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The parochial emigrants in 1836 were sent from Hampshire, Wiltshire, Norfolk, and Kent. The following list of Reports may be useful.Report from select Committee on Emigration from the United Kingdom, 1826. Three Reports from same Committee, 1s26-27. Report to Colonial Department by Col. Cockburn, on the subject of Emigration, January, 1827; Reports from Commissioners for Emigration to the Colonial secretary, 1832. Annual Reports from the Agent for Emigration in Canada, 1833 to 1836. ENIIR-AL OMRAH, or more correctly emir-al-omará, i. e. the prince of princes, or chief of chiefs, is the designation of an office under the caliphat, endowed with almost unlimited authority, which was created in the year of the Hegira 324 (A.D. 935), became hereditary in the year 333 (A.D. 944), and continued till near the middle of the following century. The disturbed state of the empire, in which the governors of the provinces frequently broke their allegiance to the sovereign, induced the caliph Al-Radhi, who had ascended the throne in the year 322 of the Hegira (A.D. 934), to seek for stronger aid in the management of public affairs than the previously existing office of a vizier, or prime minister, was able to afford; and with this view he sent for one of the refractory vassals, Mohammed ben Rāyek, the governor of Waset, invited him to come to Bagdad, appointed him commander-in-chief of the army, and entrusted to him the superintendence of all his dominions, conferring upon him at the same time the title of emir-al-omará, and directing his name to be inserted in the public prayers in the mosques throughout the empire, next to that of the caliph himself. The vizier Ebn Moklah, known as the reputed inventor of the Neskhi character, or Arabic current hand, was dismissed, and severely punished for an attempt to recover his station. Mohammed ben Rāyek himself appointed a vizier in the person of Fadhl ben Jaafar, the governor of Egypt and Syria. Not two years elapsed after the elevation of Mohammed ben Rāyek, inefore he was obliged to yield his place to the Turk Yahkam (called by Abulfeda, Bahkam), a freed slave, who had raised himself into power, and had been appointed governor of Ahwáz by Mohammed ben Rāyek This post he had been obliged to relinquish on account of the rising power of the Buides (Bawaihides) in Persia: he had in consequence taken possession of Waset, and now marched to Bagdad, and forced the caliph to submit to his dictation. Mohammed ben Rāyek quitted the capital, but soon returned with an army, when a contest followed, which terminated in his being appointed governor of Harran, Roha (Edessa), Kinnesrin, and Awāsim, and ...]". of nearly the whole of Syria. Bahkam remained emir-alomará till his death, which took place shortly after the accession of Mottaki billah to the caliphat (A. Heg. 330, A.D. 941): he was, according to some, killed by the Curds on a hunting excursion; according to others, he was assassinated by order of Mottaki, whom his arrogant behaviour had exasperated against him. Abdallah al-Baridi, governor of Basra, made an unsuccessful attempt to possess himself of the office of emir-al-omará. Kurtekin, another Turkish chief, who succeeded him, held the office during eighty days, at the expiration of which Mohammed ben Rāyek returned from Syria to Bagdad, took Kurtekin prisoner, and was re-appointed emir-al-omará by the caliph. But after a very short time Mohammed was assassinated by the order of Naser-ed-daulah, the governor of Mosul, who succeeded him during a period of three months. In A. Heg. 331 (A.D. 942), Mottaki appointed Túzūn emir-al-omará, In the ensuing year the caliph quitted Bagdad, and fled 1owards Mosul in consequence of a disagreement with Tāzūn; the latter followed him, as the caliph had offered terms for a reconciliation; but when they had met, Tāzūn ordered both the eyes of the caliph to be put out,
led him back to Bagdad, and compelled him to resign the throne in favour of Mostakfi billah. In A. Heg. 334 (A.D. 945) Tūzān died, and the Turkish guards at Bagdad chose Zairat, son of Shirzād, as his successor, in which capacity he was confirmed by the caliph Mostakfi. But before the end of the year Moëzz-ed-daulah, the Buide (Bawaihide) prince of Ahwaz, entered Bagdad at the head of an army; Zairak and the Turkish guards fled to Mosul, and the caliph created Moëzz-ed-daulah his emir-al-omarã. Of this appointment he had soon reason to repent; for Moëzzed-daulah dethroned him, and made Al-Moti-lillah caliph in his stead. “The caliphat,' observes Abulfeda, “which was conferred upon Moti-lillah, was divested of nearly every prerogative of sovereignty: the officers of Moëzz-ed-daulah ruled throughout Irak, and to the caliph nothing was left but what Moëzz-ed-daulah out of his own free will conceded to him.’ The authority of Moëzz-ed-daulah was for a time contested by Naser-ed-daulah of Mosul ; but in A. Heg. 337 (A.D. 948) Močzz-ed-daulah took Mosul, and his opponent fled to Nisibis. Moëzz-ed-daulah now continued undisturbed in the possession of his high authority till his death, which took place A. Heg. 356 (A.D. 966). How great his power was cannot perhaps be better shown than by mentioning the fact, that he was the first Mohammedan prince who sold an appointment of judge (for 200,000 dirhems), and that in a Sunnite country he, a Shiite, directed a public mourning in memory of the death of the caliph Hossain [All BEN ABI TALEB). He was succeeded by his son Bakhtiar Azz-ed-daulah, an indolent and voluptuous prince, between whom and the chiefs of the Turkish body-guard, Sebuktekin and Aftekin, frequent dissensions and at last open hostilities took place. Bakhtiar was obliged to quit Bagdad, and to apply for assistance to his cousin Adad-ed-daulah. The latter conducted him back to the capital, but induced him to resign his office, which he himself assumed, till compelled by his father Rokn-eddaulah to restore it to Bakhtiar. At the suggestion of Sebuktekin, Mosti-lillah had, in A. Heg. 363 (A.D. 973), abdicated the caliphat in favor of Tayi-lillah his son. In A. Heg. 366 (A.D. 976), Rokn-ed-daulah died, and Adaded-daulah, who succeeded him as sovereign of Persia Proper, Arjan and Kerman, now for the second time prevailed on Bakhtiar to surrender to him his post as emir-al-omari: a war followed, in which Bakhtiar was taken prisoner ana executed. Bardas, a rebel governor under the Greek empire, applied to Adad-ed-daulah for support; to prevent which Nicephorus was sent twice as ambassador from the court of Constantinople to that of the emir. Adad-ed-daulah remained emir-al-omará till his death, A. Heg, 372 (A.D. 982). He encouraged literature and science, and was himself an accomplished poet. He restored and embellished the principal towns of the empire, which had been damaged during the civil wars: at Bagdad he erected an hospital; and in Persia Proper he inclosed the river Cyrus [BEND-EMIR) with extensive dykes. After his death, his son Samsamed-daulah was chosen emir; but in A. Heg. 376 (A.D. 985) his brother Sharf-ed-daulah forced the caliph to confer that dignity upon him, and Samsam-ed-daulah was blinded. Sharf-ed-daulah died A. Heg. 379 (A.D. 989-990), and was succeeded by his brother Behā-ed-daulah, who remained emir-al-omará till his death; but was obli to make concessions to the Turkish body-guards, and thereby diminished his power. He induced the caliph Tayi-lillah to resign in favor of Kader-billah, A. Heg. 381 (A. D. 991). Behā-ed-daulah was, in A. Heg. 403 (A.D. 1012) followed by his son Soltan-ed-daulah, who was compelled by a military insurrection, in A. Heg. 411 (A.D. 1020), to appoint his brother Mushrified-daulah commander-in-chief of the army, by whom he was subsequently deprived of his office. Soltaned-daulah died in A. Heg. 415 (A.D. 1024); Mushrif-eddaulah in the following year. After an interval of two years, during which Bagdad seems to have suffered much from the insolence of the Turkish guards, Jelāl-ed-daulah, another son of Behā-ed-daulah, was invited by the army to come from Basra to the capital; and the caliph confirmed his election as emir-al-omará. During his administration the caliph Kader-billah died, A., Heg. 422 (A.D. 1031), after a nominal reign of forty-one lunar years, and was followed by his son Káyim-bi-amr-allah. The latter, instead of seeking an intimate union with Jelāl-ed-daulah, whom he considered to be of little influence, made a treaty with another Buide prince, Firsz Abū-Kålenjár of Shiraz. Insurrections at Éol, and predatory incursions of bands of wandering Arabs became more and more frequent; and the authority of both the caliph and the emir-al-omarā, who were moreover often of different opinions, seemed to be at an end. When Jelāl-ed-daulah died, A. Heg. 435 (A.D. 1043), Firaz Abū-Kálenjár was elected emir-al-omarã. During his administration the power of the Arabian empire began to yield to the conquest of the Seljuks, who had taken possession of Jorjan, Tabaristan, Khovarezm, and the Persian Irak, and were advancing towards Bagdad. He died on an expedition into Kerman against Bahram, the governor of that province, who had broken his allegiance to the court of Bagdad. His son Malek-er-Rahim succeeded in supressing the revolt in Kerman; but in the mean time }. Bek, the sovereign of the Seljuks, had taken possession of Isfahan, and a dissenson which had broken out between the caliph and Basasiri, the governor of Irak, rendered the conquest of that province and of the capital itself a matter of little difficulty for the Seljuks. In A. Heg. 447 (A.D. 1055), Togrul Bek entered Bagdad. Malek-er-Rahim abdicated his office, and remained as a prisoner in the hands of Togrul, who thus put an end to the dominions of the Buide emir-al-omarás. (Umbreit, Commentatio erhibens historiam Emirorum al Omrah er Abulfeda, Göttingen, 1816, 4to.; Wilken, Mirkhond's Geschichte der Sultane aus dem Geschlechte Bujeh, Berlin, 1835, 4to.) EMLY, a bishop's see in the ecclesiastical province of Cashel in Ireland. The chapter consists of dean, precentor, chancellor, archdeacon, and four prebendaries. This diocese lies in the counties of Tipperary and Limerick, and contains forty-two parishes, constituting seventeen benefices. Its extent is about forty-one English miles by fifteen. In 1792 there were in Emly diocese thirty-five churches of the establishment: in 1834 the numbers were, churches of the establishment, eleven; other places of worship in connexion there with, four; Roman Catholic chapels, thirty-one. In the same year the total population was 98,363, of whom there were 1246 members of the established church ; 97,115 members of the church of Rome; one Presbyterian; and one other Protestant dissenter; being in the proportion of rather more than ninety-eight Roman Catholics to one Protestant of whatever