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the river. The continually increasing inconvenience thus caused by the growing trade of the port was much aggrawated during a time of war, by the circumstance of the West India ships arriving together in great numbers under convoy. To remedy this inconvenience, a plan was projected in 1793 for constructing wet-docks for the reception of ships employed in the West India trade; but it was not until 1799 that the scheme was sanctioned by Parliament, and that an act was passed incorporating a company for the purpose, with a capital or joint-stock of 1,380,000l. The docks constructed under this act of incorporation are known as the West India Docks, and extend across the piece of land called the Isle of Dogs, which lies in a bend of the Thames between Blackwall and Limehouse, at both of which places there are entrances to the docks. Their construction was begun in February 1800, and was prosecuted so vigorously that in two years and a half from that time the works were sufficiently advanced to admit vessels for unloading. These docks consisted at first of two separate basins, one of which was used for discharging, and the other for loading ships. The import dock, which is situated to the north, is 870 yards long and 166 yards wide; the export dock is of the same length and 135 yards wide, so that the area of the two is equal to 54 acres; there are besides two basins, one at each entrance, that at Blackwall being 5 acres, and that at Limehouse 2 acres in extent. These two docks are together capable of accommodating more than 500 sail of merchant vessels of large size, and during the war, when ships arrived from the Colonies in large fleets, the accommodation was at times found to be not greater than was required. The import dock is surrounded by ranges of commodious warehouses. The city canal, which was cut parallel with the West India Docks on the south, was intended to form a short cut for ships, to enable them to avoid the circuit of the Isle of Dogs, but being very little used, was purchased about four years ago by the West India Dock Company, and a communication was made between it and the other basins The London Docks, which are situated at Wapping, were begun in the year 1801, and opened for business in 1805; they consist of the western dock of 20 acres, the eastern dock of 7 acres, and the tobacco dock, between the other two, of more than one acre. The space included within the dock walls exceeds 71 acres. The warehouses are spacious, and very substantially built. The tobacco warehouse, which is on the south side of the tobacco-dock, covers nearly five acres. The vaults beneath the warehouses contain space enough for stowing 66,000 pipes and puncheons of wine and spirits. One of the vaults has an area of 7 acres. A great part of the expense attending upon the construction of these docks was owing to the value of the houses and other property by which the site was previously occupied. and by the compensation which the Dock Company was bound b its act of incorporation to pay to lightermen, owners of warehouses in the City of London, and others whose business would probably suffer from the establishing of the docks. The joint-stock of the company is 3,238,000l., in addition to which 700,000l. have been borrowed and expended. The amount of business carried on has been very great from the first opening of these docks, but the proprietors do not receive more than 2% per cent. per annum on their stock. The East India Docks, intended for the reception of ships employed by the East India Company, are situated at Blackwall, below the entrance to the West India Docks. There are two docks, one for unloading, the other for loading ships, of the area of 18 and 9 acres respectively; the entrance basin, which is common to both docks, is about 3 acres in extent: the cost of this undertaking was about 500,000l.: it has not hitherto proved profitable to the undertakers. The East Country Dock adjoins the Commercial Dock to the south. It is frequented by vessels employed in the European timber trade. This dock, which was constructed in 1807, has an area of about 6% acres. The basin at the entrance of the Surrey canal at Rotherhithe is also used as a dock. The projecting of the St. Katherine's Docks arose out of an alleged want of sufficient accommodation in the London Docks. The act incorporating the St. Katherine's Dock Company was passed in 1826, and the Docks, which are situated between the London Docks and the Tower, were partially opened for business in October 1828. The jointstock of the company amounts to 1,352,000l., besides which 800,000l. of borrowed money have been spent. The outer wall incloses an area of 24 acres, of which l l acres are
