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fate that has so frequently attended them. The degree of doctor of laws was obtained from Edinburgh for him and others of the tutors by the trustees of the academy. Of Dr. Enfield's industry some idea may be formed from the following list of the works which he published during his residence at Warrington and in the midst of his other various and important occupations – “The Preacher's Directory,’ 4to., 1771. ‘The English Preacher; a Collection of Sermons abridged and selected from various Authors, 9 vols. 12mo, 1773. “An Essay towards the History of Liverpool, principally from the Papers of Mr. George Perry,' fol., 1774. ‘Observations on Literary Property,’ 4to., 1774. ‘The Speaker; or Miscellaneous Pieces selected from the best English Writers, for the purposes of Reading and Speaking,’ 8vo. 1774. ‘Bio: graphical Sermons on the Principal Characters of the Old and New Testament,’ 12mo, 1777. ‘Exercises in Elocution, being a Sequel to the Speaker,’ 8vo., 1781. ‘A Translation of Rosignol's Elements of Geometry,’ 8vo. “Institutes of Natural Philosophy, Theoretical and Experimental,' 4to., 1783. And besides these, various occasional sermons. * Several of the above,’ as Dr. Aikin observes, ‘belong to the humble but useful class of compilations; yet in them he found occasion to display the elegance of his taste and the soundness of his judgment.’ The “Speaker' was one of the first, and is o perhaps, one of the best selections from our English classical writers. After the dissolution of the academy, Dr. Enfield remained two years at Warrington, occupied in the education of private pupils, and in his duties as minister of the conregation. In 1785 he accepted an invitation from the ctagon dissenting .#." at Norwich. He first settled at the village of Thorpe, where he received private pupils, and afterwards removed to Norwich, where, at length, he devoted his whole time to literary occupations and his official duties. It was during his residence at Norwich, that besides being engaged as a writer in the Monthly and Analytical ... undertook an abridgment of Brucker's ‘History of Philosophy,” in 2 vols., 4to. In this task he was kindly encouraged by Dr. Bagot, at that time bishop of Norwich, and accommodated by him with books from Cambridge and from his own library. Dr. Enfield published also while at Warrington another small volume of sermons on the principal characters of the Old and New Testament; and Dr. Aikin says, that while there he drew up a series of discourses on the principal incidents and moral precepts of the gospel, in which he displayed both his talents as a commentator and his skill in expanding into general lessons of conduct those hints and F. observations which occur in the sacred narratives. his work was not published, but a selection of twenty sermons from it forms the last of three volumes of discourses which were published after his decease by subscription for the benefit of his widow: and these productions of his maturer years will be found much superior to those sermons which were given to the world at an early period of his life. The series of discourses on the gospels was written chiefly, if not altogether, at Norwich. Dr. Enfield was also a frequent contributor to the Monthly Magazine at its commencement, in which the papers under the title of the ‘Enquirer' are mostly from his en. His last literary undertaking was that of a General iographical Dictionary, in conjunction with one of his oldest and most valued friends, Dr. John Aikin. He resided at Norwich till his death, which, after a short but painful illness, took place on November 3rd, 1797, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. As a sermon-writer, Dr. Enfield obtained so great a reputation as not only to be applied to for assistance by his less industrious dissenting brethren, but also, through the agency of a London bookseller, by several of the clergy of the Establishment, for sermons on particular occasions, for which he was liberally remunerated. As a preacher, his manner of delivery was, as Dr. Aikin characterizes it, grave and impressive, affecting rather a uniform dignity than a variety of expression. It was entirely free from what is called tone, and though not highly animated, was by no means dull, and never careless or indifferent. As a companion, he was universally esteemed in every situation, and at every period of his life. That influential intercourse with a congregation, formerly considered a more essential part of the duty of a dissenting minister than it now is, in the case of Dr. Enfield, who never assumed the
priest, had uniformly a beneficial tendency. He was one whose entrance into any society of those who knew him instantly diffused pleasure. In small parties he frequently exhibited the rare talent of good reading, and with equal effect in the humorous and the pathetic. Both at Warrington and at Norwich he was instrumental in forming societies for the free discussion of the most interesting topics, without limitation or exclusion. He thus did much towards delighting, elevating, and refining the circle in which he moved; and the mildness and amiability of his disposition and manners aided the gentle and unobtrusive influence of his benevolent heart. ENFIELD. [MIDDLEs Ex.] EN FILADE is the denomination applied to a fire of artillery or musketry when made in the direction of an enemy's line of troops, or to that which is made from any battery to the interior of an enemy's rampart or trench, and in the direction of its length. When an artillery fire is so employed by the besiegers of a fortress, the intention is to dismount the guns of the defenders; and this end it accomplishes with more certainty than if the fire were directed from the front towards the mouths of the embrasures, both because the side of a gun-carriage presents a larger surface than the muzzle of the piece to the action of the shot, and because the same shot may take effect against two or more guns placed upon