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It is not indeed invariably present, but it is present in so large a proportion of cases, that when absent it must be considered as an exception to the general rule. Its absence should leave no doubt upon the mind of the nature of the attack if the other symptoms are present. More or less fever is always present. The skin is usually hot and dry, and the heat is often preceded by a sense of chilliness or by a distinct rigor. The tongue is usually white and furred; there is much thirst, and the pulse is quick, small, sharp, and incompressible. The expression of the countenance is peculiar. The features are sharp and compressed; in severe cases, and in almost all cases in the advanced stage quite sunk; the expression is anxious and wild, and the first glance conveys to the beholder an irresistible conviction that the individual is labouring under some intense internal disease. The impression upon the powers of life is so great and rapid that the patient is far more exhausted after a few hours' illness in this disease than after an attack of as many days' duration in most other acute maladies. This rapid and extreme prostration is highly characteristic of enteritis, and if it be combined with any one of the symptoms which have been described, should leave no doubt of the existence, in an intense form, of one of the most dangerous diseases to which the human body is subject. As the inflammation advances the pulse becomes more rapid and feeble ; the abdomen swollen, tense, and tympamitic; the prostration increases: the skin, instead of being hot, becomes cold and clammy, and the extremities, more especially, are cold. The inflammation has a peculiar tendency to terminate in gangrene. Before this event happens it is usually conceived that the inflammatory action extends from the peritoneal to the muscular coat, and that in the most intense cases all the coats of the intestine become involved. The signs that mortification has taken place are cessation of pain, hiccup, increased frequency and weakness of the pulse, greater collapse of the countenance, and increased prostration. But it is remarkable that often when the patient dies under the ordinary symptoms of mortification, on the examination of the intestine after death, nothing can be detected but the usual appearances of inflammation; there is no trace of a gangrenous spot; death is produced by the intensity of the inflammation. . The brain usually remains unaffected to the end; the mental faculties are but little impaired; but sometimes, as the disease advances, the mind becomes confused and wandering, and occasionally delirium sets in early—a certain sign that the disease is of extraordinary intensity. The exciting causes of the disease are acrid and indigestible matters taken into the stomach in large quantity; habitual full living on highly seasoned food; the accumulation of hardened faeces, cold drinks, especially when the body had been previously overheated. But perhaps the most common cause of the disease is cold, combined with moisture, applied either directly to the abdomen, or to the body generally, and more especially to the lower extremities. . It is also frequently superinduced by strangulated hernia; and on the sudden occurrence of the symptoms of enteritis the abdomen should always be carefully examined with a view to ascertain whether hernia be present. It may also be caused by an event which cannot be known until after death—the involution of one fold of the intestine within another (intus-susception or volvulus), so as to occasion a complete obstruction to the passage of the contents of the bowels. Enteritis can scarcely be confounded with any other disease excepting colic, and the relation between these two affections is so close that severe colic is very apt to lapse into enteritis; and this it is very important that the practitioner should bear in mind. But when colic exists as a distinct disease it is clearly distinguished from enteritis by the absence of fever, and of the prostration so character. -istic of enteritis; by the occurrence of the pain more decidedly in paroxysms with intervals of complete ease; by the diminution, not the increase, of the pain on pressure, and by the strikingly different state of the pulse. Enteritis may attack persons of all ages, from the infant a day old, to the man who reaches the extreme term of human life. It may occur at all seasons of the year. Its attack is often sudden, and it sometimes proves fatal with frightful rapidity. It is by no means uncommon for a person apparently in sound health to be destroyed by this disease

