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called ennuyeux or ennuyant. The word “moja' in Italian answers to the French ennul. ENOCH, the Book of, is one of the Hebrew Scriptures which, with the book of Wisdom, of Tobit, Judith, Maccabees, and several others, were designated Apocryphal, that is, hidden books (BióAot 'Aróxpvpot,) from the fact that, after the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem by the Romans, the Jews having established at Tiberias their sacred archives, called by the Greek Fathers Gazophylakia (IașopvXária), they there concealed in a cell, under the seal of their patriarch, such books as it was considered expedient to withdraw from public inspection. (Epiphanius, Haeres, 30, § 6 and 4.) The Scriptures deemed canonical were here deposited in a new ark, called the Aron ('Apwy), or ark of the Covenant (Čua0ñrmc ris8wröc), but the holy books (äytóypaea), which were not included in this chest, and which, about the close of the first century, were suppressed by the Jews, and thus concealed, were thence called the Apocrypha ('Atrákov pot). It is stated that the use which was made of some of these scriptures by the zealous advocates of Christianity occasioned an anxiety among the Jews to hide them, and that the predictions of the Messiah in the book of Enoch were considered to be so obvious that it was on this account concealed. (See on this point Pezron, “L’Antiquité des Tems défendue,’ 4to, p. 430.) During the apostolic age the book of Enoch was commonly read by Jews and Christians. St. Jude, in his catholic epistle, cites it as the work of a divine prophet (“Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied, saying,’ &c., v. 14, 15,) so Tertullian (De Idolatria) refers it to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit: however, in another treatise (De Cultu Foeminarum) he states that by some it was not received. Irenaeus, Jerome, and other Fathers, respectfully notice it, though not as canonical; and Origen (contra Celsum, lib. v.) observes that, in his time, it was not of great authority in the churches, which Pezron attributes to the fact mentioned by Syncellus (Chronographia), that it was maliciously corrupted by the Jews and Christian heretics. Whiston published in 1727 a learned Dissertation to prove it to be quite as canonical as any book to Which that epithet is applied. In the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, translated by Robert Grotshead, bishop of Lincoln, the sons of Jacob speak often of reading in the book of Enoch. It was extant among Christian writers until the eighth century, when it appears to have been lost. Several fragments however remained, which, with a few citations collected from the Fathers and succeeding writers, supplied the only data for the critical discussions of learned divines during several centuries. All these relics, amounting to about 20, are inserted in the “Codex Pseudopigraphus Vet. Test. of Fabricius, tom. i. p. 160–224. At the end of the 18th century Bruce brought from Abyssinia three complete and beautiful copies of the book of Enoch, in the Ethiopic language, one of which he presented to the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris, and another to the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Transcriptions and partial translations into Latin were made by Dr. Woide of Oxford and Dr. Gesenius of Halle; but the Ethiopic MS., which at first excited much curiosity, lay undisturbed during more than a quarter of a century, until the professor of Hebrew at Oxford, Dr. Lawrence, broke in, as he informs us, upon its repose, and published in 1826 an English version of the whole, entitled ‘The Book of Enoch the Prophet, supposed for ages to be lost; translated from an Ethiopic MS. by the Rev. Richard Lawrence, LL.D., archbishop of Cashel. A second and revised edition appeared in 1833. That this book is identical with that which, in the primitive ages of Christianity, was cited by Jude and the Fathers, is considered by Dr. Lawrence to be completely evident. His

critical prolegomena and notes are incorporated in a more.

recent translation into German, which is accompanied with a much larger mass of learned researches, forming two thick volumes 8vo. (“Das Buch Henoch, in vollständiger tibersetzung mit fortläufenden Commentar, ausführlicher einleitung und erläuternden excursen, von Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann, Doct. Philos. Profess. Theol. an der Univers. zu Jena,’ 1833.) As the allegorical statements of the book, as far as any meaning is clearly assignable, appear to relate to historical events which extend to the time of Herod the Great, it is supposed by those who reject the supposition of its being the antediluvian production of Enoch himself that it was anonymously written in Hebrew, shortly before the commencement of the Chris