the same line of rampart. An enfilading fire of artillery is also used by the besiegers to destroy the palisades or other obstacles behind a glacis, and to prevent the defenders from remaining at their parapets. When employed by the defenders of a fortress, it is intended to sweep any of the besiegers' trenches which may from necessity, or through the fault of the engineer, lie in a direction tending towards some part of the ramparts of the fortress. The destructive effects of an enfilading fire, when directed against the guns on a rampart, are diminished by constructing traverses across the rampart at intervals, or by placing the guns in blindages. And, to avoid such fire in the trenches of the besiegers, the practice is to form those trenches in zig-zag directions, tending alternately to the right and left of the general line of the approaches, so that, if produced, they may fall on the exterior of all the ramparts from whence a fire might be directed towards the approaches: when this is not possible it becomes necessary to raise traverses in such trenches as are thus exposed to the fire. In Sir John T. Jones's Journals of the Sieges in Spain, there is given an account of the ingenious attempt made by a French corporal to cause one of the trenches of the besiegers before Badajos to be enfiladed by the guns of the fortress: the man contrived secretly in the evening to displace on the ground the tracing cord which the British engineer had stretched in order to indicate the intended direction of the trench; and the attempt only failed because the officer who came on duty for the night accidentally discovered, before darkness came on, the error in the position of the line. [Ricoch ET.] ENFRANCHISEMENT. [Copyhold.] ENGADIN, the valley of the Upper Inn in the canton of the Grisons, in Eastern Switzerland, runs from southwest to north-east, from the sources of the Inn at the foot of Mount Maloya to the defile of Finstermünz, where the Inn enters the Tyrol, a length of about 50 miles. It is the largest valley in Switzerland next to the Valais, and one of the finest; it lies between two massive and lofty ridges of the Rhaetian Alps, both of which branch off from Mount Maloya. The northern ridge, which contains the summits known by the names of Julier (6800 feet), Albula (7.200), Scaletta (8000), Fluela, Piz Linnard, Selvretta, &c., divides the waters of the Inn from those of the Albula, the Lanquart, and the Iller, which flow into the Rhine. The . range consists of the Monte dell’Oro (8000 feet), the Bernina (6200), the Casanna, the Fraele, the Piz Pisogg, Sursas, Pizlat, &c., and divides the valley of the Inn from that of the Adda, called also Waltelina, and from the valley of the Upper Etsch or Adige in the Tyrol. More than twenty transverse valleys open into the longitudinal valley of Engadin. The width of the plain which forms the bottom of the valley of Engadin is from one to two miles in its widest parts, but it is much narrower in many places. The slopes of the mountains are covered with forests or pastures. The cultivated grounds produce some barley, rye, and oats, potatoes, turnips, peas, and other vegetables. The Upper Engadin being more elevated than the lower part of the valley, has a keener air and sharper winters, yet Kasthofer (Poyage dans les petits Cantons et dans les Alpes Rhétiennes) saw at Celerina, about 5300 feet above the sea, barley and oats, and at St. Moriz, which is about the same elevation, he saw cabbages, peas, carrots, turnips, and lettuce. Potatoes sometimes succeed in certain localities, but the barley harvest is uncertain. The Lower Engadin enjoys a milder climate; at Zernetz, 4400 feet above the sea, barley, rye, peas, potatoes, and hemp succeed; lower down the valley, flax is cultivated with success. The cherry and other fruit trees are also met with. But the chief wealth of Engadin and especially of the upper part, consists in its cattle; its cheese equals that of Gruyère, and is largely exported. Many of the men emigrate to foreign countries, especially to Lombardy and the Venetian States, where they follow the trade of pastry cooks and confectioners. Some of them make money, with which they return home, and build fine houses, which are conspicuous objects in most of the villages. Their fields are therefore either left to the care of the women or let, and such is the scarcity of native labourers, that about 1500 hay makers from the neighbouring countries, repair to Engadin for the hay harvest, and are paid at the rate of 13, to 2 florins a-day, besides a plentiful allowance of victuals. Masons, carpenters, and smiths are mostly foreigners. Leather is imported, while a quantity of raw hides are exported. Most of the pastures on the high Alps are let to herdsmen from Bergamo and other parts of Lombardy, who migrate thither with their cattle in the summer months. These herdsmen take along with them very fierce mastiffs, which are dangerous to stray pedestrians or hunters. The villages of Engadin are chiefly along the road which follows the course of the Inn for the whole length of the valley, and then leads into Tyrol by St. Martinsbruck, and joins the high road coming from Italy by the Stilfser Joch to Innspruck. [BorMio.] Several paths lead from Engadin into the other valleys of the Grisons; the principal one is over the Julier leading into the valley of the Albula, and thence to Chur or Coira. Another path over the Maloya leads into the Val Bregaglia, which belongs likewise to the Grisons, and thence to the Chiavenna. Other paths lead over the southern ridge into Valtelina; the most frequented is that over the Bernina into the valley of Poschiavo, also belonging to the Grisons, and from thence to Tirano and Sondrio on the Adda. A road leads from Zernetz in Lower Engadin by the Val del Forno, and over the Buffalora mountain, 6000 feet high, into the Munster Thal, also a Grison district, bordering upon Tyrol, and which opens into the valley of the Etsch. Upper Engadin has eleven communes or parishes, and