« EelmineJätka »
Generally speaking, all dogs have five toes on the fore feet, and four on the hind feet, with the rudiment of a fifth metatarsal bone, which does not show itself externally. Nevertheless some dogs have this fifth toe very long and well proportioned, and advancing as far as the origin of the first phalanx of the neighbouring toe; and in those dogs which have only a rudimentary fifth bone of the tarsus, this bone articulates itself to the lower facet of the great cuneiform bone, which is itself placed in relation with the scaphoid bone, the second cuneiform bone, and the second bone of the metatarsus, counting as one the rudiment in question. But in the dogs that have the fifth toe complete, a fourth cuneiform bone is developed between the first and the second toe, and in that case, in some varieties, the great cuneiform bone elevates itself, and on its internal side offers a large articulating facet to the astragalus. The tail is very variable in the number of caudal vertebrae which range from twenty-one down to three or even two. In following out our inquiry as to the domesticated dog, we naturally seek for that variety which is found with man in his most uncivilized state, as the point of commencement. Some of the New Hollanders, perhaps, approach nearer to the state of nature than any other savages. Let us see what dog is associated with these people. The New Holland dog, or as it is more generally termed, the Australian dog or Dingo, is so wolf-like in its appear: ance, that Bewick figures it as ‘the New South Wales wolf.' Governor Phillip describes the height of this species, when standing erect, as rather less than two feet, and the length two feet and a half. The head, he says, is formed much like that of a fox, the ears short and erect, with whiskers from one to two inches in length on the muzzle. The general colour of the upper parts is pale brown, growing lighter towards the belly; the hind part of the fore-legs, and the fore part of the hinder ones white, as are the feet of both: the tail is of a moderate length, somewhat bushy, but in a less degree than that of a fox: the teeth, he adds, are much the same as is usual in the genus.
Skull of Dingo; from F. Cuvier.
This description may be considered as accurate, with the exception that the animal generally bears a greater affinity to the wolf than the fox. ‘It has,’ says the author last quoted, describing a female, ‘much of the manners of the dog, but is of a very savage nature, and not likely to change 1:... this particular. It laps like other dogs, but neither l, irks nor growls if vexed and teased; instead of which, it erects the hairs of the whole body like bristles, and seems furious: it is very eager after its prey, and is fond of rabbits or chickens raw, but will not touch dressed meat. From its fierceness and agility it has greatly the advantage of other animals much superior in size; for a very fine French fox-dog being put to it, in a moment it seized him by the loins and would have soon put an end to his existence had not help been at hand. With the utmost ease it is able to leap over the back of an ass, and was very near worrying one to death, having fastened on it so that the creature was not able to disengage himself without assistance; it has also been known to run down both deer and sheep. A second
of these is in the possession of Mr. Lascelles, of which we have received much the same account in respect of its ferocity; whence it is scarcely to be expected that this elegant animal will ever become familiar.’
Dampier, in his voyage to New Holland (1699), well describes the Dingos, where he says that his men saw two or three ‘beasts like hungry wolves, lean like so many skeletons, being nothing but skin and bones.” Indeed ill-treatment of the dog seems to be the characteristic of savage or semibarbarous nations. Thus Lawson, in his History of Carolina, “When all the viands were brought in, the first figure began with kicking out the dogs, which are seemingly wolves, made tame with starving and beating, they being the worst dog-masters in the world; so that it is an infallible cure for sore eyes ever to see an Indian's dog fat.' Among the oriental nations the natives of Java, seem to treat i. dogs almost as scurvily as the wild American Indians did in Lawson's time. (DEER, vol. viii., p. 362-3.) To return to the Dingo, Mr. Bennett, in his Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society, vol. i. (1830), thus writes:—“The specimens in the Garden appear to have shaken off some of their original wildness, and to have begun to accustom themselves in some degree to the circumstances in which they are placed. One of them has been for nearly two years in the Society's possession: the second is a much later acquisition.” This is remarkable as indicative of an approach to greater domestication, but the following statement by Mr. Bell, in his work above quoted (1836), carries this much farther, and enables us to trace the first effect of the more mild dominion of man upon this wolf-like dog. “The effect of domestication in producing variation in colour, to which allusion has already been made, has lately been exhibited in a very striking and interesting manner in the menagerie of the Zoological Society. An Australian bitch, or Dingo, had a litter of puppies, the father of which was also of that breed: both of them had been taken in the wild state, but were of the uniform reddish brown colour which belongs to the race, and the mother had never bred before; but the young, bred in confinement, and in a half domesticated state, were all of them more or less spotted.