tian aera. (Scaliger and Lawrence.) The subject matter consists chiefly of relations of Enoch's prophetical and celestial visions, in the most remarkable of which the angel Uriel (lxx. et seq.) shows to the prophet all the mysterious scenes in heaven, including a survey and explanation of the solar and lunar revolutions according to the antient astroloical theory. A view is also exhibited of the interior of hell. §...; religious and moral precepts are enjoined, but all sense of propriety is continually shocked with such preposterous .. that Scaliger, judging merely from the fragments then possessed, scrupled not to designate the book as a tissue of disgusting lies and nonsense. (Scaligeriana.) It commences with some historical statements of which the following, from chap. 7, is a specimen :- To the sons of men were born elegant and beautiful daughters, and when the angels, the sons of heaven, beheld them, they became enamoured of them, saying to each other, Come, let us select wives for ourselves and beget children.’ Accordingly a band of 200 angels having descended on Mount Arnon, and sworn to accomplish this project, “they then took wives, each choosing for himself; with whom they cohabited, teaching them sorcery and incantations; and the women conceiving, brought forth giants whose stature was each three hundred cubits (550 feet): these, when they had devoured all the produce of man's labour, began to devour men, birds, beasts, and fishes, eating their flesh and drinking their blood.’ In representing persons and events by animals and inanimate objects of nature, combinations are introduced of such a monstrous nature, that, in comparison, the metamorphoses of the Pagan mythologies appear to be rational. The history of the prophet to whom this book is attributed, or rather whose visions it relates, is briefly recounted as follows, in Genesis v. 18–24:-Jared at the age of 162 begat Enoch, who at the age of 65 begat Methuselah, and afterwards walked with God 300 years, and begat sons and daughters. All the days of Enoch were 365 years; he walked with God, and was not, for God took him. (Compare Ecclesiasticus xliv, 16; Heb. xii. 5.) From the fact of his being the seventh from Adam, from the number of the years of his age being precisely the number of days in the year, and from several other points of curious coincidence, the sceptical Boulanger asserts, in a learned treatise on the subject (Enoch, in CEuvres Diverses), that the name is but a variation of the Phrygian Annac, a symbolical personification in Sabism, representing the solar period; and identical with the Oriental Anusch, the Phoenician Anac or Enac, the Etruscan Anus, and the Latin Janus. The names of the seven patriarchs, Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, and Enoch, are etymologically resolved into mythical symbols of the seven planets, that is, the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jove, Venus, and Saturn. The translation of Enoch has also been compared with the antient mysterious burial at sunrise of noble and comely youths who prematurely died. (Eustathius, Comment. in Odyss, tom. iii, p. 1527, § 51, ed. Rom., 1549.) . They were said to have been not really dead, but carried up alive to the region of light in consequence of their being loved by the Supreme Being. The story of Ganymede is an instance. (See the learned disquisition on the subject in Montfaucon's Retigion des Gaulois, tom. ii. p. 305, &c., and in his Earplicution des Tertes difficiles, tom. i. p. 332.) Hence the wellknown axiom, “He whom the Gods love dies young.’ (Plutarch, De Consolatione Philosoph.) ENROLMENT, in law, is the registering, recording, or entering a deed, judgment, recognizance, acknowledgment, &c., in the Chancery, or any other of the superior or inferior courts being a court of record. But the enrolling of a deed does not make it a record, though it thereby becomes a deed recorded; for there is a difference between a matter of record and a thing recorded to be kept in memory; a record being the entry of judicial proceedings in a court of record; whereas an enrolment of a deed is the private act of the parties concerned, of which the court takes no judicial notice. Various statutes have directed instruments to be enrolled, as the 27th Henry VIII. c. 16, relating to deeds of bargain and sale of freehold lands; and the 53rd George III. c. 141, relating to memorials of annuities, &c. All deeds also relating to property in the counties of York and Middlesex are registered in the register-offices, there established by statute. Wills affecting lands should, by the direction of the statutes, be registered both in Middlesex and Yorkshire, and also at Kingston-upon-Hull. A bill to establish a general register has several times within

the last five years been introduced into parliament, but hitherto without success, owing chiefly to the opposition of the landed interest. ENS (river). [Austri A, p. 136.] ENS, the PROVINCES of the, constitute the archduchy of Austria, which, with Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Görz, Trieste, part of Istria, the Tyrol, and Vorarlberg, form what are denominated the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria. The archduchy is divided into the two }. of the Lower and Upper Ens, commonly called wer and Upper Austria, has altogether an area of about 14,881 English square miles, and about 2,147,000 inhabitants (in 1827, 2,075,335), and contains 52 towns and 12, 143 market and other villages. Lower Austria is the most antient possession of the house of Austria, and was acquired by conquest from the Avari in the year 796. Charlemagne, who subjected it, formed it into a margraviate; it became a Bavarian fief, and so continued until Count Leopold of Babenberg was recognised as its independent possessor in 944. It continued in the possession of the princes of Babenberg, who added Upper Austria to it, and raised the whole into a duchy, until Ottokar, king of Bohemia, expelled them in the middle of the thirteenth century. In 1276, however, Rudolph of Habsburg wrested the duchy out of his hands, and his descendants have remained in possession of it to the present day. They assumed the title of archdukes in 1359, but were not recognized as such until the year 1453. The province of the Lower ENs, or Low ER Austria, lies nearly in the centre of the Austrian dominions, on both sides of the Danube, between 47° 26' and 49° 0' N. lat., and 14° 26' and 17° 1' E. long. It is the eastern portion of the archduchy, and its boundaries are, on the north, Bohemia and Moravia; the east, Hungary; the south, Styria; and the west, Upper Austria. According to the new admeasurement made by the quarter-master-general's department, the area of this province, which is very little less than Wales, is 725.1 English square miles, of which 365) are on the northern, and 3600 on the southern bank of the Danube. The subdivisions are as under:—

