« EelmineJätka »
of it for land use, but doubted whether it would answer on shipboard, on account of the motion of the ship. oICS are agents which augment the urinary se. cretion and facilitate its expulsion from the bladder. They •onstitute an extensive class of substances which, however, are very uncertain in their action, and require to be varied wery frequently on account of the effects which their long continued use produces on the stomach and digestive function. The uncertainty of their operation is owing probably less to causes inherent in them than to our want of acquaintance with or attention to the circumstances which influence their action. Some writers disavow their belief in the existence of a distinct class of substances entitled to be called diuretics, considering them as mere general stimulants; but such a view is inadmissible, as many of them, far from being stimulants, are decidedly sedative, while some of the feelings which cause diuresis, such as fear or terror, and the external application of cold, are likewise sedative in their effects on the system. In attempting to ascertain or account for their mode of action, we must constantly bear in mind the nature of the functions of the kidneys, viz., not only to remove from the body a considerable quantity of its fluid contents, but at the same time a great number of saline and other principles, the retention of which, for any considerable time, in the system, causes serious departure from its healthy state, and in some instances speedy death. Not only therefore must the quantity of fluid eliminated be in due proportion, but the qualit or chemical constitution of it must also be of a proper kind. Any variation in these conditions requires the interference of medicine to rectify it. In endeavouring to accomplish this object, it must be borne in mind that, according to the state of the system, sometimes an acid diathesis predominates, sometimes an alkaline. The means which we employ to attain our object may be classifled according to their primary modes of action on the system. Some are stimulant, such as gamboge, cytisus scoparius, alcohol, spiritus aetheris nitrici, oil of juniper, oil of turpentine, &c. Some, again, are sedative, such as lactuca virosa, leontodon taraxacum, digitalis, squil, colchicum, &c.; others are refrigerant, of which some render the urine acid, such as the dilute mineral acids; some, on the opposite hand, render the urine alkaline, such as the carbonate of potass, acetate, tartrate and bitartrate of potass; while certain saline diuretics do not render it either acid or alkaline, such as nitrate of potass, bichlorate of soda, &c. The more acrid diuretics seem to act upon the lower sphere of life, or what may be considered the vegetative system, such as the cellular tissue, the fatty structures, and the internal mucous coats, the secretion of which they render thinner as well as more abundant, but at the same time they interfere much with the assimilative process as well as with that of digestion, even when given in small doses; and hence arises, the impossibility of prolonging their employment beyond a very limited time. Whatever be the agent we select it is by no means necessary that, to cause a diuretic effect, the substance should be decomposed; but it is important to remember that, when saline diuretics are decomposed, the alkali is carried to the kidneys as the emunctory by which it is to be ejected from the system, and hence their use speedily renders the urine alkaline, which, when in a high degree, may prove very hurtful to the system generally, and to the bladder and urinary passages in particular. Numerous as are the agents termed diuretics, none of them will act as such unless the patient be under certain conditions. If a very inflammatory state of the system exist, no article will act as a diuretic till this be lessened, and hence the necessity of employing venesection and saline cathartics before administering any of the class of diuretics; and under such circumstances colchicum is perhaps the best to begin with. Even such inflammation as exists in some forms of dropsy must be removed by antiphlogistic means before diuretics will have a beneficial effect. (Blackwall on Dropsy.) When a very great quantity of fluid is present in the body, some of it must be carried off by other means before diuretics can act, as the absorbents under such circumstances do not furnish a supply to the kidneys—the activity of absorption being always in an averse ratio to the smallness of the quantity of fluid present. (Majendie.) If there be great general debility of the system, and particularly of the absorbents, this state must be obviated either by the exhibition of tonics previous to or along with the diuretic remedies. Lastly, none of