"If we turn to the dogs of other comparatively uncivilized nations we find the prick ears and other indications of the half-reclaimed animal. The Esquimaux dog, Canis familiaris Borealis, and the Hare-Indian, or Mackenzie River dog, Canis familiaris Lagopus, will occur as instances to those who have been familiar—and who are not?—with the histories of our northern expeditions, and the garden of the Zoological Society of London in the Regent's Park. In that menagerie the three dogs last named might at one time be seen side by side, affording the best opportunities for comparison. Peter, the Esquimaux dog, kept in the garden, was of a dingy white with a tinge of yellow on the upper parts, gradually fading away upon the sides; in short, of nearly a uniform colour, but in general this race, exhibits a predominance of black markings. Thus Akshelli brought from the Polar sea by Mr. Richards in Captain Parry's first voyage, and described by Mr. Children in the Zoological Journal, was almost entirely blackish, or of a colour nearly approaching to black on the upper parts, and white underneath, tail included. Akshelli seldom
barked, but, if displeased, uttered a low wolfish growl, and
was a very powerful dog. Peter was brought to this country by Lieut. Henderson, one of the companions of Captain Ross, in his first voyage, and lived long at the Regent's Park. He was very good tempered and familiar. The Hare-Indian dogs, it is said, are never known to bark in their own country, and it is worthy of note that those which were brought from thence to the Regent's Park never barked at all, but the younger one which was born here barked like the other dogs. It is curious to observe these steps. , ‘The period,” says Mr. Bell, at which the domestication of the dog first took place is wholly lost in the mist of antiquity. The earliest mention of it in the sacred Scripture occurs during the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt.—“But against Israel shall not a dog move his tongue.” It is again mentioned in the Mosaic law in a manner which would seem to show that they were the common scavengers of the Israelitish camp, as they are still in many of the cities of the East *ś shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field: ye shall cast it to the dogs.” A similar office seems to be repeatedly alluded to in the course of the Jewish history:-" Him that dieth in the city shall the dogs eat, and him that dieth in the fields shall the fowls of the air eat ‘’’ a common curse, as it would appear, as it occurs verbatim on no less than three separate occasions in the First Book of Kings; and evidently intimates a violent and disgraceful death, without the honour of sepulture. The dog was considered by the Jews as eminently an unclean animal, and was the figure selected for the most contemptuous insults. It is impossible not to be struck with the striking similarity which exists in the feelings of many oriental nations at the present day, among whom the very phraseology of the Scriptures is, with little modification, applied to a similar purpose. Before we proceed to give a sketch—and our limits will allow us to give no more—of the varieties of the dog as fostered by man, we must say another word as to its origin. The student should be on his guard against being led to a conclusion as to that origin by any particular developments of parts. No animal seems to be more susceptible of modification than the dog, and man has succeeded in producing almost every degree of change in the form of its cranium, its stature, its aspect, and its fur. With regard to the latter it is, in some varieties, almost entirely absent, and we have seen, on the other hand, good close wool from a curious variety of the poodle. One circumstance should be borne in mind throughout an inquiry into the origin of the dog. None of the wild dogs, o apparently living in a state of nature, have ever been found to return to the true form of wolf. The shepherd's dog, a variety which was most probably one of the first that civilized and settled man called in aid to preserve his flocks from beasts and birds of prey and the depredations of rowing human tribes, is remarkable for the capacity of its cranium and its great sagacity.
skull of Shepherd's Dog, Chien de Berger; from F. Cuvier.