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The Lower Ens is walled in both on the north and south by ranges of mountains. A branch of the Noric Alps, of limestone formation, not only occupies its southern districts, but spreads its branches over the whole country south of the Danube, with the exception of the most eastern parts. Its most elevated points are the Schneeberg, in the southwest of the Lower Wienerwald, which has two peaks, the Alpengipfel (Alpine peak), 7383 feet, and the Grosser Riese (great giant), 7331 feet high; the Goeller, 6327 feet, in the southern extremity of the same circle, and the Wecksel, in the same quarter, 6203 feet. A series of wooded heights, denominated the Wiener Wald (Vienna Forest), separate the Upper from the Lower Circles of the W. and run from south-west to north-east. On the left bank of the Danube, and throughout the western and nearly the whole of the eastern districts of the northerly portion of the Lower Ens, the Bohemian and Moravian chains of the great Sudetsh range extend their last offsets in all directions until they subside in the valley of the Danube. A succession of these heights, called the Mannhart group, and running from north to south, divide the Upper from the Lower Mannhart circles, and give their name to them. The most elevated point in this quarter is the Yauerling, close to that river, in the south of the Upper Mannhartsberg circle, which is 3330 feet high. In the northern and eastern parts of the Lower Mannhartsberg circle the ranges of hills are of inferior height. The Cetian mountains on the right bank of the Danube are connected with the Noric Alps. Many of these chains are densely wooded; others are entirely naked. The most extensive forests are the Wiener (Vienna), Ernstbrunn, Hochleiten, and Mannhart; the line of the first of these divides the Lower from the Upper Wienerwald circle. It is estimated that the area occupied by the mountains of the Lower Ens is at least one-third of its whole surface:

they are furrowed by numberless valleys, which give the province a beautifully varied and picturesque appearance. The fine valley of the Danube spreads out on both banks of the river in a continuous level from Korneuburg as far as Krems, and the greater part of the streams which water the Lower Ens discharge themselves into that river. The Danube itself traverses the province from west to east for about 156 miles, entering it a little to the north-east of Neustádtel, and quitting it between Hainburg and Theben, which latter town is within the Hungarian borders. Between those towns it has a fall of more than 510 feet (450 Vienna feet), and its current is accordingly so rapid that it flows beneath St. Sophia's bridge, in Vienna, at the rate of nine feet per second. Its breadth across the island of Lobau, close to Vienna, is 3050 Vienna fathoms (18,986 English feet): but in some parts, particularly below Marbach and at Thalern below Krems, its channel is so narrowed by the high lands that it rushes forwards with a violence which, in former times, rendered the navigation extremely perilous. The tributaries of the Danube, so far as the Lower Ens is concerned, are of no great length or volume of water. On the right bank are the Ens, Ips, Erlaf, Billach, Trasen or Traisen, Schwechat, great Fischa, and Leitha: all these streams flow down from the Alpine mountains in the southerly districts of the Lower Ens, and are remarkable for the green colour of their waters; the great Fischa has also the peculiar characteristics of seldom varying in the body of its water and never freezing. The Danube, on its left bank, receives the Krems, which irrigates the south of the Upper Mannhartsberg circle, flowing through the beautiful valley of the Krems, antiently called the “Wallis Aurea,' or Golden Valley, and falling into the Danube at Krems; the March, which, next to the Danube, is the largest river in the Lower Ens, and which, entering the province from Moravia, forms its boundary on the side of Hungary for about 48 miles, and is navigable to its mouth, where its breadth is about 1420 feet; and the Kamp. The only streams which are not tribu.# to the Danube are some rivulets which, like the Salza and the Mürz, flow down from the Alpine heights in the south of the province, and join the Müiz; and the Lainsitz in the north-west, where it takes the name of the Braunau at Gmünd and of the Schwarzbach at Schwarzbach, under which designation it ultimately falls into the Moldau, a tributary of the Elbe. Independently of the Donau-canal (canal of the Danube), near Vienna, which is merely an enlarged arm of the Danube, the only canal in the Lower Ens is the Vienna or Neustadt canal, which opens out from the preceding and terminates at Wiener-Neustadt, about 34 miles south of the capital. The original plan was to carry this canal to the Adriatic, and thus connect the Danube with that sea. There are some large natural sheets of water, but none deserving of the name of lakes: the largest is the Erlaf or Zellersee, which is about 4998 feet long, 1890 broad, and from 620 to 630 deep. Near the Mittersee there is a beautiful waterfall 200 feet high, and close to it is a spot called the Brüllender Stier (roating bull), whence the roar of a subterraneous cascade is heard. Among the mineral waters of the Lower Ens none are in such repute as those of Baden, in the Lower Wienerwald, about 19 miles south-west of Vienna, or 15 in a straight line. (Vol. iii., p. 261.) The waters of Medling (first discoyered in 1805), Deutschaltenburg, Heiligenstall, Döbling, &c., are also used. The varied character of the surface occasions considerable difference of climate. The mountainous nature of the north-western and southern parts of the province renders the temperature colder than it is in the low lands about the Danube and in the eastern districts. There is no mountain which attains the limit of perpetual snow, which would in this latitude be found at an elevation of about 9400 feet. By observation at the Vienna observatory, which stands at a height of 570 feet above the level of the sea, it has been ascertained that the average annual temperature in Vienna is about 51°Fahr. : in 1824 it rose to 52°44'; the summerheat is between 77° and 83°, and the maximum heat does not exceed 97°; the winter cold varies between 10° and 12° below the freezing point, and has never been greater than 22°. The weather is very variable, and on the lofty summit of the Schneeberg it changes, says Blumenbach, almost every hour. About Annaberg, in the south of the Lower Wienerwald, the country is so desolate that it goes by the name of the Siberia of Austria.

