ‘King Sueno's Stone,’ a large column or obelisk with many curiously-sculptured historical figures, representing the expulsion of the Danes from Scotland, or, as others think, the murder of Macduff; and a wooded hill, called the Knock of Alves, near the town of that name, is famous in tradition as being the place where the usurper Macbeth consulted ‘the Weird Sisters,' when, according to Shakspeare, he inquired— ‘How far,is it called to Forres? What are these, So wither'd and so wild in their attire, That look not like the inhabitants of the earth, And yet are on it?" The foundations of the castle of Forres, in which Macduff was murdered, have been removed, and the green mound on which it stood has been levelled for the erection of a modern mansion. On a mount near the obelisk is an octagonal tower, raised to the memory of Nelson. Its diameter is 24 ft. and the height 70 ft., and the top is finished with a battlement, surmounted with a mast, ropes, and flag. One of the finest and most useful of the public structures in this county is the bridge erected over the Spey, in 1801, from Fochabers to Elgin. The strength required to resist the impetuous force of the river when swollen with mountain-torrents is well provided for by massive piers deeply based on the rock and supporting four circular arches, of which the two smallest have each a span of 75 ft., and the two in the middle a span each of 95 ft. : that is, 19 ft. wider than the central arch of Westminster

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century, capable of entertaining 1000 men. The building is beautifully encompassed by several thousand acres of antient forest and plantations. Brodie House is an elegant mansion in a very extensive park. The Grange, near Alves, and Burgie Castle adjoining it, are large and elegant edifices. Innes House, in the parish of Urquhart, was the noble residence of the lairds of Innes. The spacious mansions of West and East Elchies are in the old manorial and castellated style. Knockando House is beautifully situated near the river Spey. Many more might be enumerated, this county being particularly rich in manorial mansions and seats of the opulent classes. Agriculture, Climate.—This county was antiently reputed ‘the Granery of Scotland.” In the great famine at the end of the sixteenth century, oatmeal was procured from Elgin for the districts south of the Grampian Hills, and at present it furnishes some of the best somples of wheat in the London market. (Mac Culloch's Statistics of the British Empire.) The soil of the lowland district about the latitude of Elgin is remarkably fertile, and especially adapted for the growth of wheat, oats, and barley, of which it produces many heavy and luxurious crops, a great portion of which is shipped at Speymouth, Burghead, Lossiemouth, and Findhorn, for the Scotch and English markets. The climate of this part of the country is noted for its general mildness, dryness, and salubrity, owing, it is thought, to the low level of the surface, which is little above that of the sea, and to the absorbent sandy nature of the soil. Instances occur of extraordinary longevity, and, as a winter residence for invalids, some physicians have considered it preferable to Devonshire. However, at the beginning of spring, a bleak easterly wind generally prevails for several weeks, blasting throughout the country the germinating corn and budding trees, and severely affecting sickly and delicate constitutions. (Agricultural Survey, 1811.) In the summer the wind is gentle from west-southwest, and in winter occasionally violent from west-northwest. The soil and climate of the southern highlands are less favourable for the cultivation of grain; and a great portion of the surface is still covered with native forests, or with uninclosed commons of furze and broom, aboundin in rabbits, which greatly damage the crops. Oats j barley were formerly the only kinds of grain produced; wheat, though now one of the staple articles of commerce, is of comparatively recent introduction, and still more recent is the cultivation of peas, beans, clover, grasses, turnips, and potatoes; yet the turnip husbandry is very extensively and successfully adopted, and potatoes are as common as in Ireland. No uniform course of cropping is pursued; yet, on each of the larger farms, a six-shift rotation is generally used, by which it is divided into one-sixth in green crop, one-third in grass or clover, and one-half in corn, but the succession of each crop is more dependent on individual opinion and convenience than on any principles of experimental science. The land is in the possession of a few large proprietors. The annual rent of the arable kind varies from 7s. to 40s. per acre, and leases are taken commonly for nineteen years. The average produce of an acre of wheat or oats, of very superior quality, is from three to four quarters. Several mills are established for the preparation of pot-barley. [BARLEY, p. 