within twenty-four hours from the commencement of the attack. Hence the importance of a knowledge of its early symptoms, and the necessity of attacking it with the utmost promptitude and vigour. The ordinary remedies for inflammation must be employed with decision. The character of the pulse, the o: countenance, the prostration of strength may appear to contra-indicate blood-letting; but these are false indications, and if regarded, the event will be fatal. After a copious bleeding the pulse often diminishes in frequency and increases in strength; the expression of the countenance improves, and the vital energies recover, as if the system were relieved of an oppressive load. Bleeding must be carried as far as possible, until it appears to have made an impression upon the inflammatory action. It is a very useful practice to bleed from the arm two or three times in succession, after an interval of two or three hours, if the symptoms of inflammation do not abate. It is without doubt highly desirable to procure evacuations from the bowels; but the disease is to be cured by the removal of the inflammation, not by opening the bowels. Death often takes place though the bowels are opened, and the fatal event is not unfrequently hastened, if not brought about, by the acrid nature of the cathartics given to remove the constipation. These acrid cathartics, if they open the bowels, do not necessarily save the patient ; and if they do not open the bowels they greatly increase the inflammation. Only the mildest aperients should be employed. This is one of the diseases in which the judicious employment of calomel and opium is attended with the best results. Colic is often converted into enteritis, or a case of enteritis mistaken for colic is frightfully aggravated, by taking spirituous cathartics, as tincture of rhubarb, for the relief of the pain. In no case whatever should any vinous or spirituous cathartic be taken for pain in the bowels, however slight, without the sanction of a medical man. Persons continually sacrifice their lives by taking brandy, or a large dose of some tincture, for what they call spasm of the stomach or bowels. The so-called spasm oftentimes is inflammation, which the stimulus of the alcohol increases to such a degree that the disease is no longer to be restrained by any remedies that can be employed. ENTOMO'LOGY, that branch of science which treats upon insects. The term entomology literally signifies a discourse upon insects, it being derived from the two Greek words éntomon, an insect, and logos, a discourse. The term entoma was first applied to these animals by Aristotle, and is synonymous with the Latin word insecta (whence is derived the English name insects), both having reference to a striking character exhibited in the insect tribe, that of having the body insected, or, as it were, cut and divided into numerous segments. [INSECT.] ENTOMOSTO'MATA, De Blainville's name for his second family of his first order, Siphonobranchiata, of his first subclass, Paracephalophora Dioica, of his second class, Paracephalophora, of Malacozoa. This family appears to be nearly the same with the genus Buccinum of Linnaeus, and is thus characterized by De Blainville:— Animal spiral, with the foot, which is shorter than the shell, rounded in front. Mantle provided in front of the respiratory cavity with a long canal always uncovered, which the animal uses as an organ of prehension. Head furnished with a single pair of blackish tentacula, which o the eyes on an enlargement (rentlement) of the half of their base. Mouth armed with a proboscis, as in the o family (Siphonostomata), without any labial tooth, ut with a small tongue. Organs of respiration formed by two unequal pectinated branchiae. Organs of generation -termination of the oviduct in the females at the right side, at the entrance of the branchial cavity. Termination of the deferent canal at the extremity of a long flattened contractile excitatory appendage, situated at the right side of the neck. Shell very variable in form, whose opening sometimes very large, and sometimes very small, is without an apparent canal, or with a very short one suddenly recurved upwards, but always more or less deeply notched anteriorly. , Operculum horny, unguiform, oval, subconcentric, with the summit a little marked and marginal. De Blainville observes that this family differs evidently very little from that of the Siphonostomata, whether in the soft parts or in the shell. The species which it embraces are not all absolutely marine, though a very great number of them are: some live at the mouths of rivers, and a very small number are entirely fluviatile

Genera. *

Turriculated.
Cerithium.

Animal very much elongated, the mantle prolonged into a canal at its right side, but without a distinct tube; the foot terminated by a depressed, proboscidiform muzzle; tentacula very distant, with large rings, swollen, as it were, in the lower part of their length, and carrying the eyes at the summit of this enlargement. Mouth terminal, in the form of a vertical slit, without any labial tooth, and with a very small tongue furnished with regularly disposed reflexed teeth. A single straight branchia.

Animal of Cerithium Telescopium, and shell of Cerithium palustre.

Shell more or less turriculated; tuberculous; aperture small, oval, oblique; the columellar border very much excavated, callous; the right lip sharp-edged, and dilating a little with age. Operculum horny, oval, rounded, subspiral, and striated on its external surface, sunk, and bordered on its internal surface.

CI. Species which have evidently a small canal very short, and obliquely recurved towards the back. Example, Cerithium Vertagus. Locality, Indian Ocean and Moluccas (Lamarck), B. Species which have a still smaller canal, but straight throughout, and a well-formed sinus at the posterior union of the two borders. Example, Cerithium Aluco. Locality, Indian Ocean, and Moluccas (Lam.).