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The soil of the Lower Ens differs much in productiveness. The richest tracts are in the centre of the province, from the confluence of the Ens eastwards as far as the Pulnafeld on the right bank of the Danube; and on the left bank, from Krems they extend until they spread over the south-eastern arts of the Upper Mannhartsberg to the efflux of the \o into the Danube. The lands about the lower March, indeed, which are called the Marchfield, are a Delta, which, under efficient cultivation, might become the granary of the Austrian metropolis. There is an extensive level also in the vicinity of Vienna, which, in parts, is extremely fertile. On the whole, the Lower Ens does not rank among the more productive provinces of the empire. It is a manufacturing rather than an agricultural province. The inhabitants of this province, as well as those of the other division of the Archduchy of Austria, are of German descent. After the Avari were driven out, it was re-peopled by Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, and Franconians, principally indeed by the first mentioned; a circumstance which accounts for the similarity in language and Inanners between the native Austrian and his Bavarian neighbour. The majority is of the Roman Catholic persuasion, and the minority, Protestants, Greeks, and Jews, with a few Armenians. In 1800, the number of native born inhabitants was 1,016,512, besides about 30,000 settlers from the other parts of Austria and foreign parts. In 1808 it was 1,059,440: 1810, 1,073,294: and in 1825, 1,182,595, besides about 50,000 persons not born in the province: the present population is about 1,280,000. The proportion of males to females is as about 46 to 58. The number of houses in 1816 was 150,385 : in 1827, 153,168; and it is at present about 155,500. In the eastern and north-eastern districts there are many Sclavonians, here denominated Croats. In 1828 the births amounted to 47,566, and in 1831 to 46,789: while the deaths amounted in 1828 to 45,520, and in 1831 to 49,063. In 1830 the marriages were 12,604. Nearly one half of the province is devoted to the production of grain, vegetables, and wine; and of this about 1,900,000 acres are under the plough; yet, in spite of good husbandry, the soil and climate are so little favourable to the growth of corn, that wheat and rye do not yield more than five, barley not more than eight or nine, and oats not more than six or seven grains for each grain sown. The province, in fact, does not produce corn enough for its own consumption. The quantity of meadow-land is estimated at about 550,000 acres; the pastures at about 382,000; and the woods and forests occupy about 1,228,000. Peas, and beans and potatoes are universally cultivated, particularly in Upper Mannhartsberg. Vegetables are abundant, and fruit likewise. Hemp and flax are cultivated, but the quality is indifferent and not equal to the demand. Saffron of very superior kind is raised near St. Pölten and Melk. The vineyards occupy about 112,230 acres of ground, and on an average yield 2,000,000 aulms (about 31,000,000 gallons) annually. The finest vineyards are those of Weidling, Klosterneuburg, Grinzing, and some others, in the Lower Wienerwald; and the wines of Burgundy and Champagne have long been acclimatised in some parts. The mountain districts produce a very full-bodied durable wine. The woods and forests, which supply both fuel and timber, have suffered so much from neglect that they do not suffice for the consumption of the country. The most extensive, which lie in the circles of the Wienerwald, are chiefly composed of the beech, oak, maple, linden, elm, alder, pine, and fir. The rearing of horned cattle has never recovered from the blow which it received during the repeated invasions of the French armies. The whole stock does not exceed 300,000 heads. A portion of it is of a very superior native breed. Although the establishments for breeding horses belonging to the crown and several noblemen have done something towards improving the race, this branch of economy is not pursued with much activity. Some writers do not estimate the stock at more than 57,000 or 60,000. Independently of several extensive sheepwalks in many of the upland districts, every peasant feeds his little flock of 10, 20, or 30 sheep. Upwards of one half of the whole stock, estimated at 450,000, are of breeds improved by crossing with merinoes and other foreign races. The largest flocks are those on the imperial estates. The yearly weight of wool obtained is about 1,190,000lbs., and much of it is exported. Goats and swine are not bred in great numbers. Poultry is fed on a large scale for the Vienna market. Some honey and wax are made: the stock of game is much diminished.