the saline diuretics, which are susceptible of decomposition, will act, if any considerable catharsis be going on, and hence that action, if arising from other causes, should be moderated or checked; and care should be taken not to exhibit such of them as are also purgatives in such doses as to act upon the bowels. This observation is not intended to prohibit the exhibition of a single purgative previous to commencing the use of diuretics, as this is often beneficial, or to forbid their occasional use when required to obviate particular symptoms. It must never be forgotten that if the patient be kept very warm, the action will more probably be directed to the skin than to the kidneys; hence the patient should not, if possible, remain in bed; the medicines should be given during the day, and the air of the apartment should be cool, and the clothing light. Indeed cold itself is a powerful diuretic, and some. times succeeds where every other fails. The drinking of diluents likewise promotes the action of the kidneys: it is therefore unwise as well as cruel to withhold water from dropsical patients. [DiLUENTs.] DIVAN. [DiwāN.] DIVERGENCY, DIVERGENT. [Convergent.] DIVERS, COLY'MBIDAE, a family of swimming birds (Natatores), having a smooth, straight, compressed, and pointed bill. Willughby assigned the family a place in his fifth section (‘whole-footed birds,with shorter legs')," under the name of ‘. Douckers or Loons, called in Latine Colymbi,’ and he divided them into ‘cloven-footed Douckers that have no tails, the Grebes, and the “whole-footed Douckers with tails,’ the true Divers. The following is Willughby's description ‘of Douckers in general. “ Douckers have narrow, straight, sharp-pointed bills, small heads, and also small wings; their legs situate backwards, near the tail, for quick swimming and easier diving; broad flat legs, by which note they are distinguished from all other kinds of birds; broad claws, like human nails. Of these Douckers there are two kinds; the first is of such as are cloven-footed. but fin-toed, having lateral membranes all along the sides of their toes, and that want the tail: the second is of those that are whole-footed and caudate, which do nearly approach to those birds we call Tridactylae, that want the back toe. These are not without good reason called Douchers, for that they dive much, and continue long under water, as soon as they are up dropping down again.' Ray, in his “Synopsis,' arranges the cloven-footed and whole-footed Colymbi, Grebes, and Divers, under his Palmipedes tetradactylae digito postico soluto, et primö rostro recto angusto acuto, brachypterae et Urinatrices, Colymbi dictae.’ He also includes the genus Mergulus. [Auk. Linnaeus placed both the Divers, properly so-called, and the Grebes under his genus Colymbus, which stands in his system under the order, Anseres, between the genera Phaeton (tropic birds) and Larus (gulls). Pennant followed Brisson in separating the Grebes from the Divers. The first he placed next to the Coots, and immediately before the Avosets ; and the Divers between the Guillemots and the Gulls. Under the term ‘ Plongeurs ou Brachypteres,’ Cuvier arranges those Palmipedes, ‘a part of which have some relation to the Water-hens. The legs placed more backward than in any of the other birds, render walking a difficult operation, and oblige them, when on land, to keep themselves in a vertical position. As the greater part of them are, besides, bad fliers, inasmuch as some of them cannot fly at all on account of the shortness of their wings, they may be regarded as almost exclusively attached to the surface of the waters. In accordance with this destination their plumage is more close-set, and sometimes it even offers a smooth surface and silvery hue. They swim under the water, aiding themselves with their wings, nearly as if they were fins. Their gizzard is sufficiently muscular, their caca are moderate, and they have each a peculiar muscle on each side of their lower larynx.' The following are the genera comprehended under this family by Cuvier: —the Grebes, Brisson; (Podiceps, Latham; Colymbus, Brisson and Illiger). The Divers (Plongeons), properly socalled (Mergus, Brisson; Colymbus, Latham; 1:wdoso, Illiger). The Guillemots (Uria, Brisson and Illiger). W. Auks (Pingouins), Alca of Linnaeus. The Penz“” (Man