denomination. In the same year there were in this diocese seventy-four schools, educating 4835 young persons, being in the proportion of 4% per cent. of the entire population under daily instruction; in which respect Emly stands last but one among the thirty-two dioceses of Ireland, being only superior in educational rank to the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe. The see of Emly was founded by Saint Ailbe, who died in the year 527. It was united to the archiepiscopal see of Cashel in 1568, which union still subsists. [CAsHEL.] (Beaufort's Memoir of a Map of Ireland; Parliamentary Returns, &c.) EMMANUEL COLLEGE, Cambridge, was founded in 1584, by Sir Walter Mildmay, on the site of the monastery of the Black Friars, which he had purchased of a Mr. Sherwood. The original foundation was only for a master, three fellows, and four scholars. There are now twelve, which are called foundation fellowships, besides one founded by Mr. Gillingham, the holder of which receives a dividend arising from a distinct estate, but is in most other respects on an equality with the foundation fellows. These fellowships are open to all counties, but there cannot be more than one fellow of the same county at the same time; and no one can be a candidate till he has taken the degree of M.A., or is at least B.A. of the third year. He must be twenty-one years of age, and have been six years a member of the university. The four senior fellows are obliged to take priests' orders. Sir Wolstan Dixie, some time lord mayor of London, a contemporary of the founder, gave lands for the support of two fellows, distinct from those of the foundation. These fellows have no vote in college affairs, nor have they any claim to college livings: candidates for these fellowships must have taken the degree of B.A., and must be related to the founder, or have received their education at Market-Bosworth School. There are likewise four scholarships of Sir Wolstan Dixie's foundation, subject to the same restrictions. The foundation scholarships of Emmanuel College are open to Englishmen of all counties, but there cannot be more than three scholars of the same county at the same time. The scholars receive upwards of 12l. per annum in addition to the weekly payment of 7s.6d.
during residence. Besides these there are many scholarships and exhibitions, founded by various benefactors, to be given to the candidates most distinguished for learning and exemplary conduct. Among the principal are five by Dr. Thorpe of 24!. per annum, with a preference, cacteris pa. ribus, to the sons of orthodox clergymen; one by Mr. Hubbard of 121. per annum to the best of Dr. Thorpe's scholars; ten by Mr. Ash of 10l. per annum; four by Archdeacon Johnson of 24!. per annum, with a preference to candidates from Oakham and Uppingham schools; one by Dr. Smith of 16!. per annum, with a preference to Durham and Newcastle schools; two by Mr. Richards of 121. per annum, with a preference to Christ's Hospital; one by Sir Busick Harwood of 10l. per annum, with a preference to a medical student; and two by Lady Romney of 12l. per annum each. Various annual prizes are given in this college: amongst them, plate to the amount of 127 to the best proficient among the commencing bachelors of arts. The number of members of this society upon the college boards, according to the University Calendar of 1837, is 224. There are eighteen benefices in the patronage of the society. To one of these, the rectory of Twyford in Hants, the college nominates, and the heirs of Carew Mildmay, Esq., present: to two others, Wallington rectory in Herts, and Fressingfieldcum-Withersdale vicarage ... the master nominates, and the society presents: to two other livings a Dixie fellow is to be presented alternately with one on the foundation. A copy of the statutes of Emmanuel College is preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts inthe British Museum, No. 1739. Among the eminent persons who have been members of Emmanuel College, were Bishop Hall, Matthew Poole, author of the “Synopsis Criticorum,’ Joshua Barnes, Dr. Wallis the mathematician, Sir William Temple, Anthony Blackwall, and Dr. Richard Farmer, the commentator upon Shakspeare, who was master of this college. (Lysons' Magna Brit.—Cambridgeshire, p. 128; Cambridge University Calendar for 1837.) EMMERICH, or EMRICH, a town on the left bank of the Rhine, with a good harbour, in 51° 50' N. lat. and 6° 13' E. long. It lies in the circle of Rees, in the northern extremity of the county or administrative circle of Düsseldorf, in Rhenish Prussia, close to the frontiers of Holland. It was formerly in the Hanseatic league. There are 4 churches, 2 Roman Catholic and 2 Protestant, a Mennonite place of worship, a minor gymnasium, an ecclesiastical seminary, 2 orphan asylums. The town is surrounded by walls and ditches. In 1765 the population was 3491; in 1817, 4412; and in 1831, 5569. There are manufactures of woollens, stockings, hats, galloons, soap, oil, &c., besides tanneries, wax-bleaching grounds, and a public salt factory. EMMIUS UBBO, was born at Gretha, in East Friesland, in the year 1547. His father was a clergyman of the Lutheran communion. Emmius studied at Bremen, Rostock, and lastly at Geneva, where he became intimate with Beza. He afterwards returned to his native country, and in 1589 was made rector of the school of Norden, in East Friesland. In 1694 he was appointed to