Dr. Caius, the physician of queen Elizabeth's time, wrote several papers on Natural History for the use of Gesner, his correspondent and friend. In one of these treatises he divides the British dogs into—1st. The most generous kinds, which he subdivides into the dogs of chace, including the Hounds, viz., the Terrier, Harrier, and Bloodhound; and the Gazehound, Greyhound, Leviner, or Lyonme. and Tumbler:—The Fourlers, viz. the ; : Setter, Water. spaniel, or Finder: —and the Lap #. viz. the Spaniel Gentle, or Comforter. 2nd. The Farm-Dogs, viz. the
Shepherd's Dog, and the Mastiff, or Ban-dog. 3rd. Mongrels, viz. Wappe, Turnspit, and Dancer. Bewick enumeratos the following:—The Shepherd's Dog, the Cur Dog, the Greenland Dog, the Bull-dog, the Mastiff, the Ban-dog, the Dalmatian, or Coach-dog, the Irish Greyhound, the Highland Greyhound, the Gazehound, the Greyhound, the Italian Greyhound, the Lyemmer, the Lurcher, the Tumbler, the Terrier, the Beagle, the Harrier, the Forhound, the Old English Hound, the Kibble Hound, the Blood Hound, the Spanish Pointer, the English Setter, the Neufoundland Dog, the Rough Water Dog, the Large Water Spaniel, the Small Water Spaniel, the Springer, or Cocker, King Charles's Dog, the Pyrame Dog, the Shock Dog, the Lion Dog (a small and rare variety), the Comforter (a small spaniel), the Turnspit, and the Pug. We could add many more to this list, which is long enough. The French divide the dogs into three groups, viz., the Mátins, the Spaniels (including the Hounds and Pointer), and the Dogues (the last containing the Mastiff, Bull-dog, &c.)
trate as far as Calcutta. On these occasions the women remain at home with the dogs, and the encampment is watched by the lattea, which have an almost irreconcileable aversion to Europeans, and in general fly ferociously at a white face. A warmer climate relaxes all their energies, and they dwindle even in the valley of Nepaul.” Those which were in the Zoological Society's Garden in the Regent's Park died soon after their arrival. They were considered very great rarities, and were brought over to this country by Dr. Wallich. The Hon. Edward Gardner, British resident at the court of the Rajah of Nepāl, never heard of any other instance of this variety being domesticated by Europeans.
In all the varieties the period of gestation is sixty-three days. The litter is generally numerous, often as many as eight or nine. The whelps are born blind, and do not see till nine days are fully expired: they sometimes see on the tenth, and sometimes not till the twelfth day. At the fourth month the teeth begin to change, and at two years the growth of the animal is considered complete. A dog is considered old at the expiration of five years, and the limits of his existence rarely exceed twenty years.
It is confidently stated that in all the varieties, if a dog has any white on any part of his tail, that colour will invariably be found at the tip.
Those who would pursue their inquiries as to the varieties of breeds of dogs, should refer to The Sportsman's Cabinet (two quarto volumes entirely devoted to the subject, and beautifully illustrated); Daniel's Rural Sports : the chapter on “Dogs’ in The Menageries (Library of Entertaining Knowledge); and Sir John Sebright's interesting and welldigested little book, in addition to the works referred to in this article.
