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quired in burning in the colours, with the very great risk attending the operation, had, till within our own memory, restricted the ordinary size of fluxed plates, and consequently of enamel paintings, to five or six inches; and French writers think it would be little short of madness to attempt such works on a larger scale. But English artists have of late years so far exceeded these limits, that it would be absurd to hazard any dogmatic opinion respecting the possible extent to which they may go. The late Mr. Horace Hone was, we believe, the first who ventured much to exceed the usual size. We have seen a beautiful whole length portrait of a lady, which, if we remember rightly, was about twelve inches high, and broad in proportion; but this has been far exceeded by Mr. H. P. Bone, whose copy from the famous picture of Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, in the National Gallery, measures 18 inches by 16}. The same artist had also in the exhibition of the Royal Academy, this year, 1837, a copy of the Virgin and Child, by Vandyke, of even larger dimensions. When we contemplate such works finished in the most exquisite manner, we cannot but admire the courage of the artist in undertaking them. The brilliancy and permanency of the colours are indeed a great temptation and an ample reward for success. But chances of failure are great, and increase, as we understand, with the size of the work, which is not safe till it has undergone the operation of being exposed to the fire for the last time. Indeed the whole process from the very outset requires in every stage the utmost care and attention, and a degree of skill in the management which only long practice can give. No fault in the design can be corrected; it must be traced in the first instance with perfect accuracy: the fire may destroy the work, but what it fixes, whether good or bad, is unalterable. ENCAMPMENT is the lodgment or station of an army, with its artillery, baggage, and stores, when it has taken the field for the purpose of a review, or of acting against an enemy. Under the word CAMP (Rom.AN) there has been given an account of the antient castrametation, and, till the employment of fire-arms in war, it is probable that the manner of occupying ground for military purposes which had been adopted É, the Romans continued to be used by the nations formed on the ruins of their empire, such alterations only being made in the internal arrangements of the camp as were rendered necessary by differences in the numerical strength of the principal divisions of the troops. The camps of the antient Britons, and those of the AngloSaxons . Danes in this country, seem to have been intrenched by breast-works made of felled trees, or of earth and stones rudely heaped together. Concerning the disposition of the troops within the inclosure, we only know that the Saxons drew up their cavalry in one dense body surrounding the standard, and that they placed the foot soldiers with their heavy battle-axes in front. In a description of the camp formed by Edward II. during his . tion to Scotland in 1301 is contained the first hint we have of any regularity in the distribution of an English army while in the field; this amounts however to little more than that the ground was marked out, and that to every one his proportion of the space was assigned. Within the spaces tents of white or coloured linen were set up, and huts were constructed, the latter probably for the private soldiers. (Grose, Mil. Antiq., vol. ii., p. 205.) Antiently, both the English and French commanders of armies appear to have fortified their encampments when they undertook the siege of any place, particularly if it appeared likely to be of long duration; and P. Daniel states, that when cannon was used, it was placed for the protection of the army in large redoubts of wood or earth, called Bastilles, constructed at intervals along the circumvallation. The same author relates that the English, while they made war in France, went by parties into the country, carrying with them strong palisades to form an intrenchment, behind which they were protected while using their crossbows. (Hist. de la Milice Françoise, liv. vii., ch. 2.) In the modern system of war, from the necessity of avoiding as much as possible the destructive effects of the enemy's artillery, and the desire of affording all possible development to the fire of their own infantry, commanders of armies have been compelled to abandon the square form of the antient encampments, and to adopt that of long and narrow lines. But with this arrangement it seldom hapP. C., No. 579.

