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T Albert Dürer had great command of the graver, and carried his plates to a much higher degree of finish than his Italian contemporaries, as his print of ‘St. Jerome in the Room,’ as it is called, the execution of which has scarcely ever been exceeded, will sufficiently attest. To his other honours we have little hesitation in adding that of being the inventor of etching by corrosion, an art which has contributed most powerfully to the perfection of engraving. We are aware that the discovery of etching has been by some attributed to Michael Wolgemut, the master of A. HDürer, but we never heard of any etching from his hand having been seen; nor do we know of any etching by any other hand which bears date so early as the celebrated Cannon landscape, by Dürer, which is 1518; while from his own hand we have two others still earlier, viz. Christ praying ca the Mount, 1515; and the Rape of Proserpine, 1516. Ai; these were evidently performed in the very infancy of the art, before the discovery of stopping out, as it is called, an expression which will be intelligible to the reader on a reference to our account of the process of etching. On examining the etchings of Albert }. we see that they have all been corroded at one biting in ; which sufficiently explains their monotonous o: and proves that stopping out was not understood, or it would have been had recourse to, as its advantages could not have been overlooked. It is most probable that the defective and monotonous tone occasioned by the want of this knowledge is the reason that so few corroded etchings were executed by Albert Dürer, who must have been otherwise fascinated by the facilities which this mode of engraving offerel; as it is, his corroded etchings are much inferior to his other works, both on copper and wood. The principal German engravers, after Albert Dürer, are his pupil, Henry Aldegraver, together with Bartholomew and Hans Sebald Beham, Albert Altdorfer, James Bink, George Penz, Virgil Solis, &c. &c. But the history of pure German art is very short, for most of these German engravers travelled to Italy for improvement, attracted by the fame of Marc Antonio; several of them are indeed his reputed disciples; and the consequence is, that the two schools may be said to have immediately, in some measure, blended; as under the influence of Italian taste the peculiar characteristics of German art in a great measure disappeared. From the small size of most of the works produced by these German engravers, they are generally distinguished as the ‘little masters, although many large plates were executed by them. Lucas Jacobs, best known by the name of Lucas Van Leyden, was the father of the Dutch and Flemish schools, and the contemporary and friend of Albert Dürer, whose defects he fully possessed, while he fell short of his excellencies. The same vulgarity of form, and general want of grace and propriety of design, which has been noticed in the German school, is equally observable in the works of Lucas Van Leyden; while they are deficient in the spirit and firmness which characterize the works of Dürer. But notwithstanding these drawbacks he was a man of great abilities. After Lucas Van Leyden the art was maintained in the Low Countries by the Wierinxes, the Sadelers, whose works are multifarious, and embrace every class of subject; the elder and younger Jode, Cornelius, Theodore, and Philip Galle, and Abraham and Cornelius Bloemart. The latter, perhaps less actuated by the commercial spirit in which the art was at this time practised, attempted improvements with success; and by working delicate tints on the lights, which had hitherto been left only as so many white spots, he brought his works to a degree of finish and harmony not previously attained. This artist studied and indeed died at Rome, whither also Goltzius travelled for Improvement, who imparted a boldness to engraving which forms a striking contrast to the neat stiff manner of his predecessors. Goltzius was a man of great abilities, and drew the human figure admirably; but in endeavouring to avoid the dry Gothic taste of his countrymen, he went into the opposite extreme, and aiming at the sublime of Michael Angelo, took the one step beyond, and occasionally fell into the ridiculous. The same observations will apply to the works of Sprangher; and these faults were exaggerated and carried to the extreme of bombast by the disciple of Goltzius, Müller; but the freedom with which he handled the graver is truly surprising. To these succeeded Lucas Kiliian, Matham and Saenredam; and at the commencement of the seventeenth century the two Bolswerts, who had

formed their style on that of Goltzius, improved themselves under the instruction of Rubens. Etching, at this period, was practised by many of the painters in the Low Countries with great success; and we need scarcely say, that it is principally to this process tha; we are indebted for those treasures of art, the engraved works of Rembrandt: not that in his finished works he confined himself to etching; he also called in the assistance of the graver and the dry point. His etchings being very numerous, are of unequal merit; and many, the subjects of which are of a sacred or dignified nature, are debased by the vulgarity of the characters introduced: but notwithstanding these and other defects, his best works are greatly and deservedly prized, for they are inimitably fine, and possess the excellencies of the best paintings, even by his own hand, in a degree not equalled by the works of any other engraver. To mention the artists of this school from whose hands we have etchings would be to name nearly all the most eminent painters belonging to it. Berghem, Cuyp, Karel du Jardin, Paul Potter, ol. Ostade, Waterloo, Adrian Van de Veldt, with many others, have all enriched the portfolio of the collector with works of great taste and skill, Among the more professedly engravers not already noticed we must mention Count Goudt as possessing extraordinary skill, although he cultivated the art less as a profession than for pleasure. The family of the Visschers produced many and excellent works, from the pictures of various masters; and Cornelius Visscher stands particularly distinguished for the