Y. Species whose aperture is divided into three by the shutting of the short anterior tube, and that of the posterior sinus. (Genus, Triphore, or Tristome, Deshayes.) Triforis 2 Deshayes. Example, Cerithium Tristoma.

Species which have a small straight canal, and the whorls of the spire flat and ribanded, with a deep umbilicus, two decurrent plaits on the columella, and one on the right lip. (Genus, Nerinea, Defrance.) Example, Cerithium Nerinea.

E.

Species which have no canal, but a simple notch, and whose right lip is much dilated in age. (Genus, Potamides, Brongniart; Pyrazus, De Montfort.) Example, Cerithium palustre. Locality, coasts of the

East Indies, in the salt marshes (Lam.).

&. Species whose aperture, without a canal, is a little notched in front and rear, the notch being replaced by a sinus; the columellar border curved in its middle; the right lip not dilated. (Genus, Pirena, Lam.) Example, Cerithium Madagascariense.

De Blainville makes the genus Cerithium, as established by him, contain fifty-six species characterized by Lamarck: adding that the greater part are marine, but many from the

mouths of rivers, and some entirely lacustrine, and that there is but one belonging to the French seas (nos mers), whilst more than a hundrea fossil species are found in France and Italy. M. Defrance s genus Nerinea, he remarks, would be better placed an ong the Pyramidellae.

a. Cerithium Madagascariense (Lam.); b, C. Madagascariense (Pirena, Lam.), according to De Blainville. N. B. It is not clear that these are not the same species, notwithstanding the comparative smoothness of b. Lamarck places Cerithium at the commencement of the first section (Canaliséres) of his Zoophagous Trachelipods, immediately after Turritella, the last of his Phytiphagous (Plant-eating) Trachelipods. Cuvier gives it a position after Purpura, Cassis, and Terebra, and before Murer. This, as the Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. Hoffman observe in their interesting paper on the anatomical structure of Cerithium Telescopium, would imply a structure of the parts of the mouth adapted for boring shells, according to the known habits of Murer, and certain, allied genera; but, they remark, a single glance at Adanson's figure is sufficient for conviction that the animal is much more nearly allied to the Trochoides; and that Lamarck judged rightly, according to the evidence before him, in placing it on the confines of his two great classes. This is corroborated, they add, by the little additional information of M. Sander Rang, who describes the mouth as toothless, but furnished with a small tongue. M. Sander Rang states that this genus, so numerous in species both living and fossil, contains only marine animals; but, nevertheless, there are some of them which live at the mouths of rivers, and these are precisely the individuals which M. Brongniart has united to form the genus Potamides, which cannot be adopted in zoology, inasmuch as it does not rest upon sufficiently marked characters. M. Rang adopts, generally, the divisions of De Blainville with approbation, but he rejects the sixth group (&), which comprehends the genus Pirena, which Rang, following the example of M. de Férussac, places with Melanopsis. Rang agrees with De Blainville in thinking that the division containing Defrance's Nerinea is, perhaps, doubtful, and that its position would be better near the Pyramidellae. He observes that they have in France but two or three living Cerithia; but a great number of fossil species. Deshayes makes the number of living species eightyseven; not reckoning Triforis, of which he gives three species, nor Pirena, of which he also gives three; of the latter Lamarck records four. Anatomy, Habits, &c.—Our limits make it necessary to refer the reader to the paper of the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, A.M., and G. H. Hoffman, Esq., for the anatomy of Ceri. thium (Zool. Journ., vol. v., p. 431). Adanson, speaking of the habits of one of the species, says that it lives in the sand amongst grass and mangroves, feeding on ‘scolopendres,” and other small marine worms. The individual which formed one of the subjects of the investigation by Mr. Berkeley and Mr. Hoffman, and which was brought from Calcutta, though placed in fresh sea-water, the utmost care being taken to renew it frequently, and though all kinds of marine substances were supplied to the animal for food, refused all nourishment, contenting itself with simply walking over the substances, and, in so doing, to; them 3 Ml 2