pens that the ground will permit a perfect regularity in the dispositions of the several battalions and squadrons; and the occurrence of streams or other accidents of the country may break the continuity of the line, or may render it me. cessary to give it a bent or waving direction. When how ever an army is encamped under tents, it may be regarded as a general rule that the line should correspond to that in which the troops are to be drawn up to engage the enemy; also that the tents of each battalion should not occupy a greater space in front than the battalion itself would cover when in order of battle,_a practice which is said to have originated with Gustavus Adolphus. The length of the front of a battalion of 750 men, two deep, allowing 21 inches to each file, will be 219 yards; and this would be the extent of the line of tents, were it not that the line is regulated by the probable number of effectives, instead of the numerical strength of the establishment. The depth of the encampment for a battalion is of less importance; but, when the ground will permit, it may be regulated by the following disposition, which is considered as affording sufficient convenience. The tents of the privates may be ranged in two lines parallel to the front, with an interval of about 12 feet as a street between every two companies in each line, and those of the captains and subalterns may be in one line in the rear of these; the field-officers and the commanding officer may occupy a fourth line; the staff a fifth; and the line of kitchens may be in the rear of all. By this arrangement the depth, including a space for the sutler's tent, the batmen and horses, will be about 90 yards; but an interval of 16 yards should separate the front of the men's tents from the line of parade, which is parallel to that front. Opposite the centre of the battalion, and about 60 yards in front of the line of parade, are the tents of the party which forms what is called the quarter-guard; and at about 15 yards in rear of the kitchens the party forming the rear-guard is situated. Including all these intervals, the depth of the encampment for infantry will be 183 yards. The length of front for a complete regiment of cavalry, consisting of eight troops, when formed two deep, is about 320 yards; and this may be considered as the extent occupied by the regiment in the line of the encampment. The seven tents of each troop are ranged in a line perpendicular to the front, and the horses are attached to pickets in lines parallel to those of the tents; the remainder of the space, reckoned parallel to the front, being occupied by the breadths of the streets. In rear of the men's tents and parallel to the front are arranged the subalterns' horses in one line; the tents of the captains and subalterns in another; those of the field-officers and commanding officer in a third, and the kitchens in the rear of all. The standards are placed parallel to the front at 10 yards before the tents of the privates; and the distance from thence to the line of parade is 30 yards: with these dispositions the whole depth of a regiment of cavalry will be 216 yards. A large army is encamped in two lines which, if the ground will permit it, are parallel to, and at the distance of about 300 yards from each other; and a reserve, generally consisting of the best troops, is formed in rear of the second. The stations of the cavalry are on the flanks of each line. The artillery attached to an army is formed into brigades, and is posted either on the flanks of the camp or with the reserve in the rear; the extent of front, for a heavy brigade, is 69 yards, and the depth, including the line of guns, of limbers, and three lines of waggons, is 82 yards. The circular tents at present in use are 13 feet 3 inches diameter within the walls (the canvas which hangs vertically between the conical part of the tent and the ground). Of the cavalry 12 men, and of the infantry 15 men, are appointed to each tent. From a document which is supposed to be of the time of Elizabeth it appears that then an English camp was divided into six portions, of which three were assigned to the cavalry and three to the foot soldiers; and that between every division was a street 80 feet wide. There was also a space allotted for the market, and within this was the park of artillery, surrounded by carriages. It was regulated that no man should pitch his tent within 140 feet of the ring, or periphery of the camp. †. soldiers' huts or tents were placed 25 deep; each was eight feet square, and contained two men ; the depth of the encampment, including the depôts, the officers' tents, and the cross streets, was 300 feet; and, including the streets, the Vol. IX. —3 D