the chair of history and the Greek language in the College of Groningen, and when the University of Groningen was instituted in 1614 Emmius was made rector of the same. He was deeply imbued with classical learning, and he excelled in the knowledge of history, antient and modern. Among his historical works, the most important is the “Vetus Graecia illustrata,’ 3 vols., Leyden, 1626. The first volume consists of a description of antient Greece, including the islands; the second contains a history of that country; and the third, which is the most elaborate and interesting, gives an account of the political institutions and social manners of the various Greek states; namely, of Athens, Sparta, Creta, Argos, Thebes, Corinth, Syracuse, Corcyra, Samos, Chios, Rhodes, Achaia, AEtolia, Massilia in Gaul, Locri in Italy, and Lycia in Asia. The author has also introduced a brief sketch of the Carthaginian republic. The appendix contains an account of the decline and fall of three of the above states, Athens, Carthage, and Sparta. Emmius gives a long list of antient authors from whom he derived his information. The work is altogether useful, and was still more so at the time of its appearance, when good works on classical learning were more scarce than they are at present. The other works of Emmius are, 2. ‘Opus Chronologicum,’ or a General Chronology, fol., 1619; 3. “Rerum Frisicarum Historia, à gentis origine usque ad ann. 1565, Leyden, 1632. It is a good history of Friesland, the author's native country, to which is added ‘De Frisiorum Republica Commentarius,’ published before separately at Embden, 1619. 4. ‘De Agro Frisiae inter Amasum et Lavicum flumina;’ 5. “Historia nostri Temporis,” Groningen, 1732. Emmius Ubbo died in 1625, in his 78th year. At the time of his death he was busy writing a history of Philip of Macedonia, the father of Alexander the Great, which he intended as a warning to the republic of the United Provinces against the designs and intrigues of their enemies. He had written as far as the fifteenth year of Philip's reign. Emmius was acquainted with, and appreciated by, most of the learned men of his time, such as De Thou, Gruter, Gomar the theologian, Pezelius, and others. He was especially a favourite with William Louis, of Nassau, the governor of Friesland and Groningen. (Elogium. Ubbonis Emmii, IIistoriarum et Gracca lingua in Academia Groningensi Professoris ejusque Rectoris primi, Groningae, 1628.) fl EMPALEMENT, an obsolete name of the stamen of a OWer. EMPANNEL, the writing and entering the names of a jury on a parchment ... or roll of paper by the sheriff, which he has summoned to appear for the performance of such public service as juries are employed in. [PANEL.] EMPE/DOCLES, a native of Agrigentum in Sicily, who flourished about B. c. 450: he was distinguished not only as a philosopher, but also for his knowledge of natural history and medicine, and as a poet and statesman. It is generally believed that he perished in the crater of Mount AEtna. The story that he threw himself into it in order that by disappearing suddenly and without a trace, he might establish his claim to divinity, and the charge of arrogance founded upon that pretension, seems to have rested on a misconception of his doctrine that the human soul (and consequently his own) is divine and immortal. His masters in plailosophy are variously given. By some, like the Eleatae generally, he is called a Pythagorean, in consequence of a resemblance of doctrine in a few unessential points. But the principles of his theory evidently show that he belongs to the Eleatic school, though the statement which makes him a disciple of Parmenides rests apparently upon no other foundation than a comparison of their systems; as, in like manner, the common employment of the mechanical physiology has led to an opinion that he was a hearer of his contemporary Anaxagoras. He taught that originally All was one:—God, eternal and at rest: a sphere and a mixture (opaipoc, uiyua)— without a vacuum—in which the elements of things were held together in undistinguishable confusion by love (pixia) —the o force which unites like to unlike. In a portion of this whole, however, or, as he expresses it, in the members of the Deity, strife (veikoç)—the force which binds like to like—prevailed and gave to the elements a tendency to separate themselves, whereby they first became perceptiple as such, although the separation was not so complete, but that each contained portions of the others. Hence arose the multiplicity of things: by the vivifying counteraction of love organic life was produced, not however so perfect and so full of design as it now appears; but at first single limbs, then irregular combinations, till ultimately they received their present adjustments and perfection. But as the forces of love and hate are constantly acting upon each other for production or destruction, the present condition of things cannot persist for ever, and the world which, properly, is not the All, but only the ordered part of it, will again be reduced to a chaotic unity, out of which a new system will be formed, and so on for ever. There is no real destruction of anything, only a change of combinations. It must be remarked that the primal forces, love and hate, must not be supposed to be extrinsically impressed upon matter; on the contrary, while strife is inherent in the elements separately, love is in the mass of things—nay, more, is one with it—God. Of the elements (which he seems to have been the first to exhibit as four distinct species of matter), fire, as the rarest and most powerful, he held to be the chief, and consequently the soul of all sentient and intellectual beings which issue from the central fire, or soul of the world. The soul migrates through animal and vegetable bodies in atonement for some guilt committed in its unembodied state when it is a daemon; of which he supposed that an infinite number existed. The seat of the daemon when in a human body is the blood.