466.] Oats being the principal article of food consumed by the peasantry, they are given very sparingly to horses. All the bread used by the labouring classes is wholly of oatmeal made simply with water into flat cakes, and baked over a wood fire in a pan. Their breakfast invariably, and froquently their other meals, consists of various preparations of oatmeal. In the form of porridge it is flavoured with onions, butter, pepper, sugar, milk, beer, or whiskey, and for supper it receives an addition of shredded kail or turnips. . The farinaceous solution obtained by stepping oatbran is called sowens. It is thick and gelatinous, and slightly acidulated by fermentation. Among servants and farm labourers it is consumed in large quantities. This paste is also dried and preserved in lumps for the convenience of those who require a portable breakfast. Sheep and horses are reared, for the most part, only for domestic use. The cheviot breed of sheep has been extensively introduced to cross that of the old white-faced and the small brown-faced breeds of Moray. The breed of native cattle has been improved by importations from Skye, Aberdeen, and Argyle, Stock of this kind are bred for, and sold to, the graziers of the southern counties. During the last thirty years numerous agricultural improvements have been attempted, and many with success, which, in part, is justly attributable to the premiums offered by the Farmers' Club at Elgin. New roads have been opened and some old ones made conveniently passable ; large tracts of waste have been planted with trees; good horses and implements have been procured; many wretched farmhouses and offices have been rebuilt on superior plans; draining, over and under, has been adopted; inclosures have been made; and lime is much used for manuring, &c. The peasantry, who are naturally hardy and thrifty, have become in the same period considerably improved in knowledge, habits, manners, dress, and mode of living; still, it is truly asserted that Elgin, as to improvement, is greatly in the rear of many other counties of Scotland. Inclosures, for instance, are not general, and are made chiefly by dikes of loose stones: rent is yet partially paid in produce and labour, and such customs as night-wakes for the dead are still superstitiously observed. The Gaelic language is used among a few of the highlanders, but the peasantry in general speak a barbarous dialect of the English, of which a glossary, containing several hundred specimens, is given at the end of Mr. Leslie’s “Agricultural Survey.’ Education.—The people of this county, as in most parts of Scotland, highly appreciate the advantages of early instruction. A well-attended and well-conducted parochial school exists in every parish, and it is a rare occurrence to meet with a youth of either sex, however humble, who is not able at least to read and write. At several of these parochial establishments the masters, though their salaries seldom exceed 30l. a year, teach Latin, Greek, mathematics, geograpny, book-keeping; in short all the knowledge requisite either for entering upon a course of collegiate studies or commercial business. The more populous parishes have each one or more private schools, of which some are of superior character. Several Sunday-schools have been esta. blished, and a few small circulating libraries. This county, with the exception of the royal burghs of Elgin and Forres, shares in Mr. Dick's bequest. [BANFFSHIRE, p. 370.] Commerce and Manufactures.—The chief articles exported are corn, timber, whiskey, and salmon. Of 204 vessels which in 1834 sailed from the Speymouth, 50 were laden with 18,000 quarters of oats and wheat, chiefly for Leith and London. Large quantities are also shipped at the ports of Findhorn, Burghead, and Lossiemouth, whence trading vessels and steam-packets regularly sail for London. At the Speymouth since 1793, 150 vessels, several above 750 tons burden, have been built entirely of natural fir from the forests on the bank of this river. It is greatly superior to that which is planted, and for ships appears to be no less durable than oak, as they are insured at Lloyd's on similar terms, and some of the largest dimensions have been employed in the trade with China and India. Though the great flood of 1829 greatly damaged the harbour at the mouth of the Spey, the sales of timber thence exported still amount to 10,000l. or 11,000l. per annum. In the last war, when foreign timber was excluded, the annual amount commonly exceeded 40,000l. About 300 rafts are annually floated down the Spey from the parish of Abernethy, a distance of forty miles; and 100 men are employed at saw-mills in cutting timber into planks. From eight to twelve smacks are employed by the Salmon Fishery Company of the Spey, in conveying salmon to London. In 1834, seventy-two cargoes were shipped, each on an average containing 280 boxes, the weight of each box being 112 lbs., and its value Öl. The fishing commences on the 