The mines of the Lower Ens are not of any great importance. The Annaberg no longer yields silver. There are iron mines at Reichenau, Pütten, Šiš. Erdweis, Weitra, and other spots, but the quantity raised is but inconsiderable. There are numerous quarries of marble and freestone, &c., particularly in the south; gypsum and calcareous rocks, from which much lime is made are abundant; mill-stones, granite, slate, alum, potter's clay, quartz for making glass and china, and porphyry, are among the other mineral products. Coals are raised in the south and in some other parts. The Lower Ens ranks next to Bohemia in a manufacturing point of view; and the principal seats of industry are the districts south of the Danube, the northern being chiefly agricultural. . In 1811, the number of individuals employed in these districts was 163,171, about one-sixth of the then population of the whole province. Flax and hemp yarns are spun wherever the materials are grown; in the Upper Mannhartsberg 3800 hands are employed, besides those who spin for their domestic wants. Cotton wool is also spun in the same circle by hand, and employs between 5000 and 6000 persons. In 1828 the province had 30 factories, in which 224,518 spindles were at work. Much linen is woven, but mostly for home use; and the linen-tape manufactures of Siegharts occupy above 1000 hands. Cottons, particularly of the finer sorts, are manufactured on an extensive scale at Vienna; large printing-works are carried on at Neunkirchen, Friedau, St. Pölten, Kettenhof, &c. Cotton embroidery, stockings, &c., are made at Vienna and elsewhere. The woollen manufacture has never prospered to any great extent, although there are some large factories in Vienna, at Rittersdorf, &c., but the silk manufacture has risen to great perfection in the capital, where, even as far back as 1827, it employed above 8000 looms: it is brisk also at Leobersdorf, Neustadt, Katzeldorf, &c. Laces, ironware, and cutlery; tools, copperware, brasswork, buttons, jewellery, and trinkets; articles of wood, leather, glass, mirrors, porcelain, earthenware, paper, musical instruments, soap, &c., form so many additional branches of industry. The Lower Ens has a considerable trade with the neighbouring countries and foreign parts, by means of its communications by land with the Adriatic, Germany, Poland, #. and by the Danube with Hungary, Turkey, and the ast. The various scientific institutions and schools, both in Vienna and the several towns in general, afford advantages to this province which must at all times promote its prosperity. Among the towns not before mentioned are, in the Lower Wienerwald, Hainburg on the Danube 2800, Bruck on the Leitha 2600, Neustadt 10,503, Klosterneuburg on the Danube 2350, Schwechel 2100, Baden 4600, and Medling 2050; in the Upper Wienerwald, BaierischWaidhesin 2100, Tuln on the Danube 1500, Ips at the confluence of the Ips and Danube 1 100, and Melk on the Danube 1020; in the Lower Mannhartsberg, Meissau 700, Rötz 2260, Labb on the Thaya 1250, Feldsberg 2600, Zis. tersdorf 1700, Stockerau 1550, and Mistelbach 2650; and in the Upper Mannhartsberg, Stein on the Danube 1700, Egenburg 2000, Weitra 1800, and Langenlois 2150. The province of the UPPER ENs, or UPPER AUsTRIA, forms the western part of the Archduchy, and is situated on both banks of the Danube, but chiefly on the south, between 46°57' and 48° 46' N. lat. It comprehends the duchy of Salzburg, which was incorporated with it in the year 1816. Its boundaries are, on the north, Bohemia; on the east the Lower Ens or Lower Austria; on the south Styria, Carinthia, and the Tyrol; and on the west Bavaria. Its area, according to the estimate of the quarter-mastergeneral's survey, is 7630 English square miles, or about 205 more than that of Wales. The three eastern circles, the Müll, Traun, and Hausruck, are called Old Austria; and the new circle of the Inn and Salzburg or Salzach, is termed New Austria.

Sub-divisions, &c.

Mar- Will.

ket & Cireles. Sq. Miles. Pop. Chief Towns. Towns. Vill. Ham. Mohl 1302 205,000 Lintz . 21,500 1 - *Hausruck 777 . 184,000 Wels to 7, 12" so Traun , . 1533 . 186000 Steyer . 10.100 1815, 123,779 dwelling*Salzach. 4018 . 292,000 Salzburg 13.300 1823, 134,987 houses.

7630 867,000

* Commonly called the Duchy of Salzburg.

[graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic]