accuracy of his drawing and the fidelity with which he has rendered the character of the pictures after which he engraved. In France engraving has been practised with pre-eminent success in the departments of history and portraiture. Tue celebrity of the school dates from the time of Louis XIV.; for although several engravers had appeared before that time, it was only under the fostering influence of that monarch, assisted by the fine taste of Colbert, his minister, that a school arose surpassing in excellence any which had preceded it. The family of the Audrans produced six eminent engravers, but of these the most distinguished was Gerard Audran. He was an admirable draftsman himself; but the great excellence of his works in other respects was enhanced by the absence of all manner, except such as belonged to the painter after whom he engraved. He was the first engraver who successfully united, to any extent, the use of the graver and the etching point, and by thus availing himself of the facilities arising from the use of the aquafortis, produced numerous works of great excellence and some of prodigious size, among which we may mention the battles of Alexander, after Le Brun, each subject of the series being engraved on three or four large plates. The Abbé Fontenac remarks of him that, “far from conceiving that a servile arrangement of strokes, and the too frequently cold and affected clearness of the graver, were the great essentials of historical engraving, he gave worth to his works by a bold mixture of free hatchings and dots, placed together apparently without order, but with an inimitable degree of taste, and has left to posterity most admirable examples of the style in which grand compositions ought to be treated.” Gerard Edelinck, although born at Antwerp, may be fairly considered of the French school, and was an engraver of the highest order. In portrait Nanteuil is no less celebrated than his contemporaries: the beauty and clearness of his style has perhaps never been exceeded. The Drevets (Peter Drevet in particular) are scarcely less distinguished: nor must we omit the name of John Louis Roullet, whose engraving of the “Dead Christ with the fainting Virgin.' after Annibal Carracci, is one of the finest specimens which the art has produced. In addition we can only notice the names of Le Clerc, Simoneau, Chereau, Cochin, Dupuis, Beauvais, Balechou, Le Bas, John George Wille, &c. &c. The modern and existing French school has produced very able engravers, whose chief defect is, that, deviating from the course pursued by Gerard Audran and all the first artists, they allow that which is merely mechanical to predominate in their works; and aiming at great dexterity in the use of the graver as the chief objects, they make an ostentatious display of lines, the uniformity and regularity of which is offensive to the eye of true taste, imparting, as it often does, even to the flesh, the appearance of net-work, when viewed closely. The English school of engraving dates only from about the middle of the eighteenth century, time the arts had not flourished in o in our country, and such engravers as practised here were chiefly foreigners. With a school of painting however has arisen an assemblage of engravers in all the departments of art who may safely challenge comparison with those of any time or nation. It is true we had previously the Faithornes, Payne, and the Whites; but Hollar, Simon, and Crispin de Passe, Wallerant Vaillant, Blooteling, Gribelin, Dorigny, and Vanderbank, were all foreigners; and the principal engravings of the time were their productions. The reign of George III. was however auspicious to the arts, and since then we can boast of a numerous train of engravers whose works do honour to the country and to the painters from whose works they are engraved. One of the earliest of these was Hogarth, an artist of most original genius, whose engravings were all from his own designs, in a walk of art entirely new. Landscapes had hitherto never been engraved in a satisfactory manner, the older engravers adhering to the use of the graver only, which was inadequate to express with sufficient freedom the playful luxuriance of foliage, the ruggedness of rocks, or the dash of foaming waters. These objects were first accomplished by Francis Vivares, who was a most accomplished etcher, and may be regarded as the father of English landscape engravers, who have unquestionably surpassed all their predecessors in this department of art. Woollett followed in the same tract, carrying his landscapes very forward with the etching point, and finishing them only with the graver. His best works are unrivalled ; nor was he inferior in history, as his print of the death of General Wolfe, after West, sufficiently attests. These two artists carried landscape engraving at once to erfection. Browne may be mentioned as a worthy folower; he produced many excellent plates after the old masters, and sometimes worked in conjunction with Woollett. In history and portrait Sir Robert Strange ably vindicated the honour of the art in this country: his engraving of flesh has perhaps never been equalled, certainly never excelled by any master: his works are however often much deteriorated by his defective drawing. Mezzotinto engraving, although not strictly born among us, has been in no other country practised with a degree of success at all approaching that attained by M'Ardell, Earlom, Smith, alentine, Green, and others. Bartolozzi, Ryland, Sharpe, Paul Sandby, Middiman, Milton, Fitler, are among the most eminent of deceased engravers; and Mr. Wilson Lowry is entitled to most honourable mention as a great benefactor to the art, by the invention of the ruling-machine, an instrument of great value for many purposes, and the operation of which is perfect. At present every department of engraving is filled with artists of great abilities, any of whom it would be invidious to name to the exclusion of others: it is enough to say that their talents and their numbers have given the art a commercial importance in this country to which it never attained in any other. A modern engraving is usually the result of two processes, viz. of direct incision with the graver, or the dry point, and of etching by corrosion. These we shall