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with its proboscis. As it would not feed, this mdividual was killed by immersion in spirit. The other specimen, which was anatomized by the zoologists above mentioned, was brought from Ceylon. Mr. Gray (March 25, 1834) read a note to the Zoological Society of London, giving an account of the arrival in England of two living specimens of Cerithium armatum, which had been obtained at the Mauritius, and had been brought from thence in a dry state. That the inhabitants of land shells will remain alive without moisture for many months, is, he remarked, well known. [BULINUs, vol. vi., p. 8]. He had had occasion to observe that various marine Mollusca wiM retain life in a state of torpidity for a considerable time; some facts, in illustration of which, he had communicated to the Society (Zool. Proc., part i., p. 116). The present instance included, however, a torpidity of so long a continuance as to induce him to men: tion it particularly. The animal, though deeply contracted within the shell, was apparently healthy, and beautifully coloured. It emitted a considerable quantity of bright green fluid, which stained paper of a grass-green colour: it also coloured two or three ounces of pure water. This green solution, after standing twelve hours in a stoppered bottle, became purplish at the upper part; but the paper retained its green colour though exposed to the atmosphere. A specimen of C. Telescopium, sent from Calcutta to Mr. G. #. Sowerby in sea-water, lived out of water in a small tin box for more than a week. Cerithium has been found in the sea on various bottoms, and in estuaries, at a depth ranging from the surface to seventeen fathoms.

Fossil CERITHIA.

Deshayes in his tables gives the number of fossil (tertiary) Cerithia at 220, and of these he records Cerithia vulgatum, Latreillei, doliolum, giganteum, alucaster, granulosum, and bicinctum, as both living and fossil. He gives two fossil (tertiary) species of Pirena and two of Triforis. The form is found from the Supracretaceous to the Oolit group, both inclusive. Potamides is recorded in the weal. clay Sussex (Mant.); and Nerimea in the Oolitic group (Bailly), near Auxerre, St. Mehiel (Meuse), Kimmeridge Clay, Coral Rag, Bernese Jura, Forest Marble, Oxford oolite, Dorset (Nerinea, Goodhallii), Inferior oolite.

Mr. Lea (Contributions to Geology) describes and figures from the Claiborne beds a shell which he names provisionally Cerithium ? striatum; observing that he is by no means satisfied in placing this shell among the Cerithia. It has a stronger resemblance in the mouth to the genus Melania, but being a marine shell cannot, he remarks, with propriety be placed in that genus. De Blainville, he adds, figures a shell (Malacalogie, pl. 21, bis, fig. 2), under the name of Potamides fragilis, which *i; ought to belong to the same genus with this, the mouth being very nearly the same. Until more species shall be obtained, Mr. Lea has forborne to create for it a new genus. He further states, that there have been no Cerithia yet found in the beds at Claiborne, although they abound in England and on the Continent in the tertiary formation, there being 137 species in the Paris basin alone.

Melanopsis.

Animal furnished with a proboscidiform muzzle, with two contractile, conical, annulated tentacula, having each at their external base an oculated peduncle; foot attached to the neck; respiratory, orifice in the canal formed by the union of the mantle with the body. Shell with an epidermis, elongated, fusiform or conico-cylindrical, with a pointed summit; whorls of the spire from six to fifteen, the last often forming two-thirds of the shell; aperture oval, oblong; columella solid, callous, truncated at its base, separated from the anterior border by a sinus, the callosity prolonged upon the convexity of the penultimate whorl, forming a canal backwards; sometimes a sinus at the posterior part of the right border. Operculum horny, subspiral.

Habits, &c.—The genus is rather fluviatile than marine, contrary to Cerithium, according to De Blainville. Lamarck, who gives but two species, M. costata and M. lavagata, speaks of them decidedly as fluviatile. Rang, says that the genus was established by M. de Eérussac for freshwater shells, whose callous and truncated columella did not jermit their arrangement with Melania. The latter, in }. monograph, divides them into two groups, the first consisting of those species which have a single sinus at the border of the aperture, separating it from the columella

(Melanopsis, Lam.; M. buccinoidea); the second consisting of those species which have two distinct sinuses at the external border of the aperture, one which separates it from the columella, the other situated near the union of this border with the penultimate whorl. (Pirena, Lam.) De Blainville gives the following division of the genus.

ot. Subturriculated species. Example.—Melanopsis costata. Locality.—Syria in the Orontes (Lamarck).

Melanopsis costata.

Oval species. Example.-Melanopsis buccinoidea.