The Upper Ens is a mountainous country: the parts south of the Danube contain the most elevated alpine regions in the Austrian dominions, and those north of it are intersected by lower ranges which are offsets of the great Bohemian forest range. The Rhaetian Alps occupy a small portion of the south-west, and terminate at the Dreiherrenspitz, from which point the Noric Alps occupy the whole of the southern circles of Salzburg, Hausruck, and Traun. The highest summits in this part are the Grossglockner, 12,221 English feet above the level of the sea, on the most southern part of the Salzburg circle; the Ankogel, 11,798 feet; the Grosse Wiesbach or Krummhorn, about 11,770; the Hochkar, 11,270; and the Murauerkopf, 10,070 feet. All these are situated in the southern part of the Salzach circle. There are many wide and numerous small valleys, especially the noble valleys of the Salzach, Gastein, Saal, &c., among the mountain masses that overspread the land south of the Danube, which constitutes five-sixths of the whole surface of the Upper Ens. The only level country in the province is the immediate borders of the Danube. In the Mühl circle, which is north of the river, the most elevated point is the Plöckenstein, close to the common boundary of Bavaria, Bohemia, and the Upper Ens; its height does not exceed 21.77 English feet. Among the numerous streams of the Upper Ens there are five navigable rivers: the Danube, which enters the province in the north-west, below Passau, and quits it after receiving the Ens at the south-eastern corner of the circle of the Mühl; the Inn, which forms the western frontier for a short distance, and receives the Saal, another navigable river that divides the Upper Ens in part from Bavaria; the Ens; and the Traun, which last stream flows out of a small lake not far from Aussee, in Upper Styria, then crosses into the circle of the Traun, at its south-western end, turning from the west to the north, passes through the Lakes Halstätt and Traun, takes a north-easterly direction along the western side of the circle, throws itself over a precipice 60 feet high near Lambach, washes the eastern side of the town of Wels, in the Hausruck circle, and ultimately falls into the Danube, opposite Steyeregg, after a course of about 70 miles. It is navigable after quitting the Traunsee, and the obstruction from the fall at Lambach has been obviated by a side canal 1020 feet in length. Among the minor streams are—the Ayer, which unites the Mond and Kammer lakes, and joins the Danube near the Zizelau, the Salzach or Salza, which waters the south of the circle of that name, then flows through it in a north-westerly direction past Salzburg, and falls into the Inn a few miles south-west of Braunau, the Saal and Lammer, tributaries of the Salzach, and the Rana. The Upper Ens abounds in lakes, of which the following are the largest. The Traun or Gmunder See, in the west of the Traun circle, 6310 Vienna fathoms long (39,437 English feet), 1570 fathoms (98.12 feet) in its greatest breadth, and 598 Vienna feet (620 feet) in its greatest depth. The Halstätter See at the south-western extremity of the same circle, inclosed between high mountains, 4260 Vienna fathoms (26,622 feet) long, 1130 fathoms (7062 feet) broad, and 600 Vienna feet (622 feet) in its greatest depth. The Atter or Kammer See, in the south of the Hausruck circle, 10,300 fathoms (64,375 feet) long and 1745 (10,906 feet) broad; and the Matt or Mond See (Lake of the Moon, from its crescent-like shape), which lies west of the southern end of the Atter See, and is 5600 fathons (35,000 feet) long and 1070 (6687 feet) broad. There is an immense number of smaller lakes, of which, in the Traun circle alone, 27 have been counted. Swamps and morasses of considerable extent occur in many parts, particularly near the Mond and Traun lakes, and in the Pinzgau, near the banks of the Salzach, in the south-west of the circle of Salzach. The most celebrated mineral springs of the Upper Ens are those of Gastein, which lie deeply embosomed in the valley of that name among the most southern mountains of Salzach in 47° 5' N. lat, and 13° 8' E. long. The waters are of a sulphurous nature, perfectly pure and translucid, and the six springs vary from 95° to 112° of Fahrenheit in temperature. The cold mineral waters of St. Wolfgang are also in much repute. The climate of the Upper Ens is much colder than that of the Lower Ens, ho it lies in the same latitude; and much more so in the south than in the north. The warmest parts are in the valley of the Danube. On the whole it is not insalubrious, although not so healthy as the