proceed to explain; and first we will enumerate and point out the uses of the different implements required. The principal instrument is the graver, or burin, which differs in size and shape according to the character of the line which it is intended to produce, but the ordinary graver is of the form of a quadrangular prism, both square and lozenge-shaped, and fitted into a short handle, the whole being about five inches and a half long. The square graver is used in cutting broad lines, and the lozenge-shaped for more delicate ones. In making the incision, it is pushed forward in the direction of the line required, being held by the handle at an angle very slightly inclined to the plane of the copper. It is requisite that the graver be well tempered, and great address is necessary in whetting it for use. The angle at the meeting of the two lower sides of the graver forms what is called its belly, and the breadth of the end is called its face. The two sides which form the belly are to be laid flat upon the oil-stone, and rubbed firmly until the belly slightly rises, so that if it were laid flat upon the copper the light could be seen underneath the point; otherwise it would be impos. sible to use it with freedom, as it would dig unequally deep into the copper. The face is next to be whetted, which is done merely by laying the face of the graver flat upon the stone, with the belly upward, and rubbing it steadily upon C., No. 586.

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a moderate slope until it acquires a very sharp point, taking care that the stone be properly supplied with oil all the while. The gravers o in the shops are commonly too hard for use, which is known by the frequent breaking of their points; when this is the case they should be tempered by holding them on a red-hot poker, at a distance of half an inch from the point, until they acquire a faint straw colour; they should then be put into oil to cool; or they may be tempered in a candle and cooled in the tallow. But it is best not to be hasty in tempering; for if the graver is only a little too hard, whetting alone will frequently bring it into good condition. An instrument called a scraper is required to scrape off the barb or burr which is formed by the action of the graver and dry point. The burnisher is used to polish the plate and to erase any scratches which it may accidentally receive, and also to make lighter any part of the work which may have been made too dark. An oil-stone is requisite for sharpening the instruments upon. Etching-points or needles are nearly similar in appearance to sewing-needles, but fixed into handles four or five inches long; some are made of an oval form, to produce broader lines with : their use will be explained when we are describing the process of etching. Dry point is, in fact, nothing more than the common etching-needle, brought to a very fine point. It is used to cut or scratch the more delicate lines with, such as skies, &c. &c. It does not, like the grayer, cut the copper clean out, but throws it up on each side of the line produced by its progress through the metal: this is called the burr, which is removed by a scraper. This burr was left on by Rembrandt, until it wore away in the progress of printing, which it soon does; but by his management it added greatly to the effect of the etching, and impressions from his works with the burr on are j, valued. A cushion is a bag of leather filled with sand; its use is to support the plate so that it may be freely turned in any required direction; but it is not now much used by artists, being chiefly confined to engravers of writing. Å rubber is a roll of cloth tied up tight, one end being kept in olive oil. It is useful to polish off more completely the burr and also to show the appearance of the work as it proceeds. Etching is one of the greatest improvements in modern art, almost all plates, of every size and description being now commenced by this process, and indeed brought by it to a very considerable effect, and afterwards carried on to the necessary degree of finish and strength with the graver and dry point. Etching is the superaddition of the chemical process of corrosion to drawing, when performed on a plate of copper over which a substance called etchingground is laid, and through which the design is traced with an etching-needle, so as to expose the surface of the copper wherever it has passed. This etching-ground is a substance composed of wax, asphaltum, gum Inastic, resin, &c. incor porated by melting over a fire, and capable of resisting the action of aquafortis. The laying of the ground, as it is called, is thus effected:—The plate must be heated over a charcoal fire, so that it may not be smoked. For this purpose a hand-vice is fixed to the most convenient part of the plate, by which it may be held in the hand. A piece of the etching-ground, rolled into the form of a ball, and tied up in a little silk bag, is then rubbed over the surface of the plate, the heat of which causes the ground to melt and come through the silk on to the copper. In order to effect a more equal distribution of the wax, a small dabber made of cotton wool, tied up in a piece of taffety, is quickly dabbed all over the face of the plate while yet warm, so as to leave the wax or etching-ground of uniform thickness; the ground is then rendered black, by being held over the smoke of a wax candle, or, if necessary, two or three wax candles tied together, care being taken to move the plate about, so that it be equally smoked all over; and this operation of smoking must be commenced before the plate has had time to cool. The whole operation of laying the ground requires address and dexterity. When cold, the plate is now ready to receive the design. To transfer the design to the copper, an outline is made with a black-lead pencil on a piece of thinnish and even paper, and laid with the face downwards on the etching-ground; the whole is then passed through a rolling-press, the effect of which is to transfer an impression of the outline on to the smoked ground. After this the design is completed with the etching needles, which remove the ground from the copper wherever they pass, and expose it to the action of the acid during the process of Vol. IX.-3. L.