water, the remainder being occupied by quays and warehouses. There are two docks, each capable of receiving vessels of 800 tons burthen, and which are frequented by ships in the East India, the North American and South American trades. The warehouses are very commodious, and so contrived that goods are taken into them at once from the ship. The wet-dock at Bristol, which is of a character different from those of Liverpool and London, has already been described. [BR1stol.] At Hull there are three docks, occupying together an area of 26 acres, and capable of affording accommodation to more than 300 ships; but this amount is found to be insufficient for the increasing trade of the port, and a public meeting was lately held in the town to consider of the steps necessary to be taken for providing more dock room. The new port of Goole, situated near the junction of the Ouse with the Humber has two wet-docks, one of which is calculated for the reception of sea-going vessels of considerable burthen, and the other is used for the accommodation of small craft which navigate the rivers and canals. Leith has two wet-docks, extending together over 10 acres, and capable of accommodating 150 vessels of the size which at the time of the works being performed usually frequented the port. Since then, the introduction of steam navigation has made an entire change in the wants and uses of Leith as a harbour. The entrance to the docks is not sufficiently wide to admit the large steam vessels trading between London and Edinburgh, which must consequently discharge and load in the harbour, where they take the ground every tide, which is very objectionable, or they must lie at anchor in the Frith of Forth, and load and unload by means of boats, which is expensive and sometimes difficult, and even dangerous. The deficient state of accommodation here described was investigated by a committee of the House of Commons in 1835, but the insolvent condition of the corporation of Edinburgh, in which body is vested the property of the harbour and shore of Leith and its neighbourhood, has hitherto prevented the commencement of any improvement. DOCLEA. [MAIADME.] DOCTOR, one that has taken the highest degree in the faculties of Divinity, Law, Physic, or Music. In its original import it means a person so skilled in his particular art or science as to be qualified to teach it. There is much difference of opinion as to the time when the title of Doctor was first created. It seems to have been established for the professors of the Roman law in the University of Bologna, about the middle of the twelfth century. Antony à Wood says, that the title of Doctor in Divinity began at Paris, after Peter Lombard had compiled his Sen tences, about the year 1151. (Hist, and Antiq. Univ. of Oa. jord, 4to. Oxf. 1792, vol. i. p. 62.) Previously, those who had roceeded in the faculties had been termed Masters only. he title of Doctor was not adopted in the English Universities earlier than the time of John or Henry the Third. Wood cites several instances of the expense and magnificence which attended the early granting of the higher degrees in England in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I. About the year 1268, he says, when Alphonsus de Senis, or Siena, an Italian, studied at Oxford, one Bonifacius de Saluciis pro ceeded in the civil law, at whose inception there were such ceremonies and feasting, that the like for that faculty was scarce before known here. The abbot and convent of Ose ney gave him the free use of their monastery on that occa sion. He adds, that a still greater solemnity was performed some years after, at Gloucester College, by the Benedictines, for one William de Brooke, a monk of St. Peter's Monastery at Gloucester, who took the degree of D.D. in 1298, being the first of his Order who had attained that dignity. He was accompanied by the abbot and whole convent of his own monastery, the abbots of Westminster, Reading, Abingdon, Evesham, and Malmesbury, numerous other priors and monks, and by a hundred noblemen and esquires on horses richly caparisoned. (Wood, ut supr. pp. 65, 66.) In Oxford the time requisite for the Doctor of Divinity's degree, subsequent to that of M.A., is eleven years; for a Doctor's of Civil Law, five years from the time at which the Bachelor of Laws' degree was conferred. Those who take this degree professionally, in order to practise in Doctors' Commons, are indulged with a shorter period, and permitted to obtain it at four instead of five years, upon making oath in convocation of their intentions so to Practise. For the de