It may be doubted whether any fossil remains of the Dog, properly so called, have ever been found. The occurrence of the bones of the wolf and the fox in the ossiferous caverns, &c., is well known; but in pursuing this part of the inquiry it should be remembered how difficult it is to distinguish the bones of the wolf from those of the mátin, as Cuvier observes, and the Shepherd's Dog. The Canis Spelaeus of Goldfuss, the remains of which were found at Gailenreuth, bears the strongest resemblance in the form of the cranium generally to the wolf, but the muzzle is shorter and the palate is wider. The Agnotherium of Kaup is described by him to have been as large as a lion, and to be allied to the dog. DOGE was the title of the first magistrate of the re}. of Venice. The first settlers on the islands of the '." were governed by magistrates sent from Padua. er Padua was devastated by the Huns and other barbarians, A.D. 452-60, the colonists of the lagune being left to themselves, each island elected a magistrate called tribune. An annual selection was made of seven from among these tribunes, who constituted the government of the whole community. A council of forty persons chosen by the general assembly of the people had §: legislative and judicial powers. As population and wealth increased, and the community was threatened by hostile neighbours, it was found necessary to concentrate and strengthen the executive, and a chief magistrate for life was elected by the assembly of the people, and was called doge, a corruption of dux, as he was also general of the armed force. The first doge, Paolo Luca Anafesto, was elected in 697. The third doge in succession, Orso Ippato, elected in 724, made war against the Longobards, and took Ravenna, which he restored to the Byzantine emperor, who, as a reward for this service, granted to the republic a tract on the coast of the mainland as far south as the Adige. This first continental possession of Venice, being afterwards enlarged, was called Dogado. The successes of Orso inspired the people with jealousy, and he was assassinated in 737. The office of doge was at the same time abrogated, and an annual magistrate was substituted, but the fifth of these was imprisoned on some charge, and his eyes were put out, after which the people again elected a doge for life in 742. From that time till 1172 about forty doges ruled in succession, nearly one half of whom died a violent death or were deposed, exiled, or had their eyes put out, sometimes by regular trial before the council of forty, and sometimes by popular insurrection. The Quarantia, or Council of Forty, which exercised the government during the interregna, assumed by degrees the
power of electing a o in order to put a stop to the frequently recurring tumult and anarchy; the choice however was subject to confirmation by the assembly of the people. The first doge thus elected was Sebastiano Ziani in 1172, and the Forty made him swear to a new constitution, or fundamental law, by which, instead of the general assembly of the people, the sovereign power was vested in a great council of 470 citizens, elected for one year, but capable of indefinite re-election. These were chosen by twelve electors, two for each sestiere, or district, of the city of Venice alone, who were themselves appointed by the inhabitants of their respective districts, the other islands and territories of the republic having no part in the elections. The Great Council was to appoint six individuals who were to be the doge's counsellors, without whose concurrence no act of the doge should be valid. This council was afterwards called “la Signoria. In important cases the doge was to consult with another council of sixty members, called Pregadi, or “requested,’ taken also from the Great Council. This is the body which in course of time became invested with all the powers of the state, and is generally known by the name of the Venetian Senate. The citizens of Venice, weary of tumult, and being secured in the exclusive right of furnishing the members of the Great or Sovereign Council, seem to have willingly acquiesced in these constitutional changes, and a distribution of golden pieces made by the new doge served to gratify the populace. About a century after, another organic change took place. Pietro Gradenigo being elected doge in 1289, by the influence of the old or aristocratic families, proposed a law which passed the Great Council in 1298 after much opposition and delays, that no one should in future be eligible to sit in that assembly except those who then had a seat in it, or whose fathers, randfathers, and great-grandfathers, had been members of it. The number of the members of the Great Council was no longer limited to 470. Lastly, in 1319 a new law passed the Great Council, by which that assembly declared itself permanent and hereditary, all the members who were then sitting in it (about 600 in number) remaining for life in possession of their seats, their sons who were above twenty-five years of age being likewise admitted, and their descendants after them, to the exclusion of all other families. This decree, known in history as “la serrata del maggior consiglio, established an hereditary and exclusive aristocracy at Venice, which lasted till the end of that republic. The confirmation of the doge by the people was henceforth dispensed with. The doge himself became