Y. Convex species (Espèces roufiées). Example.—Melanopsis Bouei. It appears to us that Pirena comes more appropriately in the place assigned to it by M. de Férussac and M. Rang than in that allotted to it by M. de Blainville. M. Deshayes gives ten living species of Melanopsis, and, as has been stated above, three of Pirena, Lamarck giving four. Fossil MELANopsides.

M. Deshayes, in his tables, gives eleven fossil (tertiary) species of Melanopsis, and of these he records the following species, Melanopsides buccinoidea, Dufourei, costata, noosa, acicularis, and incerta, as both living and fossil (tertiary). Of Pirena, he records two fossil (tertiary) species. Dr. Fitton, in his Systematic and Stratigraphical List of Fossils of the strata below the chalk (Trans. Geol. Soc., 2nd series, vol. iv.), mentions two species with a note of interrogation after the generic name, viz., M. attenuata and M. tricarinata, from the weald-clay, Dorsetshire, and the Hastings' sand, Sussex. He also alludes to a third unnamed species with a query, from the Purbeck, Bucks.

Planaxis.

Animal unknown. Shell oval, conical, solid, transversely furrowed; aperture oblong; columella flattened and truncated anteriorly, separated from the right border or lip by a sinus; right lip furrowed or rayed within, and thickened by a decurrent callosity at its origin. Operculum horny, oval, delicate, subspiral.

Lamarck established this genus for certain small shells approximating closely to the Phasianellae, but differing from them by the truncation of the anterior part of the columella. He only records two species, viz., P. sulcata and P. undulata. M. Rang states that he possesses six welldistinguished species. ... "

Habits, &c.–Planaaris is a littoral shell, and is sometimes found under stones. M. Rang says that he had had occasion to observe the animal at the Isle of France, where the rocks are sometimes covered with them, but, having lost his notes, he is unable to give its principal characters. According to his recollection, the animal differed very little from that of Phasianella. M. Deshayes in his tables puts the living species at four.

Example.—Planaa is sulcata.

Planaxis sulcata.

Fossil PLANAxes. Deshayes in his tables gives five fossil (tertiary) species.

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Subula.

Anima, spiral, very much elevated; foot very short and round; head with extremely small triangular tentacula, bearing the eyes at their summit; a long labial proboscis without hooks (crotchets), at the bottom of which is the mouth equally unarmed. Shell without an epidermis, turriculated, and with a pointed spire; whorls smooth, ribanded, bifid; aperture oval, small, deeply notched anteriorly; external lip thin and sharp-edged; internal or columellar lip with an oblique bourrelet at its extremity. Operculum oval, horny, lamellar, and as it were imbricated.

M. de Blainville thus characterizes a genus which he says he found himself compelled to establish upon examining the animal brought home by MM. Quoy and Gaimard, the shell of which had been hitherto confounded with the Terebrae; and he arranges under this new genus all those species whose shell is very much elevated, whose spire is very pointed, and whose whorls are ribanded; and, consequently, the greatest number of the twenty-four living species characterized by Lamarck, and which nearly all belong to the East Indies and Australasia. * Example.-Subula maculata (Lam.), Buccinum maculatum (Linn.).

Locality.—Moluccas and Pacific Ocean, according to Lamarck, who speaks of his possession of a specimen taken on the shores of Owhyhee.

Shell of Subula maculata, and last whorl of the shell with the animal and operculum a. M. Rang observes that it is much to be desired that new observations on the animals of these shells may lead to the decided line of separation between the Subulae and the Terebrae. + 4. Turbinaceous; or genera whose spire is moderately elongated, rarely subturriculated. Terebra.