biting in, which is thus performed:—A substance called banking war, which when cold is quite hard, but which on immersion in warm water becomes soft, and may be moulded into any form, is first rendered soft by being so immersed in warm water, and then banked up all round the margin of the plate, so as to form a trough capable ofI. the escape of the acid, a gutter only being formed at one corner for the purpose of pouring it off when requisite. This being done, the nitrous acid, reduced with water to the proper strength, is poured on, and its action on the copper becomes visible by the rising of innumerable bubbles. The aquafortis must be allowed to continue on the plate until the fainter parts are supposed to be corroded sufficiently deep; after which it is to be poured off, the plate washed with water and left to dry. The parts which are bitten-in enough, are now to be covered with what is called stopping-ground, which is a mixture of lamp-black and Venice turpentine; this is applied with a camel-hair pencil, and allowed to dry. After this the acid is again poured on, and this process of stopping-out and biting-in, is repeated until even the darkest parts are sufficiently corroded. After this the plate is again warmed, when the border of wax may be readily taken off. It is then made warm enough to melt the ground, which is removed by being wiped with a rag and a few drops of olive oil. The work is now complete, unless it is intended to finish it still further with the graver. We might here offer rules for the strength of the acid, and state the length of time it ought to remain on the plate, but we are convinced of the inefficacy of such instructions. Nothing but experience joined to some chemical knowledge of the effect of the acid will avail the artist on this point, which requires the greatest nicety and attention. Etching on soft ground is a mode of etching formerly much in use, by which imitations of drawings in chalk and pencil were produced. It is now superseded by lithography, which is more successful in attaining the same objects. Soft ground etching is quite a distinct process from Engraving in stipple, as practised by Bartolozzi, Ryland, and others, in imitation of chalk drawings of the human figure. Stipple is performed with the graver, which is so managed as to produce the tints by small dots, rather than by lines, as in the ordinary method. It is very soft in its effect, but is on the whole much inferior to the more legitimate mode of engraving. Engraving on steel and etching on steel are performed in the same manner as on copper, for which steel has of late years been often substituted on account of its yielding a greater number of perfect impressions, owing to its superior hardness. Medallic engraving is a species of etching lately practised by M. Collas and Mr. Bate. By this mode very beautiful representations are obtained of medals, &c., by means of a machine of peculiar construction, the principle of which is known; but minor inventions for the purpose of counteracting certain local tendencies to inaccuracy in the machine have been hitherto kept secret. For account of engraving on stone, see LITHoGRAPHY ; and for engraving in mezzotinto, see MEzzotinto. Etching on glass is performed by laying on the glass a round of bees’ wax, and drawing the design thereon with the needle, as in etching upon copper. Sulphuric acid is then poured on, and fluor spar, or fluoric acid, sprinkled on it. After four or five hours it is taken off, and the work cleaned with oil of turpentine. ENGROSSING ; copying in a large hand; the writing a deed over fair, and in proper legible characters; from the French grossir, to make bigger. Among lawyers it more particularly means the copying of any writing fair upon parchment or stamped paper. In statute-law engrossing means the purchasing of large quantities of any commodity, in order to sell it again at a high price. (“An Inquiry into the Laws, antient and modern, respecting Forestalling, Regrating, and Ingrossing: together with adjudged Cases, Copies of original Records, and Proceedings in Parliament relative to that subject:' by William Illingworth, 8vo., Lond, 1800.) ENHARMON'IC, the third in order of the three genera of antient music. The enharmonic genus of the Greeks was distinguished by quarter tones, while the modern scale admits these small intervals theoretically only, not practically, except by a fiction. Thus c sharp and D flat are with the moderns practically the same note, at least on keyed instruments, though, strictly, the former is # of the

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ENHYDRA. [OTTER. ENIGMA. {4}.} ENLISTMENT, an engagement to serve as a private soldier either during an unlimited period or for a certain number of years, on receipt of a sum of money. Enlistment differs from enrolment, inasmuch as it is a voluntary act, whereas the latter is, under some circumstances, rendered compulsory: as in the case of men who are selected by ballot for the militia in this country, or by the conscription, for military service generally, on the continent. The practice of impressing men to serve as soldiers, on sudden emergencies, was formerly very common in England; and it is well known that within the last half century young men were entrapped and secretly conveyed away to recruit the armies employed in the east. The discovery of this illegal and disgraceful method of obtaining soldiers was speedily followed by its abolition; and now, the East India Company's troops, as well as those of the regular army, are obtained by voluntary engagement. The number of young men who are induced to enlist by the ambition of entering upon a course of life which appears to hold out a prospect of distinguishing themselves by gallant achievements in the field