gree of M.D., three years must intervene from the time of the candidate's having taken his Bachelor of Medicine's degree. For a Doctor's degree in Divinity or Law three distinct lectures are to be read in the schools, upon three different days: but by a dispensation, first obtained in convocation or congregation, all three are permitted to be read upon the same day; so that by dispensation a single day is sufficient in point of time for these exercises. For a Doctor's degree in Medicine, a dissertation upon some subject, to be approved by the Professor of Medicine, must be publicly recited in the schools, and a copy of it afterwards delivered to the Professor. * In Cambridge a Doctor of Divinity must be a Bachelor of Divinity of five, or a M.A. of twelve years' standing. The requisite exercises are one act, two opponencies, a Latin sermon, and an English sermon. A Doctor of Laws must be a Bachelor of Laws of five years' standing. His exercises are one act and one opponency. Doctors of Physic proceed in the same manner as Doctors of Laws. For a Doctor's degree in music, in both Universities, the exercise required is the composition and performance of a solemn piece of music, to be approved by the Professor of the Faculty. (See the Orf. and Camb. Calendars for 1837.) Coloured engravings of the dresses worn by the doctors of the several faculties of Oxford and Cambridge will be found in Ackermann's History of the Univ. of Oxford, 4to, 1814, vol. ii. p. 259, et seq.; and in his History of the Univ. of Cambridge, 4to., 1815, vol. ii. p. 312, et seq. DOCTORS’ COMMONS, the College of Civilians in London, near St. Paul's Churchyard, founded by Dr. Harvey, Dean of the Arches, for the professors of the civil law. The official residences of the judges of the Arches' Court of Canterbury, of the judge of the Kio. and the judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, are situated there. It is also the residence of the doctors of the civil law practising in London, who live there (for diet and lodging) in a collegiate manner, and common together, and hence the place is known by the name of Doctors' Commons. It was burnt down in the fire of London, and rebuilt at the charge of the profession. (Chambra! Mag. Brit. Notitia.) To this college belong a certain number of proctors, who malage causes for their clients, &c. In the Common Hall are held all the principal spiritual courts, and the High Court of Admiralty. DODDER. [Cuscutaceae.] DODDRIDGE, PHILIP, D.D. (birth in 1702, and death in 1751), a dissenting divine, who, on account of his singularly amiable disposition and manners, his ministerial assiduity, piety, and learning, is regarded as one of the ornaments of the religious community to which he belonged. The community of which we speak is that of the Old Dissenters of England; those who adhered to the clergy who left the church when the Act of Uniformity, passed in 1662, soon after the return of Charles II. from exile, prescribed the terms of ministerial conformity. These persons formed a numerous and powerful party during the whole of that reign, and at length succeeded, though after much suffering, in enforcing their right to have their meetinghouses protected by law, and themselves allowed to assemble under the same protection which was extended to ministers and people who were willing to conform under that act. This right however was not recognised till after the revolution. The act of parliament which gave it is called the Act of Toleration, and was one of the first legislative measures of the new government, being passed in 1689. The effect of it was, that the non-conforming or dissenting body became cast into societies, each with its own place of worship, where the usual ordinances of Christianity were administered; each having also its own pastor, who was el, her a minister who had been silenced by the act of 1662, or a minister who had been trained under those ministers and ordained by them. Doddridge was born in one of these families living in London, where he had the early part of his education. He was then for a time at St. Albans, where lived a minister, Mr. Clarke, who was his great friend, and indeed patron, for the father of Doddridge had died while he was young, and had left i le for the expense of his education. It was early perceived that his turn of mind peculiarly pointed to the profession of a minister, and he was entered at a dissenting academy over which Mr. John Jennings presided, the son of one of the ministers silenced in 1662. This academy was kept at the village of Kibworth in Leicestershire. Dr. Dodd
ridge entered it in 1718 or 1719, and in 1722 commenced his ministry at Kibworth, his late tutor Mr. Jennings removing in that year to Hinckley, where he died in the succeeding year. The death of Mr. Jennings was an important event in the history of Dr. Doddridge. Great expectations had been formed among the Dissenters of the success of Mr. Jennings in the education of ministers, and it was thought a point of importance to maintain an academy of that kind in one of the central counties. Mr. Jennings had mentioned his pupil Doddridge as being a person whom he thought eminently qualified to carry on the work, and the eyes of the Dissenters were generally directed to him as the person best qualified to do so. However, several years passed, during which Doddridge was leading the life of a non-conformist minister, his services being divided between the people who attended the chapel at Kibworth, and the congregation at the neighbouring town of Market Harborough. He was diligent in his ministry both in public and private, but he found time also for much theological reading, by which means he