merely a state pageant, the servant of the councils, which had the power of trying and deposing him, and even sentencing him to death. They took away from him the command of the military and naval forces, his children were excluded from every office of state, and he had no patronage except the prebendal stalls of the cathedral of St. Mark. The doge was president o of all the councils, with a double, or casting vote. e was simply addressed by the title of Messer Doge. (Memori Venete di Giovanni Gallicioli, Venice, 1826; Daru, Histoire de Venise, books 6 and 39; and an article in the Edinburgh Review, No. 91, June, 1827.) The doges at Genoa were at first magistrates for life [Boccan ERA], as at Venice, but the frequent contentions and civil factions among the aspirants to that dignity induced Andrea Doria, in his reform of 1528, to make the office of doge to last only two years. [DoRIAJ DOGGERBANK, a very extensive sand-bank in the North Sea, lying between the east coast of England and the west coast of Holland, and situated between the Well-bank and the Broad-fourteen. The western part of the Doggerbank is about twelve leagues east from Flamborough head, in the east riding of Yorkshire, whence the bank extends in a direction nearly E.N.E. to within twenty leagues of Jutland. In some places this bank is twenty leagues broad, but it is contracted towards the east, and terminates o in a point. The shoalest part is that nearest the Englis coast, where it has mine fathoms water, so that it presents no dangers or difficulties to navigators; in other parts the surface rises generally towards the centre: in some places the depth of water is as great as twenty-seven fathoms. The Doggerbank is a noted station for the cod-fishery, and is much frequented by both English and Dutch fishermen. It is also known in history as the scene of an obstinate naval engagement which took place in the summer of 1781 between the English and Dutch fleets under the respective
commands of Admirals Parker and Zoutman. The disabled condition of the ships on both sides put an end to the battle, in which neither side could claim a victory. DOGMA (66).pa), a word borrowed from the Greek, means an established principle, a fundamental article of belief derived from ...! authority, and is generally applied to the essential doctrines of Christianity which are drawn from the Scriptures, or from the authority of the Fathers. Hence that branch of divinity called dogmatic theology is an exposition and assertion of the various articles of the Christian faith as founded upon authority acknowledged by Christians in general, and is distinguished from scholastic theology, which assumes to establish the truth of the Christian doctrines by argument. John Damascenus was one of the first who wrote an exposition of Christian dogmatics. [DAMAscENUs.] But although the authority of the Scriptures and of the early fathers is acknowledged by all Christians, there are other authorities which are acknowledged only by one communion, and not by others. Thus the Greek church acknowledges the authority of the earlier councils only, while the Roman Catholics look upon the later councils and the bulls and decretals of the Popes as equally positive authority in matters of faith; and the Protestant and reformed churches, rejecting the latter, recur to their respective Synods and confessions of faith. Melancthon wrote a concise exposition of the dogmas of the Protestant or Lutheran church. Among the numerous Roman Catholic writers on dogmatic theology, Bellarmine is one of the most distinguished. Dogmatic theology, as distinct from scholastic as well as from moral theology and Biblical divinity, constitutes a separate chair in several Roman Catholic universities in continental Europe. In the Protestant Universities of Germany there is a chair for the history of dogmas. The business of the professor is to examine the doctrines of the various sects which have divided Christianity, their sources, and the arguments by which they are supported. Such a course of lectures #. an important addition to the study of Ecclesiastical istory. DOG'S-BANE, the English name of the poisonous plant called by botanists Apocynum. DOG'S-TAIL GRASS. [CYNosurus.] DOGWOOD, the English name of various deciduousleaved shrubs belonging to the genus Cornus. [CoRNAcEAE.] They are cultivated as ornamental plants, for ‘he sake of their bright red shoots, which are an embellishment of plantations in the winter; and also for the sake of the charcoal obtained from them, which is one of the best sorts for the manufacture of gunpowder. DOIT or DUYT, a small Dutch copper coin, being the eighth part of a stiver, in value half a farthing. Doit is also a i. of the English grain Troy. See Snelling’s “View of the Coins of Europe,’ 8vo. London: 1766. Kelly's ‘Complete Cambist, i. 219; ii. 278. The word is used by Shakspeare, Coriolanus, act. i., sc. 5. DOL. [ILLE ET WILAINE.] DOLABELLA. (Malacology.) [TECTIBRANCHIATA.] DOLABRIFORM, a term applied in botany to certain fleshy leaves, which are straight at the front, taper at the base, compressed, dilated, rounded, and thinned away at the upper end at the back, so as to bear some resemblance to an old fashioned axe-head. DOLCI, CARLO, an excellent painter, was born at Florence, on Thursday, May 25, 1616. His father Andrew, and his mother's father and brother, Pietro and Bartolomeo