1st of February, and ends on the 14th of September, About eighty boats are employed in the herring fishery of the port of Burghead. The salmon fishery on the river Findhorn is of less extent. At Linkwood, near Loch Spynie, the principal manufacture of whiskey is carried on in a spacious range of buildings erected for the business of malting, grinding, and distilling. The capacity of the stills is from 170 to 400 gallons each. The annual quantity of barley manufactured is 1200 quarters; and the annual quantity of liquor produced about 20,000 gallons. It is of great strength and purity, and is almost wholly consumed in this and the adjoining county of Nairn. Two other fine distilleries are in the highland parish of Knockando. From 70 to 100 cargoes of coals, Scotch and English, are annually imported for limekilns, distilleries, and domestic fires. Besides the county town of Elgin, there is but the town

of Forres which can be properly so designated: all other places in the county being merely villages, each with a population less than a thousand. That of Forres amounted, in 1831, to 3895. In the middle of the 10th century, under the reign of King Macduff, this town was a place of more importance than Elgin, from which it is distant twelve miles to the west. King James IV. of Scotland, in 1496, made it a royal burgh with separate jurisdiction. One street, extending about a mile from east to west, having the townhall, church, and gaol in the centre, comprises the whole town. It is pleasantly and picturesquely situated on elevated ground, surrounded by verdant fields and wooded heights. The houses are neat and of modern construction, though some of an antient date present here and there their pointed gables. At the western extremity, half-encircled by a brook, is the green hill on which stood the castle of Macbeth, which, with the adjoining obelisk, and Nelson's monument, have already been noticed. The salmon fishery on the Findhorn gives employment to a few of the inhabitants; the rest belong . to the agricultural class. The grammar-school maintains a good reputation, and there are several superior private academies. A well supplied market is held on Wednesdays, and several small fairs in the course of the year. Fochabers is a small modern-built market town, with a population of about 800, situated on the east bank of the Spey, about five miles from the mouth. The inhabitants are employed for the most part in manufacturing cotton, thread, and worsted. The site of the antient town was a mile to the north of its present position, and near the noble mansion of the duke of Gordon, of which the extensive park is only partly in the shire of Elgin. Burghead is a pretty village, with meat accommodation for sea-bathers. Its port is frequented by numerous vessels of about 80 tons burden. The population of the county in 1831 was 34,231. In conjunction with Nairnshire, it sends one member to parliament. (New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1835; Leslie's Agricultural Survey of Moray, 1811; Dr. Lachlan Shaw's istory of Moray, 1775.) ELGIN, the county town of the shire of Elgin, is agree ably situated in the north lowland plain of corn-fields, on the road which connects, and nearly at an equal distance from, Forres on the west, and Fochabers on the east. The small river Lossie passes near, in a winding course on the western and northern sides, and is crossed at five different points by substantial stone bridges. The town consists of one main street, extending nearly a mile, and numerous narrow lanes which intersect the main street at right angles and contain houses of antient date and construction. Elgin at the end of the tenth century was an important place, with a royal fort. The earliest charter was granted by Alexander II. in 1234. Various grants were ratified by Charles I, in a charter issued in 1633; but none of the lands and privileges thus conferred have ever been possessed. At.a remote aera the neighbourhood was adorned with ecclesiastical palaces and other extensive establishments of monks and friars. The civic arms represent St. Giles in sacerdotal attire with crosier and book, and the motto “sic itur ad astra.” The most interesting and magnificent ruins in this county are those of the cathedral of Elgin, which was founded in i244. In 1390 the original structure was destroyed by fire to gratify the revenge of ‘The Wolf of Badenoch" against the bishop of Moray. It was immediately rebuilt on a model similar to that of the cathedral of Lichfield; but on a scale of much greater magnitude, and with far more elaborate ornaments. The regent Morton, in 1568, having stripped off the lead of the roof to procure money for the payment of his troops, this venerable specimen of architec: ture and sculpture was left to decay as a monument only of popish superstition. In 1711 the great central tower fell to the ground; but the two western turrets, the walls of the choir, and parts of the nave and transept are still standing. The loftiness of the fabric, the symmetry and unity of design, and the great profusion of laboured sculpture, grotesque and elegant, must excite the greatest admiration of the skill and perseverance of the artists. A college was attached to the cathedral, and included within its walls the house and gardens of the bishop, and those of 2: canons. Part of the wall, which had four gateways, and was 900 yards in circuit and four yards in height, yet remains, with the eastern gateway, formerly secured by an