qualified himself the better for the office which he and his friends had ever kept in view. In 1729 he began his academy, which soon attained a high reputation. It was the institution in which most of the more distinguished ministers of the Old Dissenters in the middle of the eighteenth century were educated. It was first established at Market Harborough, where he at the time resided; but before the end of the year he removed to Northampton, having been invited to become the minister of the Dissenting congregation in that town; and at Northampton he continued both as pastor of the Dissenting congregation, and head of the Dissenting academy, till his death. Iie died at Lisbon thirteen days after his arrival. IIe had gone thither with little hope of recovery. Doddridge lived at a time when the zeal of the class of persons to whom he belonged had lost some part of its antient fervour. This he saw with regret, and was very desirous to revive it. This appears to have been a principal object, and one kept steadily in view both in his ministerial labours and his published writings. His printed sermons are remarkable for the earnestness with which he presses the great importance of a religious life, the evil of spiritual indifference or carelessness, and the indispensable necessity of uniting with the practice of the moral duties the cultivation of the spirit of piety, and a deep and serious regard to the momentous truths of religion. This appears particularly in a book of his which has been popular both at home and abroad, entitled ‘The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul.” There is the same spirit of animated piety, and occasionally touches of genuine eloquence, in the praetical part of another publication of his entitled ‘The Family Expositor,’ in which we have the whole Scriptures of the New Testament, (the gospels being in a harmony,) with a paraphrase, a series of critical notes, and reflections, or, as he calls them, improvements of each section into which the whole is divided. This work has also been often printed, and it may be regarded as an evidence of his learning, as well as of his piety; the notes abound with critical remarks, o of numerous authors, or suggestions of his own mind, full of that knowledge which fits a man to illustrate those difficult writings. The course of metaphysical, ethical, and theological lectures, through which he conducted the young men who were trained by him for the christian ministry was published after his death, and forms an excellent text-book of systematic divinity, and (especially in the later edition by Dr. Kippis, in 2 vols. 8vo.) a very useful body of references to writers on almost every topic under the heads of metaphysics, ethics, or divinity. Nor must it be omitted that to him the Dissenters owe some of the best hymns which are sung by them in their public services. Thus living a life of activity and usefulness, practising the virtues which he taught to others, and exhibiting a fine spirit of an unaustere piety, he lived greatly respected by many eminent persons beyond the pale of his own religious community, and in that community his death at so early an age was felt to be a great and general misfortune. His name is still never mentioned among them but with honour. Two large accounts of his life have been published. The first by Job Orton, another divine of a kindred spirit, who belonged to the same community: the second by Dr. Kippis, a pupil of Dr. Doddridge, and also a minister, who
has introduced it in the ‘Biographia Britannica,'of which he was the editor. The reader may see in these works all the detail of his public labours, his principles, and plan of lecturing, and will easily understand from them the influence of his character on the body to which he belonged. One of his descendants has within the last ten years given to the world a very large collection of his correspondence and p, ivate papers. In them we see his in most mind DODE'CAGON, a figure of twelve sides; a term gene. rally applied to an equiangular and equilateral (or regular) dodecagon. The side of a regular dodecagon inscribed in a circle is * 5176380 of the radius; and of that about a circle ‘5358984 of the radius. Similarly the radii of the circles inscribed in and circumscribed about a dodecagon are 1 - 8660254 and 1 93.18517 of the side. The area of a dodecagon is three times the square of the radius of the circumscribed circle, or l l 1951524 of the square on the side. DODECAGY'NIA, the name of any order in the Linnean classification of plants wherein the number of styles is twelve. DODECAHE'DRON. [Solips, Regular ] DODECA'NDRIA, the twelfth class in the Linnean classification of plants. It contains species having twelve or about twelve stamens, provided they do not adhere by their filaments. DODO, DIDUS, a genus of birds generally supposed to be extinct, and whose very existence has been doubted. We have taken some pains to collect the evidence on this subject, and we here present it to our readers.