reckons about 800 men fit to bear arms, and Lower Engadin has ten communes and 1300 men fit for military service. The whole population is estimated at about 8000, of which Lower Engadin contains 5000. Upper Engadin returns three members and Lower Engadin four to the great council or legislature of the canton. Every commune elects its municipal magistrates, and each of the two divisions of the valley has its landamman and its court of justice, the members of which are renewed every two years. The people of Engadin are Protestants of the reformed Swiss church, with the exception of the commune of Tarasp, which is Catholic, and which belonged to the house of Austria till 1801. They speak the Ladin, a dialect of the Romane or Romance language, which has much resemblance to the Italian. There are books printed in Ladin. Schuols, in Lower Engadin, is the largest village in the whole valley; it contains nearly 200 dwelling-houses, and a handsome parish church. Zernetz, also in Lower Engadin, has about 450 inhabitants. Samaden, which is the principal village of the Upper Engadin, has about 500 inhabitants, some fine houses, and three churches. The families of Salis and Planta, which had once very extensive feudal powers in these parts, and whose rivalry occasioned much bloodshed, are originally from Engadin, the history of which is connected with that of the Grisons' country. [GRIsons.] (Leresche, Dictionnaire Géographique de la Suisse, 1836; Dandolo, Lettere sulla Svizzera, Cantone dei Grigioni.) ENGHIEN, LOUIS ANTOINE HENRI DE BOURBON, DUKE OF, was born at Chantilly, August, 1772. He was the son of the duke of Bourbon and grandson of the prince of Condé, being a lateral branch of the then reigning family of France. After the French revolution broke out, young d'Enghien served under his grandfather in the corps of the French emigrants who fought on the P. C., No. 581
Rhine. At the peace of Luneville with Austria, in 1801, the corps was disbanded, and Enghien fixed his residence at Ettenheim, a château on the German side of the Rhine, a few miles from that river, and in the territories of the margrave of Baden. An attachment between him and the princess Charlotte of Rohan, who resided at Ettenheim with her relative the Cardinal de Rohan, induced the duke to remain there. After the war had broken out again between England and France, in 1803, the English govern. ment took the French emigrants again into its pay, and they were directed to go to the German side of the Rhine to act when required. The duke of Enghien was looked upon as their head. Meantime the conspiracy of Georges and Pichegru against the person of the first consul, Bonaparte, was discovered at Paris. It has never been proved that the Duke of Enghien was privy to that conspiracy, but it is evident that he was led to expect an insurrectionary movement in France in favour of the Bourbons, of which he intended to avail himself by entering France at the head of the emigrants. This he did not deny; . Bonaparte, alarmed at the conspiracy and at the avowed intention of Georges to assassinate him, seems to have persuaded himself that the Duke of Enghien was connected with the Paris conspirators, and that the whole was a plan directed by the Bourbons in England and by the English government. That all the above parties desired his overthrow is undoubted, and is no more than might be expected, as they were his declared enemies, but considerable difference may have existed as to the means which they intended to employ. Georges and his Chouan friends preferred assassination as the shortest and most congenial to their habits, but there is no evidence that they had instructions to that effect, or were countenanced in it by any of the higher parties, who really seem to have expected an insurrectionary movement in Paris, in which Moreau, Pichegru, and other influential persons would have participated. The insurrection, however, successful, would, in all probability, have occasioned th: death of Bonaparte, if not by assassination, at least in th , scramble and sight which must have taken place. How far the persons engaged in or countenancing such a plot were justifiable, is a question which cannot be resolved by any code of political justice yet in existence. Bonaparte, on his part, determined upon getting rid of his enemies by summary means similar to those which they employed against him. He dispatched a party of gens d'armes, who crossed the Rhine, i. without ceremony the neutral territory of Baden, surrounded the château of Ettenheim, and took the duke of Enghien prisoner, the 15th of March, 1804. [For the following part of the transaction, see BonAPARTE.] The duke was tried before a secret court, which was evidently influenced in its decision by fear of the first consul, and whose sentence was carried into execution with a most indecent haste. The duke was found guilty of all the charges preferred against him, some of which were never proved. Even the recommendation of the court for a respite to the prisoner was overruled by Savary, who was present at the sitting as a sort of extra-judicial authority to watch over the proceedings. It was altogether a dark affair worthy of the worst times of the old monarchy. Bonaparte at the time openly avowed to the Council of State his firm purpose of making an example of the duke in order to deter the other Bourbon princes and their partizans from plotting against him in future. (Thibaudeau Le Consulat et l'Empire, vol. iii, ch. 41.) And again, at St. Helena, almost at his dying hour, he took upon himself alone the whole responsibility of that deed. (Testament de Napoléon.) After the Restoration, Hullin, president of the court, Savary, Caulincourt, and others who had a share in the arrest, trial, and execution of the duke, wrote each in justification or extenuation of their respective conduct. The fate of the duke of Enghien excited interest and commiseration throughout Europe; he was young, brave, amiable, and one of the most promising of the Bourbon princes.