iron grate, a portcullis, and a watchman's lodge. On the

south side of the town are the ruins of a convent of Grey Friars, and on a hill at the west are the remains of an antient fort. The Elgin institution for the support of old age and the education of youth, is a handsome quadrangular building, at the eastern entrance, surmounted with a circular tower and a dome. The whole is constructed of beautiful freestone and ornamented with Doric columns and sculptured figures; and the interior is very conveniently laid out in school-rooms, eating-halls, dormitories, wards for the sick, a chapel, and various other offices. The building, playgrounds, and shrubbery cover an area of about three acres. The objects of this excellent charity, are threefold: an almshouse for age and indigence; a school for the support and education of labourers' children, and a free-school solely for education. The inmates of the first class are 10 in number, of the second class 40, of the third class 230. The new church in the centre of the town is one of the most elegant in the north of Scotland. It has a richly ornamented cupola, and a Doric portico. Grey's Hospital, at the western extremity, is a similar structure, with a Grecian portico and a central dome. The sectarian places of public worship are numerous, and include an episcopal and a Catholic chapel. The schools within the town, endowed and private, are ten in number, and are generally well-conducted and efficient establishments. The Elgin Academy consists of three parochial schools of very superior character. The subjects taught are English reading, writing, grammar, and composition, arithmetic, geography, mathematics, French, Latin, and Greek. Courses of lectures on natural philosophy are occasionally delivered and illustrated by an experimental apparatus. The salaries of the teachers are each about 45l. per annum. A literary society for the purpose of procuring reviews and other periodical publications was established in 1818, and is still in prosperous existence; and also an extensive and valuable circulating library. There are many endowed charities, and various other religious and benevolent institutions. The Morayshire Farmer's Club was instituted in 1799. The members have subscribed the sum of 2250l., which is very judiciously appropriated to the improvement of agricultural science, and the collection of valuable books on every department of rural economy. The following observation on the progress of improvement in Elgin is made in the New Statistical Account of Scotland, No. VIII., p. 27: “Forty years ago there were no turnpike-roads leading to or from it; no stage-coaches, no gas lights, indeed no lighting, nor any side pavement to the streets, no hospital for the sick, no institution for the support of old age or the education of youth, no academy, no printing-press, and no newspaper.' All these desiderata are now possessed. Many new and more convenient houses have been built, and the progress of knowledge and comfort are very apparent; improvemerts however are still wanting in the efficiency of the police, in the supply of water by pipes, and in the removal from the heart of the town of that greatest of nuisances, the butchers' shambles. The population of the town in 1831 was 6130. The burgh, in conjunction with Banff, Cullen, Inverary, and Kintore, sends one member to parliament. ELGIN MARBLES, the designation given to a collection of antient sculpture, chiefly from the Acropolis of Athens, whence it was obtained by the Earl of Elgin (who had been the English ambassador to Turkey) between the years 1801 and 1812. This collection was purchased in pursuance of an act of the legislature, dated July 1st, 1816, for the sum of 35,000l., and is now deposited in the British Museum, in a room built especially for its reception. The Parthenon, or Temple of Minerva, at Athens, whence the more important of these sculptures were obtained, was built during the administration of Pericles, about the year B.C. 448. It was constructed entirely of white marble #. Mount Pentelicus; Callicrates and Ictinus were its architects; and its sculptures were produced partly by the hand and partly under the direction of Phidias. The sculptures of the Parthenon in the Elgin collection are of three descriptions: Metopes; a portion of the Frieze of the cella; and Statues and their parts from the tympana or pediments. The Metopes are fifteen in number, from the frieze of the peristyle on the southern side of the building, and bear reference to the contest between the Centaurs and the Lapithae. The Centaurs were invited to the nuptials of Pirithous, king of the Lapithae. During the marriage-feast