o whole extent in front of a regiment consisting of 13 companies, each of 150 men, was 712 feet. Originally, it seems, the officers' tents were placed in front of those occupied by the men; but Sir James Turner states that Henry of Nassau changed that custom, and caused them to be placed in the rear, as they are at present, in order that the soldiers might be enabled to have more easy access to the parade in front of the line. (Grose, ii., pp. 213,214.) The great extent of the space which, for the reasons before mentioned, is unavoidably occupied by an army in the field, renders it, in most cases, impossible to fortify the site of the encampment by a continuous line of parapet like that with which the Roman armies surrounded themselves on taking up a defensive position; and the security of a modern army against surprises is now obtained principally by the situation being difficult of access, from streams, marshes, or inequalities .# the ground, and by keeping numerous advanced posts to watch all the approaches by which an enemy might arrive at the camp. There are, however, some circumstances which render it indispensable that an encampment should be strengthened by fortifications; as when the troops are inexperienced or the army is deficient in cavalry; but chiefly when a position is occupied which it is of the utmost importance to hold, because the possession of it would be advantageous to the enemy. The latter may then be reduced to the alternative of attacking the encampment at a disadvantage, or of suffering a loss of valuable time in making the movements necessary to turn it. In these cases, every resource of the engineer in the construction of works and in obstructing the approaches should be put in practice for the purpose of augmenting the resistance which the army may be capable of making. A continuous line of works may therefore be admissible for an army inferior to that of the enemy, provided the extent of the line be not so great as to prevent the intrenchments from being sufficiently manned in every part; but a camp so fortified would possess no advantages for an army which is strong enough to assume the offensive on a favourable occasion presenting itself; and it is evident that, in this case, it would be sufficient to construct merely a few redoubts in situations from whence a fire of artillery might be directed for the purpose of defending the approaches, while the disposable force of the army might be kept in masses ready, at a proper time, to make a movement to the front through the intervals between the works. This principle does not, till lately, appear to have been well understood; and the cautious spirit with which a campaign was conducted during the eighteenth century contrasts strongly with the bold measures generally pursued in the late war. Marshal Daun, though always superior in number to the Prussians, intrenched himself with the utmost anxiety; and in 1759, when he took up a position near Dresden, though the king of Prussia had lost the battle of Kunersdorf, and the Austrian army was encamped upon steep rocks, covered by a stream difficult to pass, yet the marshal surrounded himself with works so numerous, that even the smallest paths were protected by them, and so strong, that twenty years afterwards they were in existence. But one of the most celebrated of these intrenched camps was that which, in 1761, the king of Prussia took up at Buntzelwitz in order to cover Breslau. This camp was formed within a chain of hills protected on three sides by streams: six salient points on the contour were fortified by bastions, the fires from which would have flanked the intermediate parts of the line, and these were further protected by fléches constituting a sort of broken curtain between every two redoubts. Nearly 180 pieces of artillery were planted to defend the avenues, iš the camp was surrounded by abatis and other obstacles by which the approach of an enemy might be impeded. (Jomini, Traité des Grandes Operations Militaires, tom. iv.) Such intrenchments however avail nothing when the army is not commanded by a man of great military genius. The French camp at Malpaquet, in 1709, is stated to have been fortified with a triple line, consisting of breastworks, hedges, and felled trees; it was forced however, though with great loss, by the allies under the duke of Marlborough. It is remarkable that, during the war in Spain, which in general was distinguished by inattention to the means of strengthening the positions occupied by the troops, one of the finest examples of an intrenched camp was afforded in

that which the British army occupied before Lisbon in 1810 This consisted of a double line of detached redoubts constructed on all the commanding points of ground, for the purpose of defending the four great roads and the accessible

asses by which the enemy could approach to that city.

he first line began at the mouth of the Zizandra on the Atlantic; it crowned the heights above Torres Vedras, and following the chain of Monte Graça, extended to the Tagus at Alhandra, its whole length being about 29 miles. The second was about six miles in rear of the first; it began at the mouth of the S. Lorenzo, on the ocean, passed over the heights at Mafra, Montechique, and Bucellas, and reached the Tagus at Quintella, its whole extent, in length, being about 24 miles. The weakest part seems to have been the valley of Calhandria, near the Tagus, on the exterior line; but this part was afterwards strengthened by a double row of abatis, besides breast-works of earth and thick stone walls. When the lines were completed, they consisted of 152 redoubts, armed, in all, with 534 pieces of ordnance, and required above 34,000 men for their garrisons. The disbursements for their construction amounted to nearly

100,000l. (Colonel Jones, Memoranda on the Lines about Lisbon, p. 107.) [LINEs of INTRENCHMENT, Military Positions.]