Animal spiral, rather elevated; foot oval, with a trans

Animal of Terebra (Wis Miran) from Adanson, and shell of Terebra vittata,

verse anterior furrow and two lateral auricles; head bordered with a small fringe; cylindrical tentacula terminated in a point, and very distant; eyes but little apparent at the origin and outside of the tentacula; mouth without a proboscis; tube of the respiratory cavity very long. Shell without, an epidermis, inclining to oval; spire sharp, not much elevated or subturriculated; aperture large, oval, strongly notched anteriorly; columella with an oblique bourrelet at its extremity. No operculum. (De Blainville.) M. De Blainville only leaves in this genus, which he thinks ought perhaps to belong to the family of non-operculated Entomostomata, those species of Lamarck's Terebra, which, in their general form, bear some resemblance to the Buccina, such, for example, as his Vis buccinée (Terebra vittata); because De Blainville supposes that the animal resembles that of the Miran of Adanson, which is the type, and which differs much from that of the subulated species to which De Blainville gives the generic name of Subula, Alène, in French. Habits, Locality, &c.—The species, De Blainville observes, appear to come from warm climates only, like the Subulae. Terebra (Lamarck) occurs at depths ranging from the surface to 17 fathoms. The species sometimes creep on reefs out of the water, but within reach of the SotaW. "şice the publication of the works of M. De Blainville and of M. Rang, Mr. Gray, on the 8th July, 1834, exhibited an extensive series of the shells of Terebra, and enumerated 45 species (21 of them new), all of them either in the British Museum or in his own private collection. He stated that the animal has a small foot, and a very long proboscis, at the base of which are seated two very small tentacula; the operculum is ovate, thin, horny, rounded behind, and rather tapering in front. The shell is covered by a very thin, pellucid, horn-coloured periostraca : it is usually white, variously streaked with brown, the streaks bein often interrupted or broken into spots by the two ...i bands of the shell; one of these bands is placed near the spiral groove and the other on the middle of the whorl. he aper of the cavity is frequently filled up by a calcareous deposition; but this deposition has never been observed in Ter, duplicata. Mr. Gray divides the species into the three following sections. 1st. Anfractibus sulco spirali cingulum posterius efformante; labio interiore, tenui concavo. He observes upon this section, that the cingulum is most conspicuous in young shells; and that the internal lip is very rarely thickened in adults. To this section he refers 30 species (Terebra maculata, Lam., &c.), 15 of them new. 2nd. Anfractibus sulco spirali cingulum posterius efformante; labio interiore incrassato, subelevato. He observes that the species of this section (seven, five of which are new) somewhat resemble the Cerithia in the aperture. 3rd. Anfractibus sulco postico nullo. These last he divides into two sub-sections * with a thin internal lip, which he subdivides into (a) those species which have an elongated slender shell, and (b) those which have a short shell, and ** with the internal lip thickened and elevated, and the shell short; and he observes that these approximate somewhat to the Nassae, but have neither the il-ternal dilated lip, nor the external thickened lip. This third section contains eight species, one of which is new. Mr. Gray does not notice Subula of De Blainville, and it may therefore be considered that he does not admit the generic distinction.

Fossil SUBULAE and TEREBRAE.

De Blainville refers to his genus Subula many of the fossil species which had been considered as Terebrae, and which coincide with his definition of the former genus; but he does not enumerate the species, nor draw any distinct line of demarcation between the fossils of these respective genera. He remarks that M. Defrance makes the fossil species of both these genera seventeen, of which five are identical, three from Italy, one from Grignon, and one from Bourdeaux. The “vis scalarine fossile de Parnes' De Blainville thinks should be referred to the genus Terebra. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes Terebra (of Bruguière and Lamarck we presume, for he does not notice Subula) consist of 44 living species and 16 fossil (tertiary), of which last he considers two new species, and Terebra, Faval, strigilata and pertusa, to be both o; and fossil (tertiary); Dr. Fitton, in his stratigraphical and local distribution of the fossils of the strata below the chalk, records T. Port

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landica as occurring in the Portland stone in Dorset, South Wilts, North Wilts, Oxford, and Bucks. Mr. Lea describes and figures three additional species of Terebra (Lamarck) from the Claiborne beds, remarking that four species of the genus have been observed in England, three in the Oolitic group, and one in the London clay. He refers to the 16 species given for the tertiary by M. Deshayes, and says that ten of these are found at Baden (Miocene) and seven at Bourdeaux (Miocene). Here is evidently an error in the number. He adds that Mr. Conrad had observed one species, which he calls simpler, in the tertiary of Maryland, ‘ being the only one heretofore observed," adds Mr. Lea, “in our formations.” Eburna.

Shell oval or elongated, smooth; spire pointed, whorls running together as it were, without a marked distinction of suture; aperture inclining to oval, elongated, widened, and deeply notched in front; right lip entire; columella callous posteriorly, umbilicated subcanaliculated at its external part.