Closely connected with his view of the objects of know ledge was his theory of human knowledge. In the impure separation of the elements it is only the predominant one that the senses can apprehend, and consequently, although man can know all the elements of the whole singly, he is unable to see them in their perfect unity wherein consists their truth. Empedocles therefore rejects the testimony of the senses, and maintains that pure intellect alone can arrive at a knowledge of the truth. This is the attribute of the Deity, for man cannot overlook the work of love in all its extent; and the true unity is only open to itself. Hence he was led to distinguish between the world, as presented to our senses (köoplog aloënróc), and its type the intellectual world (kóapoc vonróc). His explanation of the cognitive faculty, which rested upon the assumption that ‘like can only be known by like,' is drawn naturally enough from his physical view. Man is capable of knowing outward things, since he is, like them, composed of the four elements, and of the two forces love and hate; and it is especially by the presence of love within him that he is able to arrive at an intellectual knowledge of the whole, however imperfect and inferior to the divine. The Fragments of Empedocles were published with a commentary by Fr. W. Sturz, Leipzig, 1805, 8vo.; see also Empedoclis and Parmenidis Fragmenta, ea. Cod. Taur. Bibl. restituta et illustrata, ab A. Peyron, Lips. 1810, 8vo. EMPEROR, from the Latin Imperditor. Among the early Romans the title of Imperator was bestowed by the acclamations of his soldiers in the camp and by a vote of the Roman senate, on a commander-in-chief who had signalized himself by killing a certain number of the enemy. (Tacit. Annal. iii. 74.) The term was gradually extended to signify a commander-in-chief sent on any important expedition. (Cic. Pro Lege Manil, c. 2.) ut it still continued usual for the appellation to be bestowed as a special title of honour for some military service: thus we find that the small military exploits of Cicero conferred on him the title of Imperator. C. J. Caesar assumed the name as a praenomen, (Imperator C. J. Caesar), a practice which was followed by his successors, as we may observe on their coins. (Suetonius, Caesar, 76.) As examples of this title see the coins of ANToNIUs, AURELIUs, &c. On the reverse of the coin of Aurelius we observe Imp. VIII., that is, Imperator octavum, or imperator the eighth time, which shows, as indeed can be proved from a variety of examples, that the Roman emperors often assumed the title on special occasions when they or their generals had obtained some signal victory. This term Imperator then, it will be observed, under the early emperors, cannot be considered as denoting any sovereign power. It was indeed given to private individuals on the occasion of great military success, certainly as late as the time of Hadrian, and perhaps later. (Appian, Civil Wars, lib. 2.) After the time of the Antonines the term Imperator seems to have gradually grown into common use as one of the titles which expressed the sovereign of the Roman world, though the name Princeps was also long used as indicating the same rank and power. (See the Dedication of J. Capi. tolinus to Constantine.) It may be difficult to state when this term Imperator became exclusively the designation of the Roman sovereign. In the introduction to the Digest (De Conceptione Digestorum), Justinian assumes the title of Imperator Caesar Flavius Justinianus, &c., semper Augustus. [Augustus.] In the proemium to the Institutes, Justinian uses the terms Imperatoria majestas to express his sovereign power, and yet in the same paragraph he calls himself by the name of Princeps, a term which dates from the time of the so-called Republic, and expressed the H. given to one particular member of the senate. he term Princeps was adopted by Augustus as the least invidious title of dignity, and was applied to his successors. " From the emperors of the West this title, in the year 800, devolved to Charlemagne, the founder of the second or German empire of the West. Upon the expiration of the German branch of the Carlovingian family, the imperial crown became elective, and continued so until the last century. The title of emperor of Germany now no longer exists, Francis II. having laid it aside, and assumed the title of emperor of Austria. [Austria, p. 151.] The only other European potentate who uses the style of emperor is the autocrat of Russia, the monarchs of which country, about the year 1520, exchanged their former title