ENCAUSTIC PAINTING (lyravarurh, encaistike) is a kind of painting in which by heating or burning in (as the Greek term implies), the colours were rendered permanent in all their original splendour. It was not however enamelling, as some have imagined, but a mode of painting with heated or burnt wax, which was practised by the antients, various specimens of which have been preserved in the East, and which, according to some historical statements, was in use at Venice even to the time of Titian. Pliny, in his “Natural History’ (xxxv. 11), gives a short account of the invention and nature of this art. He says, ‘Ceris pingere ac picturam inurere, quis primus excogitaverit non constat.” But though he expressly says wax, some persons have imagined that by ceris he here means some composition different from wax, and capable of bearing the fire, and that inurere means to enamel. In the same chapter he says that there were antiently two modes of encaustic painting, ‘cera et in ebore, cestro, i.e., viriculo. Hoc tertium accessit, resolutis igni ceris, penicillo utendi' The Marchese Haus, in accordance with Pliny, assumes three kinds of encaustic painting, distinguishing as an essential point, whether the cestrum (a style, or a graving tool) or the pencil was employed in the execution. In the first mode, the wax was melted, mixed with as much earth colour finely powdered, as it could imbibe, and then this mass spread on wood, or on a wall with a hot spatula. When it became cold, it was the ground, in which the designer cut the lines with a cold pointed tool (style, cestrum), and thus, properly speaking, it was not the painting but the wax ground that was burnt in, and the name encaustic was improperly given to the painting. . With regard to the second kind, encaustic painting on ivory, the most errone. ous notions were long entertained. Professor Grund, of Florence, who has devoted much attention to encaustic painting, seems to be nearest to the truth. When the practice of drawing on hard wax had been brought to some degree of perfection, they proceeded to apply it on a small scale to ivory, which was at that time in the highest estimation. Ivory tablets were therefore covered with red or black wax, and the design cut in it with the style, the object being to use the clear and smooth surface of the ivory for the lines, that they might look the more beautiful. This therefore was nothing more than applying to ivory what had previously been done on wood, or walls. The third kind is the applying the colours with the pencil. With respect to the manner in which this was executed, opinions differ. The most correct notion seems to be that the wax was dissolved, the colours mixed with it, and laid on with the pencil, and the painting then finished by careful approximation to the fire, whence this kind of E.; became properly encaustic. For this purpose a hot iron (cauterium) was used. When painting had been greatly improved by the invention of the pencil, a new method of encaustic was attempted. Encaustic wax painting had hitherto been designing on a coloured ground; it now became painting with wax colours burnt in. When the artist o laid on the wax ground, and traced the outlines with the style, he proceeded to the colouring. From the