chos), Antenodytes of Forster, consisting of the subgenera of nodutos, Cuvier; Catarrhactes, Brisson; and Sphescus B, isson. Temminck places the Grebes (Podiceps) next to the P'alaropes, at the end of his fourteenth order, the Pinnatipedes, or fin-footed birds; and the Divers (Colymbus, Latham), between the Pelicans and the Guillemots in his fifeen, h order, the Palmipedes. Mr. Vigors makes his fifth order of birds (Natatores) comprise the following families— Anatidae, Leach. Colymbidae, Leach. Alcada”, Pelecanidze, Leach. Laridae, Leach. Or, with reference to the typical groups— Normal group. With short wings, which are sparingly feathered, and with feet placed behind toequipoise of the body - - (10ao. Aberrant group. With longer and well-feathered wings, Pelecanidae. and feet especially placed within the equi- Laridae. poise of the body . - Anatidae. He considers the genus Mergus, of Linnaeus, the species of which carry the powers of swimming and diving to the greatest extent, making use of their wings also in their }. through the water, and, at the same time, exhibiting a constrained and embarrassed mode of walking, in consequence of the backward position of the legs, as forming the passage from the Anatidae to the Colymbidae. ‘The distinctively marked character,’ writes Mr. Vigors, in his paper “on the natural affinities that connect the orders and families of birds”“of the lobated hind toe, which prevails among the latter groups of the family we have just quitted, conducts us to Podiceps, Latham, that commences the family of Columbida", where the same character is strongly developed. The difference between the bills of the types of these two families is softened down by the intervention of that of Mergus, which is intermediate between the broad and depressed bill of Anas and the narrow and sharppointed bill of Podiceps. This last genus, in conjunction with Colymbus, Linn., from which it differs chiefly in the construction of the foot, composes the family of the Colymbidae. These two well-known groups, differing but little among themselves in external characters, form one of those normal groups of the order where a deficiency is exhibited in the powers of flight by the shortness of their wings, and in the faculty of walking by the backward position of their legs. These deficiencies in the groups before us are compensated for by their capability of remaining for a length of time under water, and by their superior powers of diving. For this latter purpose the structure both of their wings and legs is admirably adapted; the former by their strength assisting them as oars under water, and by their brevity not interfering with their progress; the latter by their compressed and sharpened edge offering no resistance to the water as they are drawn up to effect the stroke which accelerates the movements of the bird. From their superiority in these characters and powers, the birds themselves have obtained par ercellence the name of Divers. In these particulars we may observe them to be united with the Alcada” which succeed them, and from which they are chiefly separated by the presence of the hind toe, conspicuous here, but deficient in the family to which we now proceed.’ Mr. Vigors then goes on to the Auks (Alcada”), which he enters by means of the genus Uria [GuilleMoT], originally included in the Colymbus of Linnaeus, and from which it has been separated chiefly on account of the tridactyle conformation of its foot. This character distinguishes the greater part of the Alcadas, a family which, in addition to Uria and Alca, contains, according to Mr. Vigors, the genus Aptenodytes of Linnaeus. M. Lesson, in his Manual, makes the Colymbidae (Plongeurs ou Brachyptéres, Cuv., Urinatores, Vieillot), the first family of the sixth order of birds, Les Palmipedes, Natatores of Illiger and Vieillot; and the family comprises the genera Podiceps, Lath., Colymbus (part), Linn., and Cephus, Cuv. The Prince of Musignano (Charles Lucian Bonaparte) places Podiceps under his order Anseres in the family Lobi
pedes, and Colymbus under the same order in his family Pygopodes.
In “Fauna Boreali-Americana, Podiceps is placed at the head of the order Natatores, and is immediately succeeded by Sterna (the Terns): the position of Colymbus is between Pelecanus and Uria, which last-mentioned genus con cludes the order.
Bill longer than the head, robust, slightly compressed, or nearly cylindrical, subulated, straight, entire, pointed; upper mandible straight, or hooked at the point; nostrils oblong, half-closed. Wings short, the three first quills of equal length and longest. Tail none. Toes bordered with large fimbriations; hallur pinnated,
Head and foot of the male Eared Giebe; summer plumage; the head som Mr. Gould's British birds, the foot from a specimen in the Muscum of the Zoological Society.
Habits, &c. The Grebes haunt the sea as well as the rivers, are excellent swimmers, and dive frequently, as all who have watched the Dabchick or Little Grebe (Podiceps minor), and have been amused by its quickly-repeated plungings well know. They feed on small fishes, frogs, crustaceans, and insects, and their nests, formed of a large quantity of grass, &c., are generally placed among reeds and carices, and rise and fall with the water.