is, however, too small for the wants of the military service; and the allurement of a bounty must necessarily be presented in order that the ranks of the army may be filled. But the profession of a soldier can never possess such advantages as might induce an industrious man who can obtain a subsistence in another way to embrace it; and it is to be regretted that too frequently those who enter the service are thoughtless youths or men of indolent habits or desperate fortunes. Some attention, however, to the character of a person offering himself for enlistment is necessary if it be desired to render the service honourable; for it is found that idle and dissipated men are with difficulty brought to submit to the necessary restraints of discipline; their frequent desertions entail heavy losses on the government, and they often corrupt those who are compelled to associate with them. When circumstances render it necessary to enlist such men, it is obvious that they ought to be distributed in small numbers among different regiments, and quartered in places remote from those from which they were taken. By the 34th elause of the Mutiny Act, every person who has received enlisting-money from any military man employed in the recruiting service is considered as having enlisted; but within forty-eight hours afterwards notice is to be given to the recruit, or left at his place of abode, of his having so enlisted; and again, within four days from the time of receiving the money, the recruit, attended by any person employed as above-said, is to appear before a magistrate (not being a military man), when, if he declare that he has voluntarily enlisted, the magistrate is to question him concerning his name, age, and condition, and particularly to inquire of him whether he is then serving, or whether he have ever served, in the army or navy. The magistrate is then to read to the recruit the articles of war relating to mutiny and desertion, and administer to him an oath of allegiance, of which a form is given in a schedule to the act: if the recruit refuse to take the oath, he may be imprisoned till he do so. But as the young and simple have been sometimes inveigled by illusory promises, or persuaded, while deprived of judgment by intoxication, to enlist, if a recruit, on reflection, wish to withdraw from the engagement into which he may have been surprised, it is provided by the 35th clause of the Mutiny Act that when taken before the magistrate as above he shall be at liberty to declare his dissent from such enlistment; on making which declaration and returning the enlisting-money, with 20s, in addition for the charges which may have been incurred on his account, he shall be forthwith discharged. But if he omit within twenty-four hours after so declaring his dissent to pay such money, he is to be considered as enlisted, as if he had given his assent before the magistrate. If a recruit, after receiving the enlistment-money, and, after notice of having enlisted has been left at his place of abode, shall abscond, he may be apprehended and punished as a deserter, or for being absent without leave ; and if it be discovered that he is unfit for active service, in consequence of any infirmity which he had not declared before the magistrate, he may be transferred to any garrison, or veteran or invalid battalion, though he may have enlisted for some particular regiment. If it be proved that the recruit concealed the fact of his being a discharged soldier, he may be sentenced to suffer punishment as a rogue or vagabond; and if, at the time of enlisting, he falsely denied being in the militia, he may be committed to the house of correction for a period not exceeding six months; and, from the day in which his engagement to serve in the militia ends, he is to be deemed a soldier in the regular forces. An apprentice who shall enlist denying himself to be such is deemed guilty of obtaining money under false pretences; and, after the expiration of his apprenticeship, he is liable to serve in her Majesty's forces; but a master is not entitled to claim an apprentice who may have enlisted unless the claim be made within one month after the apprentice shall have left his service. In the third clause of the Mutiny Act it is stated that no man enlisted as a soldier is liable to be arrested on account of any process for leaving a wife or child chargeable to a parish, or on account of any engagement to work for an employer (except that of an apprenticeship), or on account of any debt under 30l. And in the 39th clause it is declared that Negroes, purchased on account of the crown and serving in any of the regular forces, are deemed to be free, and are considered as soldiers having voluntarily enlisted. Every military officer acting contrary to the provisions of the Mutiny Act, in what regards enlisting recruits, is liable to be cashiered. During the reign of Queen Anne it was the custom to enlist recruits for three years; but this period seems too short, considering the time unavoidably spent in training the men, to afford the government an advantage adequate to the expense of maintaining them; and the present practice is to enlist either for an unlimited period, as during the continuance of a war, or for certain defined numbers of years which vary in the different classes of troops. For the infantry the period is seven years; for the cavalry ten years, and for the artillery twelve years; but if the person enlisting be under eighteen years of age, the difference between his age and eighteen years is added to each period. The enlistments for the Honourable East India Company's service are also for unlimited periods, or for twelve years, provided the recruit be not less than eighteen years of agre. "The advantages of a limited period of service are, that