wax mixed with the colours he separated with the hot style as much as he wanted to cover a certain space, and spread it over the ground, put a second, third, &c., colour next the first, so that he had local tint, half tint, and shade together, which he softened into each other with the hot style. After the whole art of encaustic painting had long been lost, the memory of it was recovered by Count Caylus, in France, who announced to the Academy of Painting the method of painting in wax in 1752; a Mr. Bachelier however had actually painted a picture in wax in 1749, and is the author of a treatise on the art and secret of wax painting; and he was the first who communicated to the public the method of performing the operation of inustion, which chiefly characterizes encaustic painting." The count kept his method secret for a time, and in 1754 exhibited at the Louvre a head of Minerva painted in the manner of the antients. This was much admired, and it was affirmed that in wax painting the colours were more permanent, purer, and brighter than in oil painting. Several other persons have made essays in this art, as Bien, Bertscher, Bar. Taube in Mannheim, W. Kalan, painter in Berlin, and Reisenstein. As neither Pliny, nor Vitruvius, nor any other antient author, has left a clear account of the methods employed, it may be reasonably doubted whether any one among the various processes employed or recommended by the moderns is the same as those of the Greeks. J. G. Walter, in Berlin, and Professor J. Roux, in Heidelberg, have recently turned their attention to wax painting; the latter is said to have left many very successfully executed wax paintings; but he did not publish his secret, though he strongly recommended it to painters in his treatise on colours (Die Farben, Heidelberg, 1828). Since 1826 Mr. Peter Kraft, at Vienna, has painted several paintings on walls, in which however only the warmed ground was covered with wax, and the colours mixed with oil of turpentine laid on it. The process made known by Montabert in his “Traité de la Peinture,” vols. vii. and viii., has a greater resemblance to encaustic painting, properly so called. The laying on is nearly in the manner last mentioned, but a wax warnish is spread over the colours, and melted in by means of a kind of brasier. A series of paintings has been executed, according to his direction, on the walls of the royal palace at Munich, since 1831; but even here all the difficulties with respect to the durability of the ground and the colours have not been overcome. ENCKE'S COMET, one of the periodic comets which have been ascertained to belong to the solar system, revolving round the sun in about 1200 days, within the orbit of Jupiter. A full account of this body is contained in a memoir by Encke, published in numbers 210 and 21 1 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, and translated by Mr. Airy, under the title ‘Encke's Dissertation,’ &c., Cambridge, 1832. See also the “Reports of the British Association,’ vol. i. (1831-1832), and the tract of M. Arago ‘Des Comètes en général,’ in the “Annuaire' of 1832. This comet is now known to have been seen in 1786 by Méchain and Messier, in 1795 by Miss Herschel, and in 1805 by M. Pons of Marseilles, and others. But the train of investigation which established it as a periodic comet (all the preceding observations having been supposed to be of different bodies) dates from the observations of M. Pons in 1818-19. A comet having been then discovered by him, and its elements determined, Encke (from whom the comet has its name) immediately showed that it was the body which had been seen in 1805. Olbers detected it to be the comet of 1795; and Encke (Berlin Ephemeris, 1822 and 1823) having established the fact that its revolution was completed in about 1200 days, predicted approximately the part of the heavens in which it would reappear in 1822. The prediction was verified by the observations of M. Rumker at Paramako, since which time it has regularly taken its place as one of the bodies of the solar system. Upon the question which has been raised relative to the gradual approach of this comet to the sun, and the consequent presumption of the existence of a resisting medium, see CoMET. The memoir of M. Eneke (translated by Mr. Airy, as cited) enters fully into the discussion of this question. The elements of this body, adopted by M. Encke for its reappearance in 1832, are as follows:– Passage through perihelion, 1832, May 3’99. Longitude of perihelion, 157° 21'.