Geographical distribution. Very wide. Five European species are enumerated, and the foreign species are very numerous. The form seems capable of adaptation to great varieties of climate. In the ‘Tables’ published in the ‘Introduction to Fauna Boreali-Americana,’ we find Podiceps cornutus and Podiceps Carolinensis among the birds which merely winter in Pennsylvania, and migrate in summer to rear their young in the #. Countries; and Podiceps cristatus, P. ...}. and P. cornutus in the list of species common to the Old World and to the Fur Countries. Mr. Sabine gives a description of a mature individual of Podiceps rubricollis killed at Great Slave Lake, and of a specimen or Podiceps Carolinensis killed at the same place, both in Sir
John Franklin's first expedition, and in May, 1822; and Dr. Richardson notes Podiceps cristatus as having been killel on the Saskatchewan, and Podiceps cornutus at Great Slave Lake (“Fauna Boreali-Americana"). Podiceps Chilensis and Podiceps Americanus are natives of the warm parts of America; the first, as its name implies, having been found in the bay of Concepgion, and the second on the Brazilian waters (Rio Grande and S. Paolo); and we select, as an example, Podiceps occipitalis of Lesson, from the rivers of the Malouin Islands (Isles Malouines). 19escription. This Grebe, according to M. Lesson, is remarkable for the delicate tints of its plumage, which is slategrey (gris ardoisé) above and of a satiny white below. The cheeks and forehead are of a light grey; a bundle of loose plumes (plumes effilées) springs behind each eye, and is prolonged backwards and on the sides of the neck. A calotte of deep black rises from the occiput, and is prolonged on the posterior part of the neck half way down it. The throat is of a pearled grey, which becomes lighter, so that the front J.f the neck and the sides are of a pure white, as well as the rest of the lower part of the body. The back and wings are of a deeper slate colour, and this tint, mingled however with white, prevails on the feathers of the rump. The tarsi, toes, and the considerably large membranes which fringe them, are greenish. The bill is short and black. The iris is of a most lively red, so brilliant as to call forth from Père Dom Pernetty, whose Petit Plongeon a Lunettes it is, the expression that “ diamonds and rubies have nothing to offer equal to the fire of the eyes of a species of Plongeon which
is frequently found on the edge of the sea.” The total length - - - become of a blackish tint, and the small white blotches
of this Grebe is eleven inches and two or three lines; from the forehead to the point of the bill, eight lines; tarsi, seventeen lines ; external toe, two inches.
The form of the bird is so well known from the common Dabchick, that it would have been superfluous to give a figure of an entire Grebe.
Colymbus (Mergus, Brisson – Urinator, Lacépède —and Eudytes, Illiger).
Bill moderate, strong, straight, very much pointed, compressed; nostrils concave, half closed. Wings short; the first quill longest. Tail short, rounded. Three front toes very long, entirely palmated ; hind toe bordered with a small supple membrane. Habits, &c. The Divers bear a close resemblance to the Grebes, from which they differ but little, excepting in their almated feet. On the water they are at their ease: on }. they, as well as the Grebes, are awkward and beset with difficulties in their locomotion. Geographical distribution. Principally the northern latitudes, where they nestle in the wildest and most desert spots. In the tables in “Fauna Boreali-Americana,' we find Colymbus glacialis and C. septen trionalis in the list of species which o winter in Pennsylvania, and migrate in summer to rear their young in the Fur Countries, and Colymbus septentrioualis in the list of birds (migratory) detected on the North Georgian Islands and adjoining seas, lat. 73° to 75° north, on Sir Edward Parry's first voyage. Colymbus glacialis and C. septentrionalis occur in Captain Sabine's list of Greenland Birds and Colymbi glacialis, arcticus, and septentrionalis, in Dr. Richardson's list of species common to the Old World and to the Fur Countries. Example, Colymbus glacialis. Description of a specimen killed on Great Bear Lake.— Colour. Head, neck, and upper tail-coverts, glossed with deep purplish-green, on a black ground. A short transverse bar on the throat, a collar on the middle of the neck, interrupted above and below, and the shoulders white, broadly striped on the shafts with black. Whole upper plumage, wings, sides of the breast, flanks, and under tail-coverts, black; all, except the quills and tail, marked with a pair of white spots near the tip of each feather: the spots form rows, and are large and quadrangular on the scapulars and interscapulars, round and smaller elsewhere, smallest on the rump. Under plumage and inner wing-coverts white, the axillaries striped down their middles with black. Irides brown. Form. Jill compressed, strong, tapering; its rictus quite straight; its contour very slightly arched above; lower mandible channelled beneath, appearing deepest in the middle; its gonys sloping upwards to the point; margins of both mandibles, but particularly of the lower one, inflected. Inner wing-coverts very long. Tail, of twenty feathers, much rounded. Total coi thirty-six inches;