adjacent provinces. The annual mortality is one in thirtyfour. Many extensive tracts, particularly among the alpine masses of the south, are extremely steril. The valleys north of the Tauern group in the Salzach circle abound in clay, limestone, slate, quartz, &c. The low lands of that circle, the northern parts of the Traun, and several districts in the Hausruck, and the western tracks along the Inn, are highly fertile. The Upper Ens is not rich in native products. Marble however of peculiarly fine quality is found in the Salzach circle, where black, red, blue, and parti-coloured kinds are obtained. In the same circle are found alabaster, crystal, gypsum, garnets, beryls, topazes, emeralds, &e. Granite and sandstone occur generally. There was formerly a much larger produce of metals in the western parts of the province: gold and silver are however still found on the Gastein range at Kauris and Schellgaden, and gold dust in the Salzach and other streams; copper abounds on the Gerlos and in the valleys of Brunn, Stubach, Leogang, and Ramingstein, in the two last of which much lead is got; a plentiful supply of iron is procured from the mountains about Hüttau and Flachaw, the Hinteralp and Bundschuh, &c., as well as in the Traun circle, whence copper and lead are also obtained. Salt abounds in the hills of Ischil and Hallstätt, and in the Thumburg near Hallein, and the yearly produce is about 55,000 tons. Cobalt is found at Zinkwand. Coals are dug in several quarters; sulphur at Mühlbach and Grossarl in the Salzach ; and there are extensive peat-mosses. The Upper Ens contained 755,891 inhabitants in the year 1815; 826,575 in the year 1825; and the present number is estimated to be 867,000. The births in 1828 were 24,460, and in 1831, 24,035: the deaths in 1828 were 22, 177, and in 1831, 21,080: and the marriages in 1829 were 5448. The majority of the inhabitants are of the same stock as the Bavarians. On the banks of the Ens and Traun are some villages peopled with individuals of Sclavonian extraction. The proportions throughout the province are said to be five agricultural labourers to two operatives, one of noble blood in every 438 persons, and one ecclesiastic in every 260. The Roman Catholic is the predominant religion, and there are not above 30,000 protestants in the whole province. The average issue of each marriage is es: timated at from four to five children. Agriculture is said to be in a more advanced state in the Upper than in the Lower Ens. The quantity of land under the plough is estimated at 1,162,510 acres: wheat, barley, oats, and rye are the chief crops; and agriculture is conducted on the largest scale in the circles of the Mühl, Hausruck, and Traun. About 35,600 acres are occupied as garden-ground; about 115 only for vineyards in the Mühl and Hausruck; about 510,600 as meadows; and 1,106,800 are used for grazing cattle. It is calculated that 1,346,900 are covered with woods and forests. Very considerable quantities of potatoes and fruit are raised in the Upper Ens. In some parts the produce of grain is so small, for instance in the Viechtau on Lake Traun, that in the best years it does not yield above three grains for every grain sown; in the northern parts of the Traun, on the contrary, wheat produces eightfold, and oats tenfold and upwards. The quantity of grain raised is about 1,480,000 quarters annually. The province abounds in tures and the rearing of cattle is general. The race of horses bred in the Pinzgau, a district among the Alps north of the Salza, is reputed to be the largest and tallest in Europe: they are generally 19 hands high, In 1830 the stock of horses of all kinds in the Upper Ens was 46,950. The horned cattle are of a large breed: the stock in 1830 was 85,579 oxen and 293,604 cows. The sheep are of an inferior race, and none of them yield fine wool: the stock in 1830 was 199,925, a diminution of 15,498 since 1827. Goats abound in the upland parts. The lynx, wolf, and bear are occasionally met with : foxes, stags, deer, marmots, polecats, squirrels, martens, hares, and wildfowl are more or less plentiful. Fresh water fish are abundant: and the beaver and otter are at times seen on the banks of the Danube, Mühl, and Aschach. The pearl muscle is found in some of the rivulets in the upper part of the Mühl circle. The manufactures of this province, though less extensive than those of the Lower Ens, are considerable. The peasantry in general manufacture their own linens and woollens, and make what leather articles they require. Much linen thread is spun as well as woollen and cotton arn, on which above 15,000 hands are employed in the tihl circle alone, where there are upwards of 5000 looms for weaving linens, &c., and numerous factories where linens and cottons are printed. The manufacture of cotton cloths is most extensive at Schwanenstadt in the Hausruck, Lintz, Urfahr in the Mühl, Wels, Stejer, and Hallein. There is a considerable manufactory of woollens and carpets belonging to the crown, in Lintz; and others in Wels, Lanhalsen in the Mühl, Neuhof, &c. About St. Wolfgang in the Traun cloth of goats' hair is prepared. Large quantities of steel and ironware tools, &c., are made in the Upper Ens, particularly in Steyer and the districts to the south of it, at Steinbach, Sierning, Neuzeug : Steyer, in fact, has been called the Birmingham of Austria, but its manufactures are of coarser workmanship. There are copper and brass works at Ebenau in the Salzach, Reichraming, and near Wels. The preparation of wood for domestic and other purposes gives considerable employment to all the parts south of the Danube. Bleaching-grounds and tanneries are numerous. Paper, glass, leather, earthenware, chemicals, beer, and spirits are manufactured pretty extensively. . . . . The exports of the Upper Ens are very considerable, and consist principally of salt, timber, and wood for fuel, yarns, linens, woollens, carpets, ironware, tools, nails, and screws, cutlery, flax, cotton-yarn, cottons, stockings, cheese, beer, cattle, earthenware, mill and polishing stones, stone for building, marble, and fruit. The principal towns, independently of the chief towns in the several circles, are, in the Mühl circle, Freistadt on the Feldaist, 2200 inhabitants; Urfahr, or Ufer. Lintz, united by a bridge to Lintz, 2600; and Steyeregg on the Danube, 850: in the Hausruck circle, the towns of Efferding, 1000; Schwanenstadt; and Grieskirchen : in the Traun circle, Ens, on a steep hill on the left bank of the Ens, with five suburbs, 380 houses and 3000 inhabitants; Gmunden, at the efflux of the Traun from Lake Traun, 1300 feet above the level of the sea, with six suburbs, 440 houses and 3250 inhabitants, with saline springs and baths; Kremsmünster, built round a hill on the left bank of the Krems, with several public schools, a rich abbey, an observatory, and collections in natural history, &c., and 950 inhabitants; Kirchdorf, St. Florian, Serning (1200 inhabitants), and Grünau on the Alben, 1750. In this circle lies the Salzkammergut (Salt-domain of the Crown), between lakes Traun, Atter, and St. Wolfgang, the Salzach circle, and Styria; it contains an area of 236 square miles, and has 79 villages and hamlets, 2450 houses, and 16,200 inhabitants: there is no level land whatever in this district. The salt-mines yield about 40,000 tons of salt, and it is said a clear revenue of upwards of 70,000l. annually. Coals, alabaster, and gypsum are also obtained from this district. It contains the market-towns of Ischil on the Traun, with 250 houses and 1800 inhabitants, two salt-works, saline baths, and a theatre and hospital. Hallstätt, on the lake of that name, 1050 inhabitants; Laufen, with 370, and salt and coal-works; Goisern, a village of 756, on the Traun, and Langbath, on the southern side of Lake Traun, with saltboiling-houses, saw-mills, &c., and a population of 1100. The Salzkammergut lies between 47° 29' and 47° 51' N. lat., and 13° 29' and 13° 51' E. long. In the Salzach circle are the towns of Hallein on the Salzach, where there are salt-works and boiling-pans, 330 houses and 5000 inhabitants, and Radstadt, on a hill on the left bank of the Ens, with about 920. In this circle lies the beautiful valley of Gastein among the Alps, from 30 to 40 miles in length and about two in breadth, in which are 21 villages and hamlets, including Hof or Hof in der Gastein, the chief place in the valley, and the baths called Wildbad-Gastein, which have upwards of 1200 visitors in the season. Gredig, with its rich marble quarries and prince's well, the source of the Glaubach, Ebenau, where there is a manufactory of copper, brass, and ironware, and the esteemed springs of St. Wolfgang on the Weichsel brook are also in this circle. (Blumenbach; Lichtenstern ; Hassel's Archduchy of Austria; Röhrer's Statistics; Historical and Statistical Survey of the Austrian Monarchy ; Jenny's Manual; &c.) ENSIGN, a commissioned officer, the lowest in degree, and immediately subordinate to the lieutenants in a regiment of infantry. One of this rank is appointed to each company, and the junior ensigns are charged with the duty P. C., No. 587