Longitude of ascending node, 334° 32' Inclination, 13° 22'. Angle of eccentricity, 57° 43'. Mean daily sidereal motion, 107.1". 1. Perihelion distance, o Earth's mean distance from Aphelion distance, 4' 101 sun being unity. Periodic time, 1210 days. ENCRINITES, the name by which the petrified radiated animals commonly called Stone Lilies have been long known in Britain; it is frequently applied to the Crinoidea generally, both recent and fossil. Lamarck arranged the genus Encrinus in his fifth order of Polypes (Polypi natantes), fixing its position between Pirgularia and Umbellularia, and recording but two species, one recent, viz. Encrinus Caput Medusae (Isis Asteria Linn.), from the seas of the Antilles, the other fossil, viz., Encrinus liliiformis, Lilium lapideum (Stone Lily) of Ellis and others. Cuvier included the encrinites among his pedicillated echinoderms, considering that they should be placed near the Comatulae; and, in the Règne Animal, they are, accordingly to be found between the great group of the Starfishes and that of the Echinidans. De Blainville observes that the beautiful work of Guettard (Acad. des Sc. 1755) upon the living and fossil encrinites showed long ago the great relationship which there is hetween these and the stellerideans, now known under the name of Comatular, and he remarks upon the arrangement of Lamarck, who followed Linnaeus and his adherents in placing them among the zoophytes, notwithstanding Guettard's exposition and Ellis's confirmation. After alluding to Miller's work on the family, and to Mr. Thompson's description of the living specimen found on the coast of Ireland, De Blainville takes as the basis of his terminology the parts which exist in Comatula, and adopting the views of Rosinus, rejects that proposed by Miller in his interesting memoir, objecting to the terms pelvis, costal, intercostal scapula, hand, fingers, &c., as derived from animals of an entirely different type of form and inapplicable to the radiated structure. We find, then, that the pelvis of Miller is the centrodorsal joint (l'article centro-dorsal) of De Blainville. The costal is the first basilary joint of each ray. The intercostal is the second basilary joint. The scapula is the third, or that on which the radii are supported. The hand is the part of the ray which is divided but not separated. The fingers are the digitations or divisions of the rays. Finally, the pinnules are the lateral divisons of the digitations; and De Blainville, like Miller, divides the rays into principal rays and accessory or auriliary rays.” Habits, &c. Dr. Buckland (Bridgewater Treatise), who uses the phraseology of Miller, speaks of these animals as destined to find their nourishment by spreading their nets and moving their bodies through a limited space, from a fixed position at the bottom of the sea; or by employing the same instruments, either when floating singly through the water, or attached like Pentelasmis (CIRRIPEDA) to floating pieces of wood. He refers to Miller for several instances of their power of repairing casual injuries, and figures a recent Pentacrinus, one of whose arms is under the process of being reproduced, as crabs and lobsters reproduce their lost claws and legs, and many lizards their tails and feet, observing that the arms of starfishes also, when broken off, are in the same manner reproduced. The same author remarks, that although the representatives of the crinoideans in our modern seas are of rare occurrence, this family was of vast numerical importance among the earliest inhabitants of the antient deep. “We may judge,’ say Dr. Buckland, ‘of the degree to which the individuals of these species multiplied among the first inhabitants of the sea, from the countless myriads of their petrified remains which fill so many limestone-beds of the transition formations, and compose vast strata of entrochal marble, extending over large tracts of country in Northern Europe and North America. The substance of this marble is often almost as entirely made up of the petrified bones of encrinites as a corn-rick is composed of straws. Man applies it to * It is necessary to put the student on his guard against the confusion and error manifest in this part of M. de Islainville's useful work. This was not a little puzzling when considered as coming from a pen of such high reputation as his ; till the arrival of the Nouvelles additions et corrections' brought the information that.' par une transposition singulière du manuscrit, il y a cu une sorte de mélange entre les paragraphes qui appartiennent aux genres Encri: nus et Pentacrins.” In short, among other mistakes, the titles Encrinus and Pentacrinus, together with whole paragraphs, have been misplaced. '

construct his palace and adorn his sepulchre, but there are few who know, and fewer still who duly appreciate, the surprising fact, that much of this marble is composed of the skeletons of millions of organized beings, once endowed with life, and susceptible of enjoyment, which, after performing the part that was for a while assigned to them in living nature, have contributed their remains towards the composition of the mountain masses of the earth. Of more than thirty species of crinoideans that prevailed to such enormous extent in the transition period, nearly all became extinct before the deposition of the lias, and only one presents the angular column of the pentacrinite: with this one exception, pentangular columns first began to abound among the crinoideans at the commencement of the lias, and have from thence extended onwards into our present seas. Their several species and even genera are also limited in their extent; e. g. the great lily encrinite (E. moniliformis) is peculiar to the muschel-kalk, and the pear encrinite to the middle region of the oolitic formation.’

The same author, speaking of the joints which composed the stem, says, “the name of Entrochi, or wheelstones, has with much propriety been applied to these insulated vertebrae. The perforations in the centre of these joints affording a facility for stringing them as beads, has caused them in antient times to be used as rosaries. In the northern parts of England they still retain the appellation of St. Cuthbert's beads.

On a rock by Lindisfarn Sont Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame The sea-born beads that bear his name.