extent of wing forty-eight inches. Dr. Richardson, whose description this is, observes, that specimens in mature plumage vary considerably in total length, upwards of an inch in length of wing, and more than half an inch in the length of the tarsus. Young of the year. Temminck remarks, that these differ considerably from the old birds. The head of the young, the occiput, and the whole posterior part of the neck are of an ashy-brown; on the cheeks are small ashy and white points; throat, front of the neck, and other lower parts pure white; feathers of the back, of the wings, of the rump and flanks, of a very deep brown in the middle, bordered and terminated by bluish ash; upper mandible ashy grey, lower mandible whitish : iris brown; feet externally deep brown, internally, as well as the membranes, whitish. In this state Temminck says that the bird is the Colymbus Immer, (Gmel. Syst. Lath. Ind.); Le Grand Plongeon of Buffon, (but the plate enl. 914 represents a young individual of Colymbus Arcticus); Mergo Maggiore o Smergo, (Stor. deg, ucc.) with a good figure. He thinks that the Imber Taucker of Bechstein (Naturg. Deut.) is probably a young of this species on account of its large dimensions, and remarks that under the name of Colymbus Immer the young of this species are often confounded with those of Colymbus Arcticus. At the age of a year, according to the same author, the individuals of both sexes show a transverse blackish brown band towards the middle of the neck, about an inch in length, forming a kind of collar; the feathers of the back
begin to appear. In this state it is the Grand Plongeon of Brisson, (vol. vi., p. 105, pl. 10, f. 1,) a very exact figure. At the age qf two years the collar is more defined ; this part, the head and the neck, are varied with brown and greenish-black feathers; the numerous blotches on the back and wings become more prevalent, and the band under the throat, and the nuchal collar also, are marked with longitudinal brown and white lines. At the age of three years the plumage is perfect. According to Montagu, Colymbus glacialis is the Colym. bus marimus caudatus of Ray; Mergus major navius and Mergus navius of Brisson: L'Imbrim of Buffon; Greatest speckled Diver or Loon of Willughby; and Northern Direr of Pennant, (Br. Zool.); and the Female" is Colymbus Immer of Linnaeus; Colymbus marimus Gesneri of Ray; Mergus major of Brisson; Le Grand Plongeon of Bussoil; Ember Goose of Sibbald; and Imber Diver of the British Zoology. It is the Colymbus torquatus of Brunnich; and not to weary the reader with more scientific names, it is the Schwarzhalsiger Seetaucher, Eis- Taucher, Grosse Hall,Ente, and Meer-Noering of the Germans; Brusen of the Norwegians; Turlik of the Greenlanders; Eithinnew-Moqua of the Cree Indians; Talkyeh of the Chipewyans; Kagson!ek of the Esquimaux ; Inland Loon of the Hudson's Bay residents; and Trochydd mawr of the antient British ; it is provincially called by the modern British Gunner and Greater Doucker. Habits, &c.–Fish is the principal food of this species, and the herring in particular, the fry of fish, crustaceans and marine vegetables. It nestles in small islands, and on the banks of fresh waters, and the female lays two eggs of an Isabella white, marked with very large and with small spots of a purplish ash. Dr. Richardson gives the following description of its manners:—‘Though this handsome birt is generally described as an inhabitant of the ocean, we seldom observed it either in the Arctic Sea or Hudson's Bay; but it abounds in all the interior lakes, where it destroys vast quantities of fish. It is rarely seen on land, its limbs being ill fitted for walking, though admirably adapted to its aquatic habits. It can swim with great swiftness, and to a very considerable distance under the water; and when it comes to the surface, it seldom exposes more than the neck. It takes wing with difficulty, flies heavily, though swiftly, and frequently in a circle round those who intrude on its haunts. Its loud and very melancholy cry, like the howling of the wolf, and at times like the distant scream of a man in distress, is said to portend rain. Its flesh is dark, tough, and unpalatable. We caught several of these birds in the fishing nets, in which they had entangled themselves in the pursuit of fish.' The species is sometimes taken even in the south of England. Montagu mentions one which
• But see Temminck's description of the varying plumage according to age above given, &c,
was kept in a pond for some months. In a few days it became extremely docile, would come to the call from one side of the pond to the other, and would take food from the hayl. The bird had received an injury in the head, which had deprived one eye of its sight, and the other was a little impaired; but, notwithstanding, it could, by incessantly diving, discover all the fish that were thrown into the pond. When it could not get fish it would eat flesh; and when it quitted the water, it shoved its body along upon the ground like a seal, by jerks, rubbing the breast against the ground; and returned again to the water in a similar manner. In swimming and diving the legs only were used, and not the wings, and by their situation so far behind, and their little deviation from the line of the body, it is enabled to propel itself in the water with great velocity in a straight line, as well as turn with astonishing quickness. In the winter of 1813-14, according to Mr. Graves, during the intense frost, two fine individuals were taken alive in the Thames below Woolwich, and were kept in confinement for some months. They eagerly devoured most kinds of fish or offal. At the approach of spring they began to show great uneasiness in their confinement, though they had the range of an extensive piece of water, from whence they ultimately escaped in the month of April. The distance of the river from the pond in which they were confined was several hundred yards; but they made their escape, and two birds resembling them in colour were seen on the river in that neighbourhood for several days after they were missed, and though repeatedly shot at, they escaped by diving.