WRITTEN AND Pictor IAL Evide NCE.
It appears that Vasco de Gama, after having doubled the Cape of Good Hope (Cabo Tormentoso, or Cape of Storms) in 1497, discovered, at sixty leagues beyond it, a bay, Angra de San Blaz, near an isle, where he saw a very great number of birds of the form of a goose, but with wings like those of the bats, which the sailors called solitaries. On their return, in 1499, the Portuguese touched again at San Blaz, where they took a great number of these birds, and comaring them to swans, called the island ‘Ilha des Cisnes,” ". of Swans.” In the voyage to the East Indies, in 1598, by Jacob Van Neck and Wybrand van Warwijk (small 4to., Amsterdam, 1648,) there is a description of the 1s asgh roge/s in the island of Cerne, now called Mauritius, as being as large as our swans, with large heads, and a kind of hood thereon ; no wings, but, in !". of them, three or four black little pens (pennekens), and their tails consisting of four or five curled plumelets (pluymkens) of a greyish colour. The breast is spoken of as very good, but it is stated that the voyagers preferred some turtle-doves that they found there. The bird appears with a tortoise near it, in a small engraving, one of six which form the prefixed plate. In the frontispiece to De Bry (Quinta Pars Indiae Orientalis, &c., M.DCI), surmounting the architectural design of the title-page, will be found, we believe, the earliest engravings of the Dodo. A pair of these birds stand on the cornice on each side, and the following cut is taken from the figure on the left hand.
cooked the more unfit for food they became (quod quo longius seu diutius elixarentur, plus lentescerent et ésui in. eptiores fierent). Their bellies and breasts were nevertheless of a pleasant flavour (saporis jucundi) and easy of mastication. Another cause for the appellation we gave them was the preferable abundance of turtle-doves which were of a far sweeter and more grateful flavour.” It will be ob. . that the bill in De Bry’s figure is comparatively Sin all. Clusius, in his “Exotica’ (1605), gives a figure, here copied, which, he says, he takes from a rough sketch in a journal of a Dutch voyager who had seen the bird in a voyage to the Moluccas in the year 1598. The following is Willughby's translation of Clusius, and the section is thus headed: “The Dodo, called by Clusius Gallus gallinaceus peregrinus, by Nieremberg Cygnus cuculatus, by Bontius Dromte.’ ‘This exotic bird, found by the Hollanders in the island called Cygnaca or Cerne, (that is the Swan Island) by the Portuguese, Mauritius Island by the Low Dutch, of thirty miles' compass, famous especially for black ebony, did equal or exceed a swan in bigness, but was of a far different shape; for its head was great, covered as it were with a certain membrane resembling a hood: be side, its bill was not flat and broad, but thick and long; of a yellowish colour next the head, the point being black. The upper chap was hooked ; in the nether had a bluish spot in the middle between the yellow and black part. They reported that it is covered with thin and short feathers, and wants wings, instead whereof it hath only four or five long black feathers: that the hinder part of the body is very fat and fleshy, wherein for the tail were four or five simall curled feathers, twirled up together, of an ash-colour. Its legs are thick rather than long, whose upper part, as far as the knee, is covered with black feathers; the lower part, together with the feet, of a yellowish colour: its feet divided into four toes, three (and those the longer) standing forward, the fourth and shortest backward : all furnished with black claws. After I had composed and writ down the history of this bird with as much diligence and faithfulness as I could, I happened to see in the house of Peter Pauwius, primary professor of physic in the university of Leyden, a leg thereof cut off at the knee, lately brought over out of Mauritius his island. It was not very long, from the knee to the bending of the foot being but little more than four inches, but of a great thickness, so that it was almost four inches in compass, and covered with thick-set scales, on the upper side broader, and of a yellowish colour, on the under (or backside of the leg) lesser and dusky. The upper side of the toes was also covered with broad scales, the under side wholly callous. The toes were short for so thick a leg: for the length of the greatest or middlemost toe to the nail did not much exceed two inches, that of the other toe next to it scarce came up to two inches: the back-toe fell