a greater number of recruits are obtained under that condition, probably because men are more willing to engage themselves for a certain number of years than for life ; and that, during the period, opportunities are afforded of discovering the character of a man. Should this be such as to render it not advisable to retain him, he may be discharged at the end of his time of service; while an additional bounty, strengthened by the unwillingness of most men to leave the comrades with whom they have been long accustomed to associate, will probably induce a good soldier to re-enlist should the continuance of his services be desired. By an act passed in 1835 a man is allowed to enlist in the navy for a period not exceeding five years, after which he is entitled to his discharge and to be sent home, if abroad, unless the commanding officer should conceive his departure to be detrimental to the service; such officer is then empowered to detain the man six months longer, or until the emergency shall cease, in which case the man is entitled, during such extra service, to receive an increase of pay amounting to one-fourth of that which he receives according to his rating. At the end of his time of service a seaman may re-enlist for a like period, and he will then be allowed the same bounty


as at first. Seamen entering as volunteers within six days after a royal proclamation calling for the services of such men receive double bounty. In the year 1819 was passed that which is called the Foreign Enlistment Act, by which British subjects are forbidden to engage in foreign service without license from the crown: this is that act which is yearly suspended in favour of the troops now (1837) employed in the service of the queen of Spain. Lastly, a bill has recently passed, confirming the act of 55 Geo. III., by which her majesty is empowered to grant the rank of field and general officers to foreigners; and to allow foreigners to enlist and serve as non-commissioned officers and soldiers in the British service in the proportion of one foreigner for every fifty natural born subjects. ENNIS, the assize town of the county of Clare in Ireland; situated in the barony of Islands on the west bank of the river Fergus, about three miles above the small town of Clare, at which place this river is navigable. [CLARE.] The direct distance from Dublin is 136 English miles. The borough, as settled under the Boundary Act, embraces 469 statute acres, and comprises 1390 tenements, of which 564 only are slated houses. It is incorporated by charter of the 10th January, and returns one member to the Imperial Parliament. The corporation, consisting of provost and free burgesses, is virtually extinct. The name of the place was originally Ennis Cluainruadha, so called from Clonroad, a favourite dwelling-place here of the O'Briens, Lords of Thomond. In 1240 Donogh Carbrac O'Brien built a monastery at Ennis for Franciscan friars, the erection of which probably gave origin to the town. It was repaired in 1305 by Turlogh MacTiege, and destroyed in 1306 by Dermot Mac Donogh, both of the same family. The ruins are still standing. Ennis consists of two chief streets, one parallel to the Fergus, over which are three bridges, and one diverging towards Kilrush. Near the latter are the county gaol and court-house, the only buildings of consequence in the town. The suburbs consist of wretched cabins. There is no police, neither is Ennis watched, lighted, or regularly cleansed. There are no manufactures; but there is a moderate trade in grain and cattle. In 1821 the population of Ennis was 6701; and in 1831 it was 771 l; the total population within the boundary of the borough in the latter year was 97.27. In the parish of Drumcliffe, in which Ennis is situated, there were, in 1834, 21 schools educating 772 males and 428 females. Of these schools, four were Sunday-schools, seven were hedge-schools, and one was in connection with the National Board of Education. (Statistical Survey of Clare; Parliamentary Reports and Papers.) ENNISCORTHY, a borough town in the baronies of Scarewalsh and Ballaghkeen in the county of Wexford in Ireland; situated about 12 English miles above Wexford on both banks of the river Slaney, which is here navigable for sloops. The direct distance from Dublin is about 57 English miles. Enniscorthy was incorporated by charter of the 11th James I. The corporation consists of a portreeve and 11 burgesses. The portreeve holds a court once a week with jurisdiction to the amount of 31.6s. 8d. late Irish currency. The corporation has no revenue. The boundary is very irregular and extends in some directions two and three miles from the town. Enniscorthy took its origin as a town from the erection of a castle here by Raymond le Gros, one of the early Anglo-Norman conquerors, about the end of the twelfth century. Gerald de Prendergast, another Anglo-Norman noble, founded a monastery here for Augustinian friars about 1230; and Donnell Cavanagh, an Irish potentate, founded a Franciscan convent for friars of the strict observance in 1460. On the dissolution of religious houses, the possessions of the Augustinians were granted to Edmund Spenser, the poet, and those of the Franciscans to Lord Henry Wallop. Some ruins of both edifices still remain. The castle also is still standing and in good preservation. It consists of a square keep flanked by round towers, and stands at the west end of the bridge, on the bank of the Slaney, opposite the remains of the Franciscan convent. Enniscorthy was taken by Cromwell in 1649, and was stormed and burned by the Irish rebels in 1798. On the latter occasion it is said that 478 dwelling-houses were destroyed. In the immediate neighbourhood is Vinegar-hill, the scene of a sanguinary engagement in the latter year. [WExFord.]