of duke or great duke of Russia, for that of Czar or Tzar. [CzAR.] In early times it was asserted by the civilians that the possession of the imperial crown gave to the emperors of Germany, as titular sovereigns of the world, a supremacy over all the kings of Europe, though such was never attempted to be exercised; an i they denied the existence of any other empire: but in spite of this denial it is certain that several of the kings of France of the second race, after they had lost the empire of Germany, styled themselves Basileus and Imperator. Our own King Edgar, in a charter to Oswald bishop of Winchester, styled himself ‘Anglorum Basileus omnium que regum insularum oceanique Britanniam circumjacentis cunctarum que nationum quae infra eam includuntur Imperator et Dominus.' Alfonso VII. also, in the 12th century, styled himself emperor of Spain. It might be easily shown how the title and rank of king and emperor have been feudalized, as it were, in passing through the ordeal of the middle ages. EMPETRA'CEAE, a small natural order of polypetalous exogens, related to Euphorbiaceae. They consist of unisexual heath-like plants with minute flowers, having a calyx with a few imbricated sepals that change into about three membranous petals, a small number of hypogynous stamens, and a superior ovary with from three to nine cells, in each of which there is a single ascending ovule. The fruit is fleshy and berried. They are small acrid plants, of no known use. Empetrum nigrum, the crakeberry or crowberry, is wild on the mountainous heaths in the north of England. Its black fruit forms an article of food in the northern parts of the world, but is reported to be unwholesome, and to cause headach. A sort of wine has been prepared from it for many centuries in Iceland and Norway; whence the report of real wine which was used at the sacrament being made in those countries.
Empetrum rubrum. 1. A female slower, much magnified; 2, a pistil; 3, a transverse section of the same.
EM'PHASIS, in articulation, is the mode of drawing attention to one or more words in a sentence by pronouncing them with a greater volume and duration of sound, and in a higher or lower note, than the adjoining words. In written language there are several symbols by which emphasis
is denoted. In manuscript the emphatic word is commonly.
underlined; in printing it is common to employ a different character, particularly the inclined character called the Italic. The German printers have introduced the mode of placing the letters of the emphatic word farther apart from one another. . In modern languages the employment of some symbol for emphasis is more requisite than in the antient languages. }. the latter, where the arrangement of words was less fixed, it was generally practicable by the very position of a word in a sentence to denote its emphatic power. Thus, in the Latin language, the first word of a sentence, or even of a clause, is generally emphatic; so also is the last word; and even in the middle of a sentence the verb is often so placed as to give emphasis to the preceding word. Indeed so closely connected is the order of words in
a Latin sentence with the principle of emphasis, that the utter neglect of this principle in the schools of the present day may be set down as one of the chief obstacles in the acquirement of the Latin language. EMPIRIC. This word is derived from the Greek (#11teiptréc, empeirikos) and means a man who derives his knowledge from experience. A medical sect which arose in opposition to that of the dogmatics assumed the name of empirics. Serapion of Alexandria and Philinus of Cos are regarded as the founders of this school. Ever since the world has existed, the human mind, in striving to find out the principles of truth, has considered the matter in two opposite ways. According to one system, the human mind contains the seeds of knowledge; according to the other, the mind is nothing but a blank sheet of paper, on which experience writes that which man perceives through the senses. Aristotle and Plato are still the representatives of the two opposite systems. The science of medicine has been of necessity under the influence of one of the two opposite opinions, and the doctrine of Serapion or Philinus is nothing but the application of the Aristotelian theory, that nothing can be known by the understanding which has not been previously known by the senses. Accordingly they maintained that experience was the only true knowledge which was derived from the unerring testimony of the senses; that dogmatism was erroneous, because it derived its principles from mere imagination. They opposed to the theorists their contradictions, and sneered at their learning and acuteness of reasoning as inadequate means of curing diseases. The empirics admitted three kinds of experience, the one acquired by chance, the second by experiments, the third by imitation; and these three they called the tripod of me. dical science. However, it is evident that their mode of experience is nothing but a disguised mode of .