Geographical position.—The arctic seas of the New and Old World; very abundant in the Hebrides, Norway, Sweden, and Russia; accidental visitors along the coasts of the ocean. The young in winter are very rare on the lakes of the interior, in Germany, France, and Switzerland: the old birds are never seen there. (Temm ick.) It is a rather rare visitant to these islands, especiully to the southward.
(Culy mbus glacialis.]
Lesson arranges the genus Cephus Moehring, Cuvier ; Colymbus, Linn.; Uria, Temm.; Mergulus, Ray, Vieillot, under the Colymbidae, observing that it forms the passage from the Divers to the Auks. [AUK, vol. iii., p. 100, subgenus Mergulus.] DIVIDEND, in arithmetic, any quantity which is to be divided (dividendum). Thus in the sentence “100 divided by 20 gives 5,” the dividend is 100. DIVIDEND, in commerce, is a word having two distinct meanings. In its more general employment it is understood to express the money which is divided, pro rata, among the creditors of a bankrupt trader, out of the amount realised from his assets. [BANKRUPT.] The other meaning attached to the word dividend is not so appropriate as that which has just been explained. It
is used to signify the half-yearly payments of the perpetual and termináble annuities which constitute the public debt of the country, and does not therefore strictly express that which the word is made to imply. The payment of those so called dividends is managed on the part of the government by the bank of England, which receives a compensation from the public for the trouble and expense attending the employment. The exact number of individuals who are entitled to receive these half-yearly payments is not known. The following statement exhibits the number of distinct sums paid by different warrants to various classes of annuitants at the last four periodical payments, but the number of annuitants is not nearly so great as the number of distinct warrants, because many individuals are possessed of annuities due at the same periods of the year, which are included under different heads or accounts in the books of the Bank, as bearing different rates of interest, or being otherwise under different circumstances; and besides, many persons hold annuities which are payable at both half. yearly periods. It is clear, however, from the following figures, that the greater part of the public creditors are entitled to annuities for only small sums, more than ninetenths of the payments being for sums not exceeding 100l., and nearly one-half for sums not exceeding 10l.
- - 5 July, 1836.10 Oct. 1835. 5 Jan. 1837, 5 April, 1837. Sums included in the -- --Warrants. Number of Number of Number of Number of Warrants. Warrants. | Warrants. | Warrants. Not exceeding ....e5 58, 113 28, 122 59,501 28,080 -— 10 30,405 14,350 30,898 14,502 — 50 65,072 32,550 66, 115 32,890 - 100 17,362 8,880 17,518 8,536 ——— 200 10,006 4,761 10,049 4,789 ——— 300 3, 123 1,419 3,074 1,421 — 500 1,922 830 1,932 853 1000 930 420 939 4.18 —— 2000 265 131 271 133 Exceeding .... 2000 120 68 108 66 187,318 91,531 190,405 91,688
DIVING-BELL. [SUBMARINE DEscENT.]