Enniscorthy is at present a thriving and handsome town. It has a very considerable trade in grain with Wexford. The population of that part of the town which lies in the barony of Scarewalsh, in 1821, was 3557; and in 1831 was 4375. The population of the entire town as situated in the baronies of Scarewalsh and Ballaghkeen was in the latter year 5955. In 1834 there were in the parishes of St. Mary's, Enniscorthy, and Templeshannon, in which the town is situated, 13 schools educating 499 males and 469 females. Of these schools that attached to the nunnery of Enniscorthy educates 230 females. (Brewer's Beauties of Ireland; Inglis's Ireland in 1834; Parliamentary Reports, &c.) ENNISKILLEN, the assize town of the county of Fermanagh in Ireland; situated in the baronies of Tyrkennedy and Magheraboy, on an island in the narrow channel which connects the upper and lower lakes of Loch Erne. The direct distance from Dublin is about 87 English miles. The antient borough comprises the island of Enniskillen, the site of the castle excepted: under the Boundary Act the borough now includes the two suburbs which are situated north-east and south-west of the island, in the parishes of Enniskillen and Rossory respectively. Prior to the plantation of Ulster, the only building on the island of Enniskillen was a small fortalice of the Maguires, which came into the hands of the English during the last rebellion of Tyrone in 1602. The town was altogether the work of the Protestant settlers introduced by the new patentees. [FERMANAGH.] It was erected into a corporation while still in its infancy in 1612; but had increased so far as to cover the greater part of the island in 1641, when, through the exertion of Sir William Cole, it proved a most important asylum for the Protestants on that border of Ulster. In the subsequent war of the Revolution the inhabitants of Enniskillen were among the first to take decided measures against the government of James II., having refused admission to two companies of the Roman Catholic army sent thither by Tyrconnell, and immediately chose Sir Gustavus Hamilton their governor, and proclaimed William and Mary. Throughout the contest which ensued, the local levies of Enniskillen and its neighbourhood did excellent service; particularly in their defeat of Lord Galmoy, before Crom Castle, and in the battle of Newtown-Butler or Lismaskea, where, under the command of Wolsey, they routed the army of Macarthy advancing to the siege of the town with a slaughter of nearly 3000 Irish. Their exploits have been recorded in Hamilton's ‘Actions of the Enniskilleners.” The corporation consists of a portreeve and 14 free burgesses, but does not exercise any civil or criminal jurisdiction. The annual revenue is 5961. 10s. 9d., arising chiefly from tolls: the expenditure 595l. 2s. Enniskillen is not watched or lighted. The principal road through the town is repaired at the expense of the county. Enniskillen is well built and beautifully situated. Two bridges connect the island, which is covered to the water's edge with the buildings of the town and its defences, with the suburbs on each side. The country around swells into highly cultivated eminences; and numerous seats of gentry occupy the shores of the lake above and below. There is a brisk retail trade in the supply of those comforts required by the superior order of farmers who occupy the neighbouring districts, and everything wears a prosperous and decent appearance, which contrasts very strongly with the wretchedness of other towns lying but a short distance farther south. Three newspapers are published in Enniskillen, which in 1835 used 26,600 stamps. From its position, commanding the only pass into Ulster within a distance of 50 Irish miles, Enniskillen is a place of considerable military importance. In 1821 the population of Enniskillen was about 4399; and in 1831 the entire town contained 6056 inhabitants, and the borough 6116. In 1834 there were in the parishes of Enniskillen and Rossory 50 schools, educating 1186 males and 728 females. Of these schools three were in connection with the National Board of Education, nine were Sunday-schools, and fifteen were hedge-schools. The

royal school of Enniskillen is supported by the estates of

the foundation. The head master receives 500l. yearly, a house, and 33 acres of land; the assistants receive 350l. yearly ; and 400l. is annually divided among ten scholars of the house; 4.1 males were receiving instruction here in ? 834. Enniskillen is represented in the Imperial Parliament by