something short of an inch and a half; but the claws of all were thick, hard, black, less than an inch long; but that of the back-toe longer than the rest, exceeding an inch.” The mariners, in their dialect, gave this bird the name Walgh-Pögel, that is, a nauseous or yellowish? bird; partly because after long boiling its flesh became not tender, !. continued hard and of a difficult concoction, excepting the breast and gizzard, which they found to be of no bad relish, partly because they could easily get many turtle-doves, which were much more delicate and pleasant to the palate. Wherefore it was no wonder that in comparison of those they despised this, and said they could be well content without it. Moreover they said that they found certain stones in its gizzard, and no wonder, for all other birds, as well as these, sucallow stones, to assist them in grinding their meat.” Thus far Clusius.’ In the voyage of Jacob Heemskerk and Wolfert Harmansz to the East Indies, in 1601, 1602, 1603 (small 4to, Amsterdam, 1648), folio 19, the Dod-aarsen (Dodos) are enumerated among the birds of the island of ‘Cerne, now Mauritius;' and in the ‘Journal of the East Indian Voyage of Willem Ysbrantsz Bontekoe van Hoorn, comprising
* We are indebted to Mr. Gray for the following measurement of the foot in the British Museum — Knee to ancle 44 inches; circumference 4 inches ; middle toe 3 inches; back toe 14 inch : front claws, which are much woru, 8 lines : back claw, also much worn, shorter. Mr. Gray observes that the leg mentioned by Clusius is probably, from the similarity of the measurement, the specimen which was afterwards noticed by Grew, and * same to the British Museum.
+ So in Willughby, but the print is somewhat indistinct, and there may be error. In the original the worls are “ I”aigh-Poges. ","** **useum inoxens avis, partim quod, &c., the word therefo-c is an interpolation.
Herbert, in his Travels (1634), gives a figure or rather figures of a bird that he calls “Dodo, and the following account:—‘The Dodo comes first to our description, here, and in Dygarrois (and no where else, that ever I could see or heare of, is generated the Dodo). (A Portuguize name it is, and has reference to her simplenes), a bird which for shape and rarenesse might be called a Phoenix (wer’t in Arabia); her body is round and extreame fat, her slow pace begets that corpulencie ; few of them weigh lesse than fifty pound: better to the eye than the stomack: greasie appetites may perhaps commend them, but to the indifferently curious nourishment, but prove offensive. Let's take her picture: her visage darts forth melancholy, as sensible of nature's injurie in framing so great and massie a body to be directed by such small and complementall wings, as are unable to hoise her from the ground, serving only to prove her a bird; which otherwise might be doubted of: her head is variously drest, the one halfe hooded with downy blackish feathers; the other perfectly naked; of a whitish hue, as if a transparent lawne had covered it: her bill is very howked and bends downwards, the thrill or breathing place is in the midst of it; from which part to the end, the colour is a light greene mixt with a pale yellow; her eyes be round and small, and bright as diamonds; her cloathing is of finest downe, such as you see in goslins; her trayne is (like a China beard) of three or foure short feathers; her legs thick, and black, and strong; her tallons or pounces sharp; her stomack fiery hot, so as stones and iron are easily di. gested in it; in that and shape, not a little resembling the Africk oestriches: but so much, as for their more certain difference I dare to give thee (with two others) her representation.’-(4th ed., 1677.)
Nieremberg's description (1655) may be considered a copy of that of Clusius, and indeed his whole work is a mere
compilation. As we have seen above, he names the bird Cygnus oucullatus.
in Trades ant's catalogue (“Musaeum Tradescantianum; or, a Collection of Rarities preserved at South Lambeth, near London, by John Tradescant,’ London, 1656, 12mo.), we find among the “Whole Birds'—“Dodar, from the island Mauritius; it is not able to flie being so big.” That this was a Dodo there can be no doubt; for we have the testimony of an eye-witness, whose ornithological competeney cannot be doubted, in the affirmative. Willughby at the end of his section on ‘The Dodo,” and immediately beneath his translation of Bontius, has the following words: “We have seen this bird dried, or its skin stuft in Tradescant's cabinet.' We shall, hereafter, trace this specimen to Oxford.