ENGINEERING (from the French word engin) is properly the art of constructing and using engines or machines; but the term is also .# to that of executing such works as are the objects of civil and military architecture, in which machinery is in general extensively employed.
A distinction has long been made between the civil and military engineer; and since every thing relating to the service of artillery is now confided to a particular corps, the duty of the military engineer may be said to comprehend the
Wol. IX.-3 F
construction of fortifications, both permanent and temporary, including the trenches and batteries required in besieging places; also of barracks, magazines, and other works connected with warlike affairs. The profession of the civil engineer comprehends the design and execution of every great work by which commerce and the practice of the useful arts may be facilitated. Thus, in creating or improving the communications of a country, he would be called upon to form a road through hills or over valleys or rivers, or to excavate a canal in connection with the waters by which it may be supplied, and to build the locks for retaining the surface at different levels, in different places, when the inequalities of the ground are considerable. He raises embankments to resist the encroachments of the sea or to reclaim the land which it may have covered, and dams to break the force of its waves at the mouths of natural harbours. He renders rivers navigable when their course is obstructed by rocks or banks; he forms docks or artificial harbours where ships may remain in security; and he is required to penetrate by mines to vast depths for the purpose of seeking the mineral treasures contained within the bosom of the earth. Such are the occupations of this important class of men; and it is necessary to observe that they frequently, in addition, practise the avocation of the machinist in executing the presses, mills, looms, and other great machines employed in the arts and manufactures; particularly in constructing steamengines and the apparatus by which they are rendered available for giving motion to ships, carriages, or machinery. In France the title of engineer is extended to persons who are employed for the public service in trigonometrical surveying in the interior of a country or on the coasts, and in the practice of naval architecture. The French have thus a corps of ingénieurs géographes, of ingénieurs d'hydrographie, and of ingénieurs de marine. Engineering must have originated with the first application of a lever for the purpose of moving a mass of any material which exerted a resistance exceeding the unassisted strength of man: by observing the effects produced in operations of that nature, the laws of the action of bodies on one another were gradually discovered, and mechanics, the science of the engineer, arose. Archimedes, in addition to the title of geometer, may with justice claim that of mechanician; and in fact he is the first person who is known to have applied himself to the cultivation of the mixed mathematical sciences. Besides demonstrating the fundamental property of the lever, he determined the centre of gravity in bodies of certain forms, and the positions in which bodies remain in equilibrio in a fluid; and from the celebrity he acquired among the antients by the mechanical contrivances which, according to Polybius, he put in practice for the defence of Syracuse, we may conclude that if those contrivances were not his own inventions, they must have contained improvements upon such as had been in use before his time. Vitruvius wrote his treatise on architecture during the reign, as it is generally believed, of Vespasian. In that treatise he describes the manner of building the walls and towers for fortifying towns, the construction of temples, basilicae, theatres, and private dwellings; he describes the principal military engines which were then in use; he also gives some account of machines for drawing and raising weights, of engines for raising water, and of mills turned by water for grinding corn. The work may therefore be considered as comprehending every important object connected with engineering at the time in which he lived. Now he states, in the proem to the first book, that he had been appointed by the emperor to have the charge of the warlike engines; and in another place, that he had designed and executed a basilica at Fanum; it is evident therefore that he united in his person the character of engineer and architect; and among the antients the profession of the former seems to have been always included in that of the latter. The “machinarius' was probably the artificer who executed the civil and military machines, or the petty officer who, at the siege of a fortress, superintended i. service of the engines. Of the national works executed by the antients, and which are to be considered as properly falling within the province of the engineer, one of the first of which we have any intimation is the canal uniting the Red Sea and the Nile, which, according to Pliny, was begun by Sesostris, or, *cording to Herodotus, by Necos, the son of Psammeti