‘Each of these presents a similar series of articulations, varying as we ascend upwards through the body of the animal, every joint being exactly adjusted to give the requisite amount of flexibility and strength. From one extremity of the vertebral column to the other, and throughout the hands and fingers, the surface of each bone articulates with that adjacent to it, with the most perfect regularity and nicety of adjustment. So exact and methodical is this arrangement, even to the extremity of its minutest tentacula, that it is just as improbable that the metals which compose the wheels of a chronometer should for themselves have calculated and arranged the form and number of the teeth of each respective wheel, and that these wheels should have placed themselves in the precise position fitted to attain the end resulting from the combined action of them all, as for the successive hundreds and thousands of little bones that compose an Encrinite to have arranged themselves in a position subordinate to the end produced by the combined effect of their united mechanism, each acting its peculiar part in harmonious subordination to the rest; and all conjointly producing a result which no single series of them acting separately could possibly have effected.” (Bridgewater Treatise.)

De Blainville characterizes his Fixed Asterencrinideans (Astérencrinides sirés) as having a body more or less bursi. form, supported upon a long articulated stem, and fixed by a radiciform part.

Genera. Apiocrinites.

Miller, who established this genus, characterizes it as an animal with a column gradually enlarging at the apex, composed of numerous joints, of which the superior is marked by five diverging ridges, dividing the surface into as many equal portions, sustaining the pelvis, formed of five sub-cuneiform joints, supporting others of a figure nearly similar, from which proceed the arms and tentaculated fingers formed of simple joints having the figure of a horse-shoe.

De Blainville thus defines it. Body regular, circular, for the rest unknown, contained in a sort of cupule or conical test (tet), composed of three superposed rows, each consisting of five scaphéid plates, united or joined throughout, the upper one supporting on a o surface the rays which are formed by a simple series of non-pinnated (?) articulations, Stem round, at first as large as the body, attenuating by degrees down to the root; articulations circular little elevated, pierced by a round hole, and radiated al their surface. Auxiliary rays scattered.

Geological Distribution.—The genus has occurred hitherto in a fossil state only, and has only been found in strata posterior to the lias. Example, Apiocrinites rotun.

*... Round-columned, Pear-like, Lily. (Miller). ear-like, Lily-shaped animal

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Ariocrinites rotundus restored and reduced: 1, expanded: 2, closed; 4. the remedial effect of calcareous secretions in repairing an injury of the joints of the stem: two young individuals, and the surfaces of two truncated stems appear at the base; 3. pear-shaped body of Apiocrinites rotundus, showing at its upper extremity the internal disposition of the bones surrounding the cavity of the stomach; 4, vertical section of the body, showing the cavity of the stomach, and a series of lower cavities, or hollow lenticular spaces, between the central portions of the enlarged joints of the upper portion of the vertebral column. These spaces are considered by Miller as enlar ments of the alimentary canal, which descends through the axis of the entire column. The surfaces of the joints of the vertebral column are striated with {}: on the adjacent plates, and allow of flexure without risk of dislocation. (Dr. Buckland, Bridgewater Treatise.)

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It will be observed, that De Blainville speaks of the rays as being formed of a simple series of articulations without pinnae: he adds, it is true, a note of interrogation. Miller in his restoration has made the rays pinnated; and Dr. Buckland, from whose work the cuts above given are by permission taken, has continued Miller's restoration: nor do we see any reason for objecting to the views of the lastnamed authors. The absence of pinnae on the rays would make the apparatus a very imperfect organ of capture; but the presence of those appendages produces at once the net like structure observable in many others of the family, so admirably adapted for taking and securing the prey which might come within the sphere of the Encrinite's action.*

Miller describes and figures a second species, Apiocri

mites ellipticus (Bottle Encrinite, Strait Encrinite, and Stag-Horn Encrinite of Parkinson; Goldfuss refers to it as A. elongatus), and gives the chalk-pits of Wiltshire and Kent as its localities. The bodies, &c., of this species are the Chalk Bottles of the quarrymen.