Jonston (1657) repeats the figure of Clusius, and refers to his description and that of Herbert.
Bontius, edited by Piso (1658), writes as follows: “De Dronte, aliis Dod-aers. After stating that among the islands of the East Indies is that which is called Cerne by some, but Mauritius “a nostratibus,” especially celebrated for its ebony, and that in the said island a bird “mirae conformationis' called Dronte abounds, he proceeds to tell us— we take Willughby's translation—that it is “for bigness of mean size between an ostrich and a turkey, from which it partly differs in shape, and partly agrees with them, especially with the African ostriches, if you consider the rump, '. and feathers: so that it was like a pigmy among them, if you regard the shortness of its legs. It hath a great, ill-favoured head, covered with a kind of membrane resembling a hood; great black eyes; a bending, prominent fat neck; an extraordinary long, strong, bluish-white bill, only the ends of each mandible are of a different colour, that of the upper black, that of the nether yellowish, both sharp-pointed and crooked. It gapes huge wide as being naturally very voracious. Its body is fat, round, covered with soft grey feathers, after the manner of an ostriches : in each side instead of hard wing-feathers or quills, it is furnished with small, soft-feathered wings, of a yellowish ashcolour; and behind, the rump, instead of a tail, is adorned with five small curled feathers of the same colour. It hath yellow legs, thick, but very short; four toes in each foot, solid, long, as it were scaly, armed with strong, black claws. It is a slow-paced and stupid bird, and which easily becomes a prey to the fowlers. The flesh, especially of the breast, is fat, esculent, and so copious, that three or four Dodos will sometimes suffice to fill an hundred seamens' belles. If they be old, or not well boiled, they are of difficult concoction, and are salted and stored up for provision of victual. There are found in their stomachs stones of an ash colour, of divers figures and magnitudes; yet not bred there, as the common people and seamen fancy, but swallowed by the bird; as though by this mark also nature would manifest that these fowl are of the ostrich kind, in that they swallow any hard things, though they do not digest them.'
It appears from Adam Olearius (Die Gottorfische Kunst Kammer, 1666), that there was a head to be seen in the Gottorf Museum; but the figure (Tab. xiii. f. 5) is very like that of Clusius. It is mentioned as the head of the WalchVogel and Clusius is referred to. In the plate the head is shaded, and has a more finished appearance: the rest of the bird is in outline. Grew (“Musaeum Regalis Societatis; or a catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society, London, folio, 1681), at p. 68, thus describes the bird which is the subject of our inquiry. ‘The leg of a Dodo ; called Cygnus cucullatus by Nierembergius; by Clusius, Gallus gallinaceus peregrinus ; by Bontius called Dronte, who saith that by some it is called (in Dutch) Dod-aers, largely described in Mr. Willughby's Ornithol. out of Clusius and others. He is more especially distinguished from other birds by the membranous hood on his head, the greatness and strength of his bill, the littleness of his wings, his bunchy tail, and the shortness of his legs. Abating his head and legs, he seems to be much like an ostrich, to which also he comes near as to the bigness of his body. He breeds in Mauris's Island. The leg here preserved is covered with a reddish-yellow scale. Not much above four inches long, yet above five in thickness, or round about the joints, wherein, though it be inferior to that of an Ostrich or Cassowary, yet, joined with its shortness, may render it of almost equal strength.' . At p. 73, there is the following notice:– The head of the Man of War, called also Albitrosse; supposed by some to be the head of a Dodo, but it seems doubtful. That there is a bird called the Man of War is commonly known to our seamen; and several of them who have seen the head here preserved, do affirm it to be the head of that bird, which they describe to be a very great one, the wings whereof are eight feet over. And Ligon (Hist. of Barbad., p.61), speaking of him, saith, that he will commonly fly out to sea to see what ships are coming to land, and so return. Whereas the Dodo is hardly a volatile bird, having little or no wings, except such as Ho of the Cassowary and the Ostrich. Besides, although the upper beak of this bill doth much resemble that of the Dodo, yet the nether is of a quite different shape; so that this either is not the head of a Dodo, or else we have nowhere a true figure