Marinari, were all painters, and much esteemed and respected in their native city. At the age of four years, Carlo had the misfortune to lose his father, and his mother was obliged to maintain a numerous family by her industry. At the age of nine she placed him with Jacopo Vignali, a pupil of Roselli, who was famous for his powers of teaching. In four years Carlo could paint. His first efforts attracted the notice of Piero de' Medici, an amateur, who procured him the notice of the court, and he soon became very busily and profitably employed. In 1654, by the advice of his friends, he married. Theresa Bucherelli, by whom he had a numerous family. About 1670, he "as in: vited to paint the likeness of Claudia, the daughter of Ferdinand of Austria, at Innspruck, which pla. he visited for a short time. After his return he was afflicted with melancholy, and he died on Friday, January 17, 1686, leaving one son in holy orders, and seven daughters, of whom Agnese, married to Carlo Baci, a silk merchant, painted in the manner of her father. Dolci's biographer, Baldinucci, attributes his excellence in painting to the goodness of Heaven, as a just reward for his singular piety, in illustration of which numerous anecdotes are told. When invited to take Claudia's portrait, he declined for fear of the length of the journey, never having lost sight of the cathedral dome, and campanile of his favourite city since his birth; and his assent was only procured by obtaining the commands of his confessor, which he obeyed at once. In like manner he was recovered from his first fit of melancholy by the command of his confessor to proceed with a picture of the Virgin. He appears to have been extremely good and amiable, but singularly timid. His last illness was brought on by a remark which Luca Giordano uttered in joke, according to his intimate friend Baldinucci, that his slowness would never allow him to amass 150,000 dollars as the expeditious Giordano had done, but that he must starve. Upon this, poor Carlo seems to have grown bewildered; he decried the works of the other, whom he thought to be taking the bread out of his mouth, and refused food for some time. In the midst of his troubles, his excellent and beloved wife died, and death soon released him from his grief. In all his insanity he was never violent, but dejected and helpless, and as obedient as a child to his ghostly adviser. From his first attempts at painting, Carlo determined to paint none but sacred subjects, and he almost literally observed this rule. His style is pleasing, and full of gentle and tender expressions; his drawing for the most part, but not always, correct; his eolouring varied, soft, bright, and harmonious; sometimes too pearly in its tint. Lanzi traces in his painting something of the manner of Rosselli, who was, as it were, his grandfather in art. He elaborated all he did with the most consummate patience and delicacy. His pictures are numerous, and found in many collections, for he painted many duplicates, and many copies were made by his pupils Alessandro Lomi and Bartolomeo Mancini, and Agnese, his daughter. Onorio Marinari, his cousin and scholar, gave great promise, but died young. (Baldinucci.) DOLCIGNO, or DULCIGNO, in the Albanian tongue DULTZUNE, and in the Turkish OLGUN, a town in Upper Albania, near Scutari. [ALBANIA.] This town is on the eoast, and has a good harbour. The inhabitants, who amount to about 6000, are engaged partly in commerce, but chiefly in piracy. They were regarded till of late as the most formidable pirates of the Gulf of Venice. Some of their seamen enter into the service of the Barbary States. This town, or perhaps Dulcigno Vecchie, which Mr. Hobhouse (in the map prefixed to his Travels) places on the coast, five or six miles more to the north, was antiently called Olcinium, a name containing the same elements as the modern Albanian and Turkish names; the Illyrians of Olcinium followed the same piratical course as the modern Dulcignotes. (Hobhouse, Travels in Albania.) DOLE, a town in France, in the department of Jura, on the north-west bank of the Doubs, a feeder of the Saône, and on the road from Paris to Geneva. It is about 190 miles in a straight line south-east of Paris, in 47° 7' N. lat. and 5°28' E. long. Dole is not clearly identified with any Roman site; but in the town and its environs vestiges of the Romans have been traced. In the middle ages, while Besançon was yet a municipal, republic, Dole was considered as the capital of La Comté de Bourgogne, or La Franche Comté. It was taken and almost destroyed by the French in 1479. It was again attacked by the French, under the Prince of Condé, in 1536. In 1668, La Franche Comté having been conquered by the French, the ramparts of Dole were rased, but repaired by the Spaniards, to whom the town was restored by a treaty of peace the same year. At a subsequent eriod, after La Franche Comté had come finally into the }. of the French, they were finally demolished. The town is pleasantly situated, but its streets are steep, and the houses poor and irregularly built. The church of Nôtre Dame is worthy of notice, and there is a pleasant promenade. The population, in 1832, was 7304 for the town, or 9927 for the whole commune. The inhabitants carry on a trade in corn, wood, and iron; they manufacture hosiery and glass. There are iron-works and coal-mines in or near the town.