chus, and finished by Darius the First. The canal of Xerxes across the isthmus of the peninsula of Athos is another example of works of this kind. The introduction of arches in works of magnitude may be said to have constituted an epoch in the profession of the architectural engineer, as the idea of giving to blocks of stone a form which would enable them to sustain themselves in balanced rest by their mutual pressures, the discovery of the means of arranging them on a curve surface, and the determination of the magnitudes of the piers or abutments so that the lateral pressure of the vault might be adequately resisted, imply a higher degree of intellectual power than is exhibited in covering a space with a horizontal roof. The Cloaca Maxima [CLoAcAE] at Rome is probably the most antient example in Europe of this scientific construction; the dome of the Pantheon, and the various arches of the Thermae and of other public buildings both at Rome and in the provinces, such as aqueducts and bridges, attest the grandeur of the design, combined with purposes of public utility, which characterized the architects who lived under the early emperors. Vitruvius enumerates several Greeks who had written on machinery; but from his time to that in which Italy rose again to importance after the fall of the empire, little is known concerning the state of engineering in Europe. Subsequently to the last-mentioned epoch, Cardan, Guido Ubaldi, Valerius, and Galileo, in that country, and Stevinus, Huygens, and Descartes, in the north, are distinguished as cultivators of theoretical mechanics. Galileo particularly deserves to be named for his discovery of the laws of motion, his application of the pendulum to the measurement of time, and for his theory of projectiles. From his day to the present almost every distinguished mathematician, both on the continent and in this country, has contributed to the advancement of the mechanical sciences. Previously to the commencement of the eighteenth century the most celebrated practical engineers were Brunelleschi, who built the dome of St. Mary at Florence; Peruzzi, San Gallo, and Michel Angelo, who executed that of St. Peter at Rome; San Michaeli, the supposed inventor of the bastion system of fortification; and to these may be added Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. In Holland and in the north of Italy the necessity of securing the low grounds against the inundations of the seas and rivers, and of obtaining an inland navigation for the purposes of commerce, gave rise to the cultivation of that branch of engineering which relates to hydraulic constructions; and the invention of the lock for canals is believed to have taken place in the former country about the middle of the thirteenth century. Indeed we find the profession practised in those countries on an extensive scale when there was not a man in England capable of undertaking the formation of a canal to drain the ground. Before the reign of Charles I. it appears to have been the practice to send to Holland for an engineer when any work of that nature was to be undertaken. But the extension of the manufactures of this country soon after that period, and the consequent augmentation both of its internal and foreign commerce, called forth all the energies of the people, who, at length, in the works performed for facilitating the means of communicating between one place and another, and in the practice of the useful arts, rose to an eminence which other nations have not been able to attain. Among the former may be mentioned the numerous canals and railways which intersect the country; the majestic bridges executed in stone over the Thames; in cast-iron over the Avon, the Thames, &c.; and those on the suspension principle at the Menai and at Hammersmith. And among the men to whose useful talents in this branch of engineering the nation is indebted may be named Brindley, Smeaton, Jessop, Telford, the Rennies, and Brunel. The invention of the steam-engine, or rather its improvement in 1769, opened a new field for the talent of the engineer in the numerous uses to which the machine became applicable. Before the time of Watt it had been employed only as a pump to raise water; but this mechanician, by converting the o motion of the beam into a rotatory motion, rendered it capable, not only of replacing, with greatly augmented energy, the power of wind, water, or horses, in giving motion to machinery for the purposes required in the arts, but also of serving as a first mover for
roof vessels through water, or for drawing carriages over land. The course of education by which a student may qualify himself to become an engineer, whether civil or military, must necessarily comprehend a greater extent both of the pure and physical sciences than would be required for a person who is to follow any other profession. It will be, perhaps for ever, a matter of opinion how much mathematics should enter into a school course of engineering ; and there are, no doubt, some persons who contend that no more is required than would serve to compute the cost of materials and the wages of labour; this, and the observation of existing examples, being supposed sufficient to enable a man to enter upon the practice of the profession. It is not however with such knowledge only that an engineer is qualified to design an important work which it may be required to conduct under new and difficult circumstances. Mere science certainly cannot make a man an engineer; for analytical formulce relating to mechanical equilibrium or operations, being necessarily founded on the erroneous assumption that materials are perfectly hard, perfectly smooth, &c., and that the actions of bodies on one another are subject to invariable laws, have no practical utility unless corrected by observation and experiment. On the other hand, mere diligence in observing the results of practical operations will never raise a man to proficiency in art unless he is gifted with very extraordinary powers. A judicious combination of theory and practice is indispensable, and such a combination can only be made by a man in whom great natural talent is blended with all the aids that the sciences can afford. Of the military engineer it may be said that a greater knowledge of the more minute details of construction