one member. (Cox's History of Ireland; Leland's do., Inglis's Ireland in 1834; Reports, &c.) E'NNIUS, QUINTUS, the old epic poet of Rome, was born at Rudiae, now Ruge, in Calabria, in the year 239 B.C., two years after the termination of the first Punic war. He was a Greek by birth, and is one among many instances how much Roman literature was indebted even directly to foreign talent. History does not inform us what his original Greek name was, for that of Ennius is evidently of i. form, and was probably adopted by him when he was admitted to the privileges of a Roman citizen. Of his early life little is positively known. He entered the military service of the Romans, and in the year 204 was serving as a centurion in the island of Sardinia, where his abilities attracted the notice of Cato, who was then acting as quaestor under the first Scipio Africanus. When Cato left the island, the poet accompanied him to Rome, and fixed his residence on the Aventine hill. The introduction of Cato, his military character, and his poetical abilities, won for him the friendship and intimacy of the first men of Rome, and he was largely instrumental in introducing letters among a nobility who had hitherto gloried as much in their ignorance as their courage. Cato himself learned Greek from him. Scipio Africanus found in him a companion in peace and the herald of his glories in war. Scipio Nasica, the son of Africanus, delighted in his society; and M. Fulvius Nobilior, the consul, 189 B.C., himself possessing a high literary character, prevailed on the soldier-poet to accompany him in the war against the AEtolians. It was to the son of this Fulvius that he was indebted for his admission to the citizenship of Rome. His great social qualities unfortunately led him into intemperance, for which he paid the penalty in great sufferings from gout. Still a hardy constitution enabled him to complete his seventieth year, and to the very last to devote himself to his favourite muses. He died in the year 169, and was buried in the Cornelian sepulchre, one mile out of Rome, on the Appian road, where his statue still appeared with those of Publius and Lucius Scipio, even in the age of Livy, a lasting monument of his intimacy with those great men. He lived, as we have already said, in the splendid dawn of Roman literature. Naevius, the first poet of Rome, and Livius Andronicus were his predecessors by not many years. The tragic poet Pacuvius was his sister's son. Plautus was his contemporary, and the comic writer Caecilius his companion in arms. The writings of Ennius were numerous and various. His great work called, somewhat unpoetically, by the name of Annals was an historical epic in eighteen books, written in hexameter verse, a form of metre which he is said to have been the first to introduce into Roman literature. This work traced the history of Rome from the mythical age of Æneas down to his own time. His labours in tragedy were extensive. . He gave the Romans a translation, but evidently a very free one, of the Eumenides of AEschylus, the Medea, Iphigenia in Aulis, and Hecuba of Euripides, the Ajax Flagellifer of Sophocles, besides as many as nineteen from other Greek Toets. He also wrote comedies. His other works were Phagetica, a poem on gastronomy, especially on the merits of fishes; an epic, or panegyric, entitled Scipio; a metrical translation from a philosophic work of Epicharmus, partly in dactylic hexameters, partly in trochaic tetrameters; poems entitled Asotus, §. Protreptica, and Praecepta; also satires, epigrams, and acrostics; and a prose translation of the sacred history of Euemerus. Of all these works there is only an unconnected mass of fragments collected from quotations in Cicero and other writers. The work entitled Annals was for a long time the national epic of Roman literature, and Virgil has not scrupled to borrow freely from it. The best edition of Ennius is that by Hesselius, 4to, Amsterdam, 1707. ENNUI, a French word adopted of late into the English language, signifies mental lassitude or languor, produced either by depression of spirits or satiety of enjoyment, or over excitement, and which leaves no relish for any mental pursuits or pleasures. ‘Mourir d'ennui' is a French phrase, which means that the mind sinks under this kind of depression, without any apparent cause of either misfortune or grief. Persons in the upper ranks of society who have pursued a life of dissipation, or who have lived much in what is called the fashionable world, are often subject to this complaint. Madame du Deffand used to complain bitterly of ennui. Ennui in French means care, or dis

appointment in general; and a tiresome person is often

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