Geographical Distribution.—The seas of warm climates; sandy mud”. Of the five living species, Lamarck refers the locality of three to the East Indies and one to South America and perhaps India.

Eburna glabrata.

Fossil EBURNAE.

De Blainville states in his “Malacologie' (1825) that no Eburnao had then been discovered in a fossil state. M. Rang remarks (1829) in his ‘Manuel' that there are fossil species. Deshayes, in his tables, records five living species and one (new species) fossil (tertiary).

Buccinum.

To avoid repetition the reader is referred to the character of the family at the beginning of the article for a general description of the animal. . Buckland observes that the organ by means of which the carnivorous Trachelipods bore holes through shells for the purpose of extracting the juices of the animal is well exemplified in the English species Buccinum Lapillus (Purpura Lapillus) and Buccimum undatum. The proboscis is armed with a number of minute teeth set o a retractile membrane for the purpose of perforation. Mr. Osler (Phil. Trans., 1832) gives a figure of the rasp-like perforating tongue of B. undatum. See also Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise.

Shell oval, elongated, with a pointed but moderately elevated spire; aperture oblong or oval, deeply notched anteriorly; right lip entire, sometimes thick; columella simple or callous; Operculum horny, oval, subconcentric; summit but little marked and marginal.

Geographical Distribution.—Very wide. Species occur in almost all seas. Buccinum glaciale and Buccinum Sabinii are noted in the supplement to the appendix of Captain Parry's first voyage as having been met with during the period in which the expedition remained within the Arctic circle.

Habits.-The species have been found at depths ranging from the surface to 17 fathoms. The greater part of the genus is littoral.

M. De Blainville subdivides the species into many sections comprehending the true Buccina, including the genera 4lectrion (B. papillosum) and Cyclops (B. neriteum) of De

Montfort, and the genus Nassa, Lamarck. M. De Férussac divides the genus into two subgenera, viz., The Buccina properly so called, of which B. undatum may be considered the type, and the Eburnac. M. Sander Rang adopts this arrangement. We confine ourselves to the true Buccina. The species are very numerous. Deshayes, in his tables, gives 140, and new species are continually arriving. Mr. W. Lytellton Powys, for instance, describes (Zool. Proc., 1835,) four new species from Mr. Cuming's collection. Example.—Buccinum undatum. The Waved Whelk.

Shell of Buccinum undatum, and animal (male) creeping with its shell and operculum.

This is the species so commonly exposed for sale as food on the street stalls in the metropolis. Pennant, speaking of another species that occurs in vast abundance on our rocks near low-water, namely, B. Lapillus (Purpura Lapillus) above alluded to, remarks that it is one of the English shells that produces the purple dye, analogous to the Purpura of the antients; and Mr. William Cole, of Bristol, thus describes (1684) the process of obtaining the English Purpura :- The shells, being harder than most of other kinds, are to be broken with a smart stroke with a hammer, on a plate of iron or firm piece of timber (with their mouths downwards), so as not to crush the body of the fish within; the broken pieces being picked off, there will appear a white vein, lying transversely in a little furrow or cleft, next to the head of the fish, which must be o Out with the stiff point of a horsehair pencil, being made short and tapering. The letters, figures, or what else shall be made on the linen (and perhaps silk too), will presently appear of a pleasant light green colour, and, if placed in the sun, will change into the following colours, i.e., if in winter, about noon; if in the summer, an hour or two after sunrising, and so much before setting; for in the heat of the day, in summer, the colours will come on so fast, that the succession of each colour will scarcely be distinguished. Next to the first light-green it will appear of a deep-green, and in a few minutes change into a sea-green; after which, in a few minutes more, it will alter into a watchet-blue; from that, in a little time more, it will be of a purplish-red; after which, lying an hour or two (supposing the sun still shining), it will be of a very deep purple-red, beyond which the sun can do no more. But then the last and most beautiful colour, after washing in scalding water and soap, will (the matter being again put into the sun or wind to dry) be of a fair bright crimson, or near to the prince's colour, which afterwards, notwithstanding there is no use of any stiptic to bind the colour, will continue the same, if well ordered, as I have found in handkerchiefs that have been washed more than forty times; only it will be somewhat allayed from what it was after the first washing.

While the cloth so writ upon lies in the sun, it will yield a

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