DIVINING ROD, a forked branch, usually, but not always, of hazel, by which it has been pretended that minerals and water may be discovered in the earth, the rod, if slowly carried along in suspension, dipping and pointing downward, it is affirmed, when brought over the spot where the concealed mine or spring is situated. Other mysterious powers, such as that of discovering the lost boundaries of lands, and even of detecting the birth-place and parentage of foundlings, have also been attributed to the divining rod. The rod is sometimes called the Virgula Divina, or the Baculus Divinatorius, or the rod of Aaron, or the Caduceus (after the wand of Mercury). But, although a rod or wand has been the distinguishing ensign of the professors of magic in all ages and countries, and rabdology, or divination by the rod, was familiar to the antient nations, the form, the material, and the mode of using the divining rod of the modern miners and water-finders, seem to be superstitions of comparatively recent introduction. Many persons with some pretensious to science have been believers in the powers ascribed to the divining rod. George Agricola, the able and learned German metallurgist of the sixteenth century, and in later times John Sperlingius and Theodore Kurchmaierus, who have both written Bisputatiunonia, on the rod, all say the devil is in it. Richelet, in his Dictionary (art. Ba- uelle Divinatoire), confesses that after what he has seen he cannot entertain any doubt as to its possessing the wonderful qualities ascribed to it. The learned Morhoff, who was eminent for his scientific as well as literary knowledge, admits that it is not clear to him whether the effec.s be natural or the result of demoniac agency. A. M. Thouvenot published at Paris, in 1781, a Memoir on the relation of the phenomena of the Divining rod to those of Electricity and Magnetism; and our countryman Pryce, in his “Mineralogia Cornubiensis' (fol., 1778) has collected accounts of numerous successful experiments which he says were performed by the instrument. Some remarks on the rod and on the attempts that have been made to explain its fancied operation may be found in the Marquis le Gendre's “Traité de l'Opinion,' liv. iii. chap. 6, and liv. iv. chap. 2; and there is a discussion of the subject, which is well worth reading, both for the reflections and some curious facts which it contains, in Bayle's “Dictionary,” in the notes to the article
Zibaris, (See also Morhoff, Polyhist, tom, ii. p. 310.)
DIVINITY. [THEology.] DIVISIBILITY, DIVISOR. Any number or fraction admits of division by any other, in the extended arithmetical sense which considers parts of a time as well as times. Thus 12 contains 8 a time and half a time, or 12 divided by 8 gives 1}. The adjective divisible is nevertheless applied, not to any number as compared with any other, but only as compared with such numbers as are contained a whole number of times in the first. Thus 12 is said to be divisible by 6, and is said to be not divisible by 8. Or, both in arithmetic and algebra, divisible means ‘divisible without introducing fractions into the result.’ The number of divisors which any number admits of is found as follows. Ascertain every o number which will divide the given number, and how many successive times it will do so. Add one to each of these numbers of times, and multiply the results together. Thus, the number 360 is made by multiplying together 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 5 ; or is divisible by 2 three times (3 + 1 =4), by 3 twice (2 + 1 =3), and by 5 once (1 + 1 = 2). And 4 × 3 × 2 = 24, the number of divisors which 360 admits of But among the 24 divisors are included 1 and 360. DIVISION, the process of ascertaining how many times and parts of times one number is contained in another. The usual arithmetical rule consists in a continual approximation to the result required. We write underneath, 1, the common process; 2, that of which it is an abbreviation; 3, a short summary of the rationale.
32 3 3 The whole contains a number as often as all its parts put together contain that number: and 23 meaning 23,000, and 16 being the highest multiple of 8 below 23, then the 16,000, which is part of 23,000, contains 2000 eights, and it is left to be seen how often the remaining 7000, and the 475 (making 7475) contain 8. The 74 is 7400, and 9 times 8 being 72, the 7200 which is part of 7400, contains 900 eights, and it is left to be seen how often the remaining 200 with the 75 (making 275) contains 8. The 27 is 270, of which the part 240 contains 30 eights, and the remaining 30 together with the 5 (making 35) is left. Of this, 32 contains 4 eights, and the remaining 3 does not contain 8 so much as one time, but the eighth part of 3 units is three times the eighth part of a unit, or ; ; whence the answer. In sinding how many times, or parts of times, one fraction is contained in another, the following principle is applied. If two numbers or fractions be multiplied by any number, the number of times, or parts of times, which the first contains the second, is not altered. Thus 7 contains 2 just as 14 contains 4, or as 21 contains 6, &c. If then we take two fractions, such as , and so, it follows that contains of just as 77 times ; contains 77 times of, or as 33 contains 14: that is, 2 times and f, of a time. This may easily be shown to give the common rule. The division of one decimal fraction by another presents a difficulty, slight indeed, but quite sufficient to prevent most persons from becoming expert in the use of tables. The rules given are frequently incomplete, and always such as would render even a practised computer liable to mistake. The question is how to place the decimal point rightly in the result, and this may be best done as follows:– l, Alter the dividend or divisor by annexing ciphers, until both have the same number of decimal places. This being done— 2. Annex as many ciphers to the dividend, or take away as many from the divisor (or partly one and partly the other) as there are to be decimal places in the result: then divide as in whole numbers, and mark off the given number of decimal places. Example I. Find out, to three decimal places, how often *076 is contained in 32° 1. First step: '076 and 32 100. Second step: 076 and 32 100000. 76)32 100000(422368–rem. 32. Answer. 42.2° 368.