There are a library, a high school, an agricultural society, and a theatre. There is also a prison at Dole. Dole is the capital of an arrondissement, which had in 1832 a population of 72,992. DOLGELLY. [MERIon Ethshire.] DO'LICHONYX. [Bob-o-LINK ; EMBERIzidAE] DO'LICHOS. Under this name Linnaeus included the greater part of those tropical twining leguminous plants which bear eatable fruit like the kidney-beans cultivated in Europe A large number of species, ill distinguished from each other, and differing materially in the structure of their fructification, were for so long a time collected under this name that, although they are now broken up into several genera, we shall briefly notice the more remarkable in this place. Dolichos itself is confined to the species with a compressed linear pod, having incomplete cellular dissepiments and ovate seeds with a small oval hilum. Of these D. Catjang, the pulse of which is called Boberloo in India, is an annual, and has somewhat deltoid leaves angular at the back, few-flowered peduncles, and erect pods; it is cultivated in the fields in many parts of India during the dry season, and its seeds are extensively consumed by the poorer natives. D. ligmosus, a perennial, with long racemes of flowers, broad heart-shaped leaflets, and linear sharp-pointed pods, is extremely common all over India, where it is cultivated “during the cold season in gardens and about the doors of the natives, forming not only cool shady arbours, but furnishing them with an excellent pulse for their curries,’ &c. There are several varieties of it constituting the commonest kidney-beans of India. D. biflorus, an annual, with oblong pointed leaflets and scimitar-shaped hairy pods, furnishes the pulse called in India horse-gram; and D. sphaerospermus produces the Calavana or black-eyed peas of Jamaica. Lablab has a compressed scimitar-shaped pod, rough with tubercles at the sutures, and furnished with transverse imperfect cellular partitions, and ovate seeds with a fungous callous linear scar. Lablab vulgaris, the old Dolichos Lablab, is a common plant in the hedges in many parts of India, whence it has travelled into the tropical parts of America. It is a smooth perennial with showy white or purple flowers, and large horizontal pods, containing from three to four seeds. It has a heavy disagreeable bug-like smell, prefers a rich black soil that cannot be flooded b rains, and produces a coarse but wholesome pulse, * eaten by the lower classes in India. Pachyrhizus has a long compressed pod, with kidneyshaped seeds and no dissepiments, and is remarkable for its principal species, P. angulatus (formerly Dolichos bulbosus), producing a root of the size and substance of a turnip. It is reported to have been carried to the Philippines from South America, and thence to have been introduced into the west of Asia. The side leaflets are nearly triangular, that in the middle lozenge-shaped, slightly toothed, and shaggy on both sides. The flowers are very beautiful, of a violet blue colour, and arranged in axillary nearly erect racemes, from one to two feet long. Its root is a common article of food in the Malay archipelago, but no other part of the plant is eaten. In Psophocarpus the pods are oblong, and have four longitudinal wings; the seeds are roundish. It comprehends the Dolichos tetragonolobus, a twining annual, the pods or tuberous roots of which are a common Indian esculent. Canavalia, with long straightish compressed pods, having three short wings at the lower suture, cellular dissepiments, and oblong seeds with a narrow hilum, comprehends the South American Lima beans and the Sword beans of India. The species have a handsomer and firmer foliage than the other genera, and the flowers are usually large and o C. gladiata, the common cultivated species, has often pods as much as two feet long, and varies with red, grey, and white seeds. Finally, the fo. Mucuna, known by its oblong puckered compressed hispid pods, includes all the species from which Cowhage is obtained. [Cowhage or Cowitch.] DOLI'OLUM. [DiPHYDEs, vol. ix., p. 11.] DQ'LIUM. [ENToMostomATA.] DOLLAR. [Money.] DOLLOND, JOHN, an eminent optician, was descended from a French refugee family, settled in Spitalfields, and born on the 10th of June, 1706. His parents were in humble circumstances, his father being an operative silk weaver; and the man who was des