is required than would suffice in the civil practitioner; because it may happen that the former is called upon to exercise his profession in some colony where workmen adeuately skilled in the mechanical operations may be wanting. The accomplishment of the work may then become impossible, should the officer not be qualified to give the necessary instructions to those who are placed under his direction. It is to be regretted that in the schools of this country there prevails an almost exclusive attention to the studies which may be comprehended under the general term “literature;’ and that, notwithstanding the vast importance of the sciences and arts in promoting the prosperity of the nation, there is not, if we except the military schools at Woolwich, Sandhurst, and Addiscombe, any place of education where young men are instructed in the science of the engineer. In a discourse delivered by M. Bureaux de Pusy, which was printed in 1790, it is stated that the pupils, on entering the Ecole de Génie at Mézières, were required to undergo an examination in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, the infinitesimal calculus, mechanics, hydraulics, and drawing. And these branches of science are said to be but the key to those taught at the institution itself, which are stereotomy (the art of representing the sections of solids), the principles of carpentry, civil and military architecture, perspective, the theory of shadows, and surveying; and with these are said to have been combined the science of military tactics and a course of chemistry. If the above branches of study were considered requisite for the Ecole de Génie, much more, omitting only that which relates to tactics, would they be proper for the civil engineer, who is called upon to design and carry into execution works of far greater complexity than those which appertain to the science of war. It is easy to conceive that the knowledge which a boy, at the age of entering a public school, can have of the infinitesimal calculus and mechanics must be very superficial; and it would perhaps suffice if he then possessed a competent knowledge of plane geometry, trigonometry, mensuration, and common algebra. But it is correct to say that, before a youth is placed in the office of a practical engineer, his education should have comprehended most of the subjects above enumerated, particularly the principal propositions in mechanics, hydrostatics, and pneumatics; since it is scarcely probable that the means of instruction will afterwards be within his reach, even were he led by inclination to seek them. The institution of civil engineers which was formed at London in 1828 cannot fail, by the publication of its transactions, to be the means of greatly assisting such persons as may hereafter enter the profession; and, through them, of
rendering service to society itself. Even established prac
titioners may occasionally derive benefit from the theoretical investigations and the practical details of construction which are the subjects of the papers read at the meetings of the members. The professions of an architect and of an engineer, as they are practised at present, may be said to coincide with one another to a certain extent. The members of both must be able to form a judgment of the quality of the ground in which the foundations of their buildings are to be laid; they must be acquainted with the capacities of different materials, wood, stone, and iron, for resisting the strains to which such materials may be exposed, so that sufficient strength may be obtained with a due attention to economy; and they must equally attend to the principles of equilibrium in their roofs, arches, and domes, arranging the beams, bars, or voussoirs so that they may remain at rest with as little strain as possible upon the connecting ties by which the joints are strengthened. But here the two professions diverge from one another: while the engineer has to determine, by a process of levelling, the profile of the ground on perhaps an extensive line of country, for a road or a canal; or has to determine the forms and dimensions of his retaining walls so that they may resist the pressure of earth or water against them; or, finally, to devise methods of rendering the action of his moving powers uniform, and of transmitting them through a train of machinery to the place where the effect is to be produced,—the architect is engaged in designing the external forms and internal arrangements of edifices, in which, whether intended as palaces or private dwellings, or as buildings consecrated to the service of religion or of the state, architectonic beauty must be combined with fitness for the purposes for which they are intended. ENGLAND, originally Engla-land, I'mgle-land, and Engle-lond, means the land of the Angles, Aengles, or Engles. The vowel in the first syllable appears to have preserved its proper sound most completely in the French Angleterre. In the languages of the Teutonic family it has generally slid into the thinner sound of E or Ae, which is nearly, but not quite, the same with our English a in such a word as made. Thus the Dutch say Engeland, and the Germans England, spelling the word exactly as we do. It is to be observed, however, that in this country we have receded still farther from the original form of the word in our pronunciation than in our spelling ; for both in England and English, the first syllable is pronounced as if the vowel were not e, but i. This last fact connects itself, in some way or other, with the manner in which the nations of the south of Europe both pronounce and write the word; the Italians saying Inghilterra, the Spaniards Ingleterra, and the Portuguese Inglaterra. But these forms