one of them, named Eurytion or Eurytus, elated by wine, offered violence to the person of Hippodamia, the bride. This outrageous act was immediately resented by Theseus, the friend of Pirithous, who, hurling a large vessel of wine at the head of the offender, brought him lifeless to the ground. A general engagement then ensued between the two parties; and the Centaurs not only sought to revenge the death of their companion Eurytus, but likewise attempted to carry off all the females who were guests at the nuptials. In this conflict, sustained on both sides with great fury, the Centaurs were finally vanquished. Such is the general outline of the mythic history represented in the Metopes. There is a sixteenth Metope, placed as No. 9; but it is a cast from one now in the Louvre allery at Paris, the original of which, formerly belonging to #. same series, was purchased for that collection in 1818, at the sale of the Count de Choiseul Gouffier, who before the French Revolution, had been his king's ambassador in Turkey. The most interesting of the Elgin Metopes are Nos. 3, 11, 12, and 13. The three last mentioned are the finest in point of execution. In an uninterrupted series of very low relief, placed round the cella, immediately below the ceiling of the porticoes of the Parthenon, was the Frieze, representing the solemn quinquennial procession, called the Panathemsea. The procession was represented as advancing in two parallel columns from west to east, one along the northern, the other along the southern side of the temple, and facing inwards after turning the two angles of the eastern front, and meeting towards its centre. Such was the frieze in its original position. Of its remains the Elgin collection possesses an extent, in slabs and fragments of marble, beginning at No. 17, of rather more than 249 ft., with a continuation of plaster casts of more than 76 ft. The greater part of the last are from portions of the sculpture which were not brought away, including a single slab, No. 23, which likewise belonged to the Count de Choiseul, now in the gallery of the Louvre; all forming a total of representation from the frieze of very near 326 ft. The bas-reliefs which at present compose the frieze in the Elgin Room, as far as they extend, are placed in the same order in which they were originally seen upon the Parthenon. Those on the principal front of the temple, namely, the east, are placed first, then follow those of the north, and lastly those of the west and south. They are arranged, in short, in the same manner in which the spectator viewed them as he approached the temple by the east and walked round it by the north, west, and south. But the spectator in the Elgin Room has to keep in mind that what formerly surrounded an exterior wall now lines the interior of a room. The slabs 17 to 25, on the left of the entrance into the room, form the eastern frieze, the portion which occupied the east end of the temple. The figures on slab 17, the Virgths of Attica, head the procession from the southern frieze. The slab 19, the longest in the collection, stood immediately above the eastern entrance or door, and was the centre of the composition. In this slab, upon the left, a Priestess is represented, supposed to be the wife of the principal archon, or chief magistrate of Athens, in the act of receiving from two canephori, or bearers of the mystic baskets, the articles serving for the rites of sacrifice. To her left stands the Archon, in a drapery which reaches from the head to the feet, receiving from the hands of a youth a piece of cloth folded in a square form in numerous thicknesses, conjectured to be the peplus, or embroidered veil, the sail of the Panathenaic ship, and the principal ornament of the procession. On each side of the groups which represent the priestess and archon are various seated figures, among which Jupiter, Minerva, Triptolemus, AEsculapius, and Hygeia are the most conspicuous. Another train of females head the procession as it comes from the northern frieze; and here the sculptures which adorned the eastern front of the Parthenon terminate. This part of the frieze is greatly mutilated; but the explanation of it is aided by some drawings of the Parthenon made in 1674 by Jacques Carrey for the Marquis de Nointel, at a time when the sculptures were a little more perfect. These drawings are in the Royal Library at Paris, and copies of them are in the British Museum. From the Nointel drawings it appears that the virgins who led the procession from the northern frieze, like those on the southern side, were followed by oxen led as victims; the foreigners settled in Athens were likewise represented,

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