Example II. Find out, to 7 decimal places, how often (what fraction of a time) 236 5 is contained in 001. First step: 236 500 and 001. Second step: 236 - 5 and 00100000; namely, two ciphers struck off the divisor and five annexed to the dividend (naking seven).
2365) 100000(42—rem. 670. Answer. 0000042. In making complicated divisions, it is much the shortest plan, and very much the safest, to begin by forming the first nine multiples of the divisor by continued addition (forming the tenth for proof). DIVORCE (divártium, a divertendo, from diverting or separating), the legal separation of husband and wife. Di vorce is of two kinds, a mensii et thoro, from bed and board; and a vinculo matrimonii, from the bonds of the marriage itself. The divorce à mensii et thoro is pronounced by the spiritual court for causes arising subsequent to the marriage, as for adultery, cruelty, &c.: it does not dissolve the marriage, and the parties cannot contract another marriage. [BigAMy.] In fact it is equivalent only to a separation. The divorce d vinculo matrimonii can be obtained in the spiritual courts for causes only existing before the marriage, as precontract, consanguinity, impotency, &c. This divorce declares the marriage to have been null and void, the issue begotten between the parties are bastardized, and the parties themselves are at liberty to contract marriage with others. From the curious document preserved by Selden (Uxor Ebraica, c. xxx., vol. iii., 845, folio ed. of his works), whereby John de Cameys, in the reign of Ed. I., transferred his wife and her property to William Paynel; and also, from the reference to the laws of Howel the Good, at the end of this articie, it would seem that in the early periods of English law a divorce might be had by mutual consent; but all trace of such a custom is lost. We know however (3 Salk, Rep. 13s) that, until the 44th Eliz., a divorce d vinculo matrimonii might be had in the ecclesiastical courts for adultery; but in Foljambe's case, which occurred in that year in the Star Chamber, Archbishop Bancroft, upon the advice of divines, held that adultery was only a cause of divorce d mensi et thoro. The history of the law of divorce in England may perhaps be thus satisfactorily explained. Marriage being a contract of a civil nature, might originally be dissolved by consent. When, in the progress of civilization, various regulations were prescribed, the ordinary courts of justice asserted their jurisdiction over this as well as every other description of contract. At length, the rite of marriage having been elevated to the dignity of a sacrament by Pope Innocent III., A.D. 1215, the ecclesiastical courts asserted the sole jurisdiction over it. In the course of time the power of these courts was again controlled, and the sole jurisdiction for granting divorces for matter arising subsequently to the marriage, was vested in the superior court of the kingdom, the House of Lords, where it was less likely to be abused than by the ecclesiastical authorities, who, it is notorious, granted these and other dispensations for money. * Marriage is now, by the law of England, indissoluble, for matter arising subsequently, by the decree of any of the ordinary courts, but divorce a rinculo matrimonii may still for adultery, &c., be obtained by act of parliament. For this purpose it is necessary that a civil action should have been brought in one of the courts of law against the adulterer [ADULTERY), and damages obtained therein, or some sutlicient reason adduced why such action was not brought, or damages obtained, and that a definitive sentence of divorce a mensii et thoro should have been pronounced between the parties in the ecclesiastical court; which sentence cannot be obtained for the adultery of the wife, if she recriminates, and can prove that the husband has been unfaithful to the marriage vow ; and further, to prevent any collusion between the parties, both houses of parliament may, if necessary, and generally do require satisfactory evidence that it is proper to allow the bill of divorce to po, The first proceeding of this nature was in the reign of Edward VI., and bills of divorce have since greatly increased; above seventy such bills have been Paolo ..". the com: mencement of the present century;. ... injured party can satisfy both houses of Parliament, which are not
bound in granting or withholding the indulgence by any of