# by analogy. Epilogism, as they called it, is as theoretical as pure dogmatism; for, how can we judge by analogy, if we do not assume some general laws to which the particulars are subjected? If the empirics had remained true to their principles their name would stand high among the medical profession. But having abandoned the study of nature, and with it all scientific pursuits, they sank into such disrepute, that their name became a stigma. And even in our days when the natural sciences have, by the impulse given by Lord Bacon to genuine experiment, risen to a high degree of perfection, and empiricism is the character of modern science and philosophy, the name of empiric is still be. stowed as an opprobrious term upon all ignorant pretenders in the medical art. (Celsus, De Medicina ; Curt Sprengel, Geschichte der Medizin.) EMPYREUMA denotes the peculiar and disagreeable smell and taste resulting from the action of a considerable degree of heat upon vegetable or animal substances in close vessels, which prevent such an access of air as is required for perfect combustion: in this way destructive distillation goes on so as frequently to produce an oil which has a strong, burnt, or, as it is termed, empyreumatic smell and taste. EMS, a river in the north-west of Germany, which has its source in 51° 50' N. lat., and 9°11' E. long., on the Havelhof, at the foot of a hill called Stapelag, which is at the south-eastern end of the Teutoburg Forest, and to the north-west of the town of Paderborn in Westphalia. From this point the river pursues a sluggish westward course, between low banks to Rietberg, then turns to the north until it approaches Harsewinkel, where it bends again to the west past Wahrendorf and Telgte, and thence flows north-westwards to Schütdorf, in Hanover, below the town of Rheine, where it quits the Prussian territory. At Fuestrup, about five miles below Telgte, it is from four to five feet deep; and about five miles lower down it becomes navigable for small flatbottomed vessels. It enters the Hanoverian dominions above Schütdorf, and traverses them for about 70 miles. The general direction of this part of its course, in which it makes numerous bends, is !. north, until it quits the landrostei or circle of Osnaburg, in passing through which it approaches within a short distance of the town of Lingen, and has that of Meppen on its right bank. The Ems in this part, though full of water in the rainy season, is so shallow in dry weather that a canal, called the Ems canal, has been opened at a very heavy expense from Haukensfähe, about eight miles above Lingen, which runs parallel with the river, has a depth of five feet, and rejoins the Ems at the confluence of the Hase at Meppen. From this town to Papenburg its bed has been deepened, so that in the shallowest spots it has a depth of three feet. . Just above Papenburg, which lies on the borders of the circle of Aurich, or East Friesland, the river winds eastwards, and then inclining somewhat to the north-east, runs on to Leer, whence it pursues a northerly course till it has passed Vornhasen, and from this spot turns to the north-west, and ultimately enters the Dollart, a bay of the North Sea, in 53° 18' N. lat. The Oster (East) and Wester (West) Ems, which are formed by the sand banks Ransel and Borkum-rif, are the channels by which the Ems discharges its waters into the North Sea. Between the Ransel and Dollart the Ems is wide, and separates East Friesland from the Dutch province of Groningen. The Ems below Leer widens to a breadth of 300 feet, and between the Dutch and Hanoverian territories its width varies from five to nine miles. The whole length of this river is estimated at about 210 miles, and it is navigable for vessels of 80 or 100 tons burden as high as fonio where it ceases to be affected by the tides. There are bridges across it at Telgte, Wiedenbrück, Wahrendorf, Schönflint, Greven, Hembergen, and near Rheine, in Westphalia, and at Meppen in Hanover. Its principal tributaries on the right bank are the Hase, which, passing Osnaburg, falls into it at Meppen, after a course of about 125 miles; and the Leda, which enters Hanover from the duchy of Oldenburg, and joins the Ems near Leer, after a course of about 56 miles. On the left bank the Ems receives the Aa to the south-west of Papenburg. The basin of the Ems has an area of about 4914 square miles, the smallest area of any of the rivers which fall into the North Sea. The Ems is mentioned by Roman writers under the Latinized form Amisia. (Tacit. Annal. i., 60, 63, &c.) EMU. [STRUTHIoNIDAE.] EMULSION, a term applied to mixtures which generally have a milky appearance, and which, in some cases, are partial solutions, in others merely mechanical suspensions, of oily or resinous substances: thus the oil of the almond seed may be for a time diffused through water by trituration, but will ultimately separate and float on the surface. Many resins are formed into emulsions by means of the yolk of an egg or of gum-arabic; while gum-resins contain in themselves the means of forming emulsions with water. Frequently syrups and distilled waters are added to render the compound more palatable; but alcohol and acids should never be used. Emulsions should be used soon after being formed, as in a few hours the constituent parts separate or become acid. EMYDOSAURIANS. [CRocodile, vol. viii. p. 162.] EMYS. [Tortoises. ENALIOSAURIANS, a name for certain fossil marine lizards. [Ichthyos AURUs, &c. ENAMEL (of the Teeth). [DENtition.] ENAMELS are vitrifiable substances, or a peculiar preparation of glass, to which different colours are given, sometimes preserving, sometimes depriving it of its transparency. Authors, distinguish three kinds of enamels; those which are used to imitate precious stones, those employed in enamel painting (painting on enamel), and those with which an infinite variety of small works are made. The preparation of enamels is very various. In general ten parts of lead and three parts of tin may be oxidized by continued heat and exposure to air. To the mixed oxides thus ob. tained