may have been adopted either from an imitation of the English pronunciation, or from some tendency peculiar to the languages of the Latin family (in which case it is possible that our present pronunciation of the word may be an innovation derived, probably not longer ago than the latter part of the sixteenth century, from Spain or Italy); or the Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese forms on the one hand, and the English mode of pronouncing the word on the other, may be so many independent exemplifications of a tendency to farther and farther attenuation natural to the vowel sound in this position, the reduction from e to i being only a continuation of the process by which the broad a had been previously converted into e or ae. There can be no doubt, at all events, that the meaning of the word is, as we have just explained it, the land or country of the Angles. It is usual to speak of the people who occupied the south of Britain before the Norman Conquest by the names of the Saxons or the Anglo-Saxons; but each of these appellations is apt to lead to some misapprehension. To begin with the latter: by the Anglo-Saxon people and language seem commonly to be understood the nation and language of the English Saxons, as distinguished from the Saxons of Germany; indeed the Anglo-Saxons are often called the English Saxons (for instance, in Gibson's translation of Camden’s Britannia, pp. 154-168). In this sense, however, we believe, the word is altogether a modern formation. Our ancestors before the Norman Conquest did not call themselves Anglo-Saxons, as meaning the English Saxons or the Saxons of England. Asser indeed designates Alfred as Angul-Saxonum Rex; but the meaning intended to be conveyed by this awkward compound term appears to have been, not the English Saxons, but the Angles or English and the Saxons. When the Saxon part of the polation 3 F 2
alone was spoken of they were never called the AngloSaxons or English Saxons, but simply the Saxons, or, as the case might be, the West or East or South Saxons. Then, secondly, with regard to the term Saxons: that name, we believe, was never used among our ancestors themselves, in the times before the Norman conquest, as applicable to the general population of South Britain: they confined it to that particular portion of the population which was of Saxon lineage, and which did not occupy half the country. It is true that foreigners did not always strictly observe this distinction, but often spoke of the whole people as Saxons, naturally misled both by the greater celebrity of that name for some ages before the settlement of the Saxons and the other kindred tribes in Britain, and by the circumstance that the first of those invaders that arrived in the country appear to have been Jutes and Saxons. We easily account in this way for the application of the term Saxons to the entire body of the new population by the Welsh writer Gildas, and for its having apparently been generally used in the same comprehensive sense both by the Welsh and the Scots of North Britain from the earliest times. The Sassenagh is still the name given to the English by the Scottish Highlanders and by the Welsh; and antiently the southern part of the present Scotland, which was chiefly occupied by a population of English descent, was known in the more northern parts by the name of Saxonia or Saxony. The prevalence, again, of the term Saxon in modern times, as applied to the entire population of England before the Norman Conquest, and to the language then spoken in the country, is to be attributed principally to the appropriation of the term English in another sense, namely, to the inhabitants and the language of the country since the Conquest, and also perhaps in part to the circumstance of the state which eventually obtained the eneral sovereignty in the times previous to the Conquest #. been a Saxon state. But the name by which the entire population was commonly described in those times by natives of the country was certainly not the Saxons, but the Angles or the English; and that from the earliest date to which our evidence on the subject extends. It is commonly said that the use of the term English as the common national appellative is probably to be traced to the circumstance of }. himself an Angle, having entitled his history ‘Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum,' and having, in conformity with that title, applied the name Angli throughout the work as the general designation of his countrymen. But the use of the name in that comprehensive sense appears to be considerably older than the time of Bede, who died in A.D. 735. We find the Kentish king Ethelbert, considerably more than a century before this, subscribing himself to a charter “Ego Ethelbertus, Rex Anglorum,” in virtue apparently of his dignity as Bretwalda or supreme monarch, which he held from about the year 589 till his death in 616. Taking this fact along with the other, which is unquestionable, that the kings of Wessex, after they acquired the sovereignty of the whole country, although their own state was Saxon, yet called themselves, not kings of the Saxons, but kings of the Angles and of England, we may safely conclude that the latter had all along been the names by which the whole people and country were commonly known, and that Bede in employing them as he did only followed antecedent usage. We believe the country to have been called England, and the people and their language English, from the time of the introduction of Christianity. To the circumstances of that introduction we would trace this use of the names. The captives from Britain exposed for sale in the market-place of Rome, who first drew upon their country the attention