M. Goldfuss, in his great work, records four additional species, viz. A rosaceus, A. mespiliformis, and A. Milleri (Schlotheim), and A. flearuosus, and A. obconicus (Goldfuss), retaining Miller's A. ellipticus, and referring to Miller's description of that species for A. elongatus also.

Encrinus. (Encrinites, True Lily-shaped animal of Miller.)

Miller characterizes his genus Encrinites as a crinoidal animal, with a column formed of numerous round depressed joints, adhering by a radiating grooved surface, and becoming subpentangular near the pelvis, which is composed of five I. giving a lateral insertion to the first series of costal plates, to which the second series and scapula succeed, whence the tentaculated arms or fingers proceed, formed by double series of joints. He observes, that the animals of this genus have not hitherto been found in a living state, nor does he believe that their remains have been discovered in England. Only one species known, viz. Encrinites liliiformis of Lamarck.

Description, &c.—This is the Encrimites moniliformis, Bead-columned, True Lily-shaped animal of Miller, who describes the species as a crinoidal animal, with a column formed of numerous round joints, alternately, as they approach the pelvis, larger and smaller, becoming subpentangular when nearly in contact with it. On the pelvis, formed of five pieces, adhere laterally the first series of costae, on which the second series of costae is placed, succeeded by the scapulae, from which the ten tentaculated arms or fingers proceed. Animal permanently affixed by exuded indurated matter.

We consider his Encrimites moniliformis as the Encrinus filiformis of Lamarck, the Encrine, and Lys de Mer, of the French, the Lilium lapideum of some of the older writers, and the Stone Lily of the English. Locality, (Muschel-kalk) Hildesheim, Rakenberg, near Goslar, Obernscheden and Azzenhausen, not far from Gemenden, in Lower Saxony; Scwerven in Juliers, in Westphalia; the village of Erkerode, in Brunswick, about two miles from the town bearing this name, near a wood called the Elm, &c. In this last-named locality the quarry is on the declivity of a hill overgrown with wood, on which account the inhabitants oppose the digging after them. The stratum containing them is hardly fifteen to eighteen inches in thickness. Under the surface of the earth is a friable, porous, argillaceous limestone, containing millions of columns and columnar joints; but many hours' digging is necessary before a good specimen of the superior part, or stone-lily, can be procured, since the moisture in the stone contributes to their rapid destruction, and their occurring on large pieces of stone makes them liable to separation, which accounts for the many mended specimens. Another and harder stratum under the above contains numerous crinoidal remains; but, according to the quarrymen, no stone lilies. (Miller.) The author last quoted adds that there is good reason to believe that the formation in which the remains are found near Brunswick corresponds with the white lias of England, as it appears to repose on the newer red sandstone, containing salt and gypsum.

Fine o of this fossil have always been and still are sought for with great eagerness by collectors. In the * Beytraege zur Naturgeschichte,' Altenburg, 1774, it is

* Since the above was written, we find that M. de Blainville has corrected *imself: for, in the "Nouvelles Additions et Corrections,’ he says, speaking of

Apiocrinites, ‘in the characteristic, instead of three, read four, and add," rays biñd to the base, and composed of simply pinnated articulations."

stated that the emperor of Germany offered one hundred dollars for a stone lily free from the matrix, and attached to its column. “The peculiarly fine lily encrinite,’ writes Miller, ‘figured by Knorr. tab. 11. a, was, it is said, purchased (Naturforscher, Stück 3) from the labourers at the limestone quarry at Schrapland, near Halle, by Inspector Wilkens, for thirtytwo groschen, and given to Professor Lange, who sold it to baron Niegart. However in the same publication (Stück 6), it is stated that it was not bought by Wilkens, but by Mr. Vitigo, at Farrenstadt, near Querfurt, for two dollars, and given to Lange, who sold it for three souis d'or. If my memory does not misgive me, I think I saw the specimen about twenty years ago in the collection of the Naturforschenden Geselschaft, at Danzig. Where is it now?'

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