must be added ten parts of powdered quartz or flint and two parts of common salt, and the whole must be properly melted in a crucible; thus we obtain a white enamel and the basis of coloured enamel, metallic oxides bein added in the preparation at the very beginning to give the required colour. The addition of oxide of lead or antimony produces a yellow enamel; reds are obtained by a mixture of the oxides of gold and iron; that composed of gold is the most beautiful and durable. The oxides of copper, cobalt, and iron, give greens, violets, and blues; and a great variety of intermediate colours is produced by mixing them in different proportions. The oxides are sometimes mixed before they are united to the vitreous basis. These are the principal ingredients in the composition of enamels; but the proportions in which they are used, the degree and continuance of the heat required for their perfection, are secrets which
the manufacturers carefully keep to themselves as far as they are able. NAMELLING is of great antiquity, and was practised by the Egyptians, from whom it probably passed to the Greeks, and subsequently to the Romans, who are supposed to have introduced the art into Britain, because Roman antiquities have been dug up in different parts of our island in which parts of the ornaments consist of enamels. The art was in use also among the Britons, the Saxons, and the Normans successively, as is proved by various specimens still existing; and it would not be difficult to trace its progress down to our own times. It appears, however, that antiently enamels were principally applied to ornamental purposes, but since the invention of clocks and watches their usefulness has increased in an extraordinary degree, there being probably no substance for dial-plates equal to enamel in durability and beauty. The various processes in the practice of enamelling have probably never been comletely made known to the public; they require extraor§. care and attention, and artists who may have been so fortunate as to discover any improved mode of operating are commonly too jealous to make it known. Enamels being commonly laid on a metal ground, the first business is to prepare the plates, technically called coppers, to receive the enamel. This preparation requires much care and nicety, and the process is extremely curious, The metals used to enamel upon are gold, silver, and copper. Of the other metals some are too fusible to bear the fire, and the others, as platinum, &c., are too strong, as it is termed, for the enamel. The best substance to enamel upon is gold, the richness of the colour giving a beautiful tinge through the enamel; but, except for watch-cases and valuable articles of jewellery, copper is generally used on account of its cheapness. Both the gold and the copper should be of the finest kinds. Enamelling is now divided into two branches, dial-plate enamelling and transparent enamelling; the former including the manufacture of clock and watch plates, with fluxed plates for enamel painting; the other the enamelling of watch-cases, brooches, and other trinkets. The former is divided also into hard and soft or glass enamelling; the hard requiring the most time, skill, and labour. The coppers being duly prepared, the next process is that of enamelling, properly so called. The enamel as it comes from the maker is commonly in small cakes four, five, or six inches in diameter. In preparing it for use it is split, by means of a small hammer applied to the edge of the cakes, into thin flakes, which are put into an agate mortar and finely pulverized, and then washed with water. The moistened mass is then laid very smooth on the metal ground with a spatula, and when dried is melted, or, as it is called, fired, under a muffle, in a small furnace heated with coke and coal. The back of the coppers is first covered with enamel, and then the face, to which two coats are given, the operation of firing being applied to each. The plates are then carefully polished, for which various substances are used; and when this is complete, they are put for the third and last time into the fire before painting. ENAMEL PAINTING, which should be called painting on enamel, is of modern date. It was indeed long believed that the encaustic painting of the antients was the same thing as our enamel painting. But though the antients possessed the art of colouring glass, which might have led to enamel painting, they do not seem to have acquired this latter art, the invention of which, as it is practised in our days, is ascribed to the French. . In 1632, Jean Toutin, a goldsmith at Châteaudun, painted on enamel, and he and his disciple, Gulden, taught others. Jean Petitot, born at Geneva in 1607, an admirable painter in miniature, carried the art of painting on enamel to a degree of perfection never before attained. He resided long in England, and French writers affirm that he obtained the knowledge of the most beautiful and durable colours for enamel painting from Sir Theodore Mayence, at London, an eminent phy. sician and chemist, who generously communicated his secrets to him, and recommended him to Charles I., after whose death he went to Paris, where he was highly favoured by Louis XIV., and gained a large fortune. After the revocation of the edict of Nantes he withdrew to Geneva. The difficulty of preparing the plates for enamel painting, and more especially the care and caution re