of it.” Grew then gives a very lengthened description of the skull which is figured by him (Tab. 6), and intituled “Head of the Albitros,” as it doubtless was. The leg above mentioned is that now preserved in the British Museum, where it was deposited with the other specimens described by Grew, when the Royal Society gave their “rarities’ to that national establishment. Grew was a well qualified observer, and much of this description implies observation and comparison; indeed, though he does not refer to it, there is no reason for supposing that Grew was not familiar with Tradescant’s specimen. Charleton also (Onomasticon, 1688) speaks of the Dodo Lusitanorum, Cygnus cucullatus, Willughby and Ray, and asserts that the Museum of the Royal Society of London contained a leg of the Dodo. This was evidently the leg above alluded to. Leguat, in his description" of the Isle, “which is called either Diego-Rodrigo, or Diego-Ruys, or Rodrigo,' gives the following account. “We had also another creek on the other side of our cabbins, and full of oysters sticking to the rock. We went often to breakfast there, and brought some home, with which we made an excellent ragout with palm-tree-cabbages and turtle's fat. Of all the birds in the island, the most remarkable is that which goes by the name of the Solitary (le Solitaire), because it is very seldom seen in company, though there are abundance of them. The feathers of the males are of a brown-grey colour; the feet and beak are like a turkey's, but a little more crooked. They have scarce any tail, but their hind part covered with feathers is roundish, like the crupper of a horse; they are taller than turkeys. Their neck is straight, and a little longer in proportion than a turkey's when it lifts up its head. Its eye is black and lively, and its head without comb or cop. They never fly, their wings are too little to support the weight of their bodies; they serve only to beat themselves and flutter when they call one another. They will whirl about for twenty or thirty times together on the
same side during the space of four or five minutes; the motion of their wings makes then a noise very like that of a rattle, and one may hear it two hundred paces off. The bone of their wing grows greater towards the extremity, and forms a little round mass under the feathers as big as a musket-ball: that and its beak are the chief defence of this bird. 'Tis very hard to catch it in the woods, but easy in open places, because we run faster than they, and sometimes we approach them without much trouble. From March to September they are extremely fat, and taste admirably well, especially while they are young; some of the males weigh forty-five pound. “The females are wonderfully beautiful, some fair, some brown; I call them fair because they are of the colour of fair hair: they have a sort of peak, like a widow's, upon their breasts, which is of a dun colour. No one feather is straggling from the other all over their bodies, being very careful to adjust themselves and make them all even with their beaks. The feathers on their thighs are round like shells at the end, and being there very thick, have an agreeable effect: they have two risings on their craws, and the feathers are whiter there than the rest, which livelily represent the fine neck of a beautiful woman. They walk with so much stateliness and good grace, that one cannot help admiring them and loving them, by which means their fine mien often saves their lives. ‘Though these birds will sometimes very familiarly come up near enough to one when we do not run after them, yet they will, never grow tame: as soon as they are caught they shed tears without crying, and refuse all manner of sustenance till they die. W. find in the gizzards of both male and female a brown stone, of the bigness of a hen's egg; it is somewhat rough, flat on one side, and round on the other, heavy and hard. We believe this stone was there when they were hatched, for let them be never so young, you meet with it always. They have never but one of them; and besides, the passage from the craw to the gizzard is so narrow, that a like mass of half the bigness could not pass. It served to whet our knives better than any other stone whatsoever. When these birds build their nests they choose a clean place, gather together some palmleaves for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a half high from the ground, on which they sit. They never lay but one egg, which is much bigger than that of a goose. The male and female both cover it in their turns, and the young is not hatched till at seven weeks' end: all the while they are sitting upon it, or are bringing up their young one,