of Gregory, afterwards pope, were Angles, as the well-known pun, “They would be not Angles, but angels, if they were but Christians, which the name of their nation and their fair appearance suggested to Gregory, may remind us. It was the Angles, therefore, that Gregory formed the desire of converting; and it was to the inhabitants of Britain considered as Angles that Augustine and his companions were some years afterwards sent as missionaries. These circumstances were enough to fix the name as the proper Christian appellation of the nation. It was that by which the people had been known to the missionaries before their arrival among them, and which the anecdote of Gregory would doubtless endear to these holy men, and to their disciples. Hence its assumption by their royal convert Ethelbert, taking, in his quality of supreme monarch, the title of Rex Anglorum, as already noticed. It
was of course also the most appropriate appellation which Bede, writing the history of the church thus planted, could employ. And although we cannot suppose that he was the first who so applied it, the constant use of it in his great work may be reasonably supposed to have had much effect in establishing its acceptation in the sense in which it had been there employed. In this way the terms England and English very soon came into universal use as the proper names of the country, the people, and the language, just as they are at this day. According to the statement of Bede, which, repeated in the Saxon Chronicle, is the only distinct account we possess of the invaders from the Continent who effected the conquest of South Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries, they consisted principally of three nations or tribes, the Jutes, the Saxons, and the Angles. (Hist. Eccles. i. 15.) In another place, however (v. 10), he mentions Frisians as being mixed with these; and there are other antient testimonies to the same effect, especially a remarkable passage in Procopius (Bell. Goth. iv. 20), where, in his account of the island under the name of Brittia, he describes it as inhabited by three nations, the Angles, the Frisones, and those of the same name with the island, the Britons ("Ayyūot re rai opingovigrai oi răvice povvuoi Bairrovic), each of which nations had a king. Sir Francis o: (Rise and Progress of the Eng. Com., pp. 41, 42) considers the name Frisians in this passage to include both the Jutes and the Angles, as well as the Frisians proper, all these apparently being alike Belgic tribes. ‘By the Frisians,’ he adds, “Hengist is deemed to be a Frisian king; and the legend of Rowena, or, as they term her, Ronix, is incorporated in their history. A better proof of affinity is to be found in the resemblance of the Frisic and Anglo-Saxon languages, which in many instances amounts to an absolute identity. But the most conclusive argument of the unity of the nations is deduced from the judgments dictated by Wulemar, and incorporated in their respective laws of the Frisians and Angles, showing thereby that they obeyed the dictates of a common legislator.” It is to be recollected, that antiently the Frisians appear to have been spread, in detached settlements, along the whole line of the coast from the Schelde to the North Sea. Down to the eighth century, what was called the Greater Friesland (or Frisia Major), then forming part of the empire of Charlemagne, extended all the way from the Schelde to the Weser. But the Frisians who passed over into Britain with the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, were most probably the Strandfrisii, or inhabitants of the small district called the Lesser Friesland (Frisia Minor), lying opposite to the isle of Northstrand, on the western coast of Schleswig. (See further upon this subject Usher, Antiq. Eccles. Brit., p. 397; and Turner, Hist. Ang. Sar. i. 306.) We may here observe that, although it ilas been commonly assumed that our present Teutonic specch was brought over by these Saxons, Angles, and other kindred tribes in the fifth and sixth centuries, there are not wanting Some writers who contend that it has been known in the island from a much earlier date. Sir John Clerk of Pennicuick was, as far as we are aware, the first who advanced the opinion that the Belgic tribes who, according to Caesar, occupied the whole or the greater part of the southern coast before the arrival of the Romans, spoke, not a Celtic, but a Teutonic dialect; in other words, a language radically the same with that brought over many ages afterwards by the Angles and Saxons. His Dissertation on the Antient Language of Britain, although written forty years before, was not published till 1782, when it appeared in the first volume of the “Bibliotheca o Britannica,’ 4to, London. Pinkerton, in his “Inquiry into the History of Scetland' (first published in 1789), claims the credit of having made the same discovery two years before he saw Sir J. Clerk's Dissertation. “It is one, he observes, ‘which in the history of no other country would have been reserved for this century, and which I will venture to say is more important to English history than any yet made, or that can be made. For it not only adds seven centuries to the history of Englishmen, as such, but will, if duly attended to, put the whole history of law, manners, antiquities, &c., in England, upon quite a new and far more interesting footing.’ Sir Francis Palgrave, in his work quoted above, also inclines to the presumption that “a dialect closely allied to the Anglo-Saxon was spoken in Britain long before the arrival of the last invaders’ (p. 27). This supposition certainly would enable us to explain some difficulties not otherwise to be easily got over, especially the remarkable fact,