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up and passed through the eye of