of carrying the colours of the regiment. Ensigns in the regiments of foot guards have also the rank of lieutenants. In the rifle brigade, and in the royal corps of artillery, engineers and marines, in place of an ensign, a second lieutenant is attached to each company. Among the Spaniards and Italians, in the seventeenth century, it appears that no officer existed like the lieutenant of a company, whose rank is between that of a captain and ensign, any such being considered superfluous, and as tending to diminish the importance which was attached to the post of the officer who had the charge of the colours, on the preservation of which, in action, the honour of the regiment was made greatly to depend. When, as formerly, a battle partook far more than at present of the nature of a melée, the loss of a standard, which served as a mark for the soldiers under each leader to keep together in the fight or to rally when dispersed, must have been a serious misfortune, and probably was often attended by the total defeat and destruction of the party; and hence, no doubt, arose the point of honour respecting the colours. A French military author, who served and wrote in the time of Charles IX., intending to express the importance of preserving the colours to the last, observes that, on a defeat taking place, the flag should serve the ensign as a shroud; and instances have occurred of a standard-bearer who, being mortally wounded, tore the flag from its staff and died with it wrapped about his body. Such a circumstance is related of Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, at the battle of Alcazar, and of a young officer named Chatelier at the taking of Taillebourg, during the wars of the Huguenots. In the antient French service, the duty of carrying the oriflamme at the head of the army was confided to a man of rank, and also of approved valour and prudence; the post was held for life. The price of an ensign's commission in the foot guards is 1200l., and his daily pay is 5s. 6d.; in the regiments of the line the price is 450l., and the daily pay 5s. 3d. ENTABLATURE. [Civil ARCHITECTURE ; Colums N.] ENTAIL. . [Estate.] ENTALO'PHORA. [SERTULARICEA..] ENTERITIS, Inflammation of the Intestines. The inflammatory affections of the whole alimentary canal constitute an extensive and highly important class of diseases, several of which are properly designated by specific names, since they have a peculiar seat, and require a peculiar treatment. Enteritis is one of these. This term is employed to denote an acute inflammation of the external or peritoneal coat of the intestines. When inflammation is seated exclusively or chiefly in the peritoneal coat of the intestines, both the local and the constitutional affection is widely dif. ferent from that which is produced when inflammation is seated in the mucous coat. It is therefore with good reason that these diseases are distinguished by different names. The distinctive characters of enteritis are pain in the bowels, vomiting, invincible constipation, fever, and sudden and great prostration of strength. The pain is often exceedingly severe, and is usually especially acute about the navel. The inflammation may be confined to a small portion of the intestines, or its seat ma be very extensive. The pain is felt in the part in whic the inflammation is seated; hence the pain is occasionally restricted to a particular part of the abdomen; but far more commonly it is spread over a large portion of it, and, as has just been stated, is peculiarly severe about the navel. The pain is constantly present; it is never for a moment entirely absent; but it is occasionally very much aggravated in paroxysms. It is always greatly increased by pressure over the seat of the part inflamed. Though severe pain be a very constant attendant on enteritis, yet occasionally cases occur in which the pain is never so great as to occasion much alarm, and these insidious attacks are the most dangerous. The vomiting, though occasionally absent, is pretty constantly present, and is sometimes frequent and most distressing. In the intervals between the acts of vomiting there is a sense of nausea. It has been thought that when the vomiting is urgent, it is an indication that the inflammation has extended to the stomach; but the inspection of the body after death has fully shown that there may be most distressing vomiting when not the least appearance of disease can be traced in the stomach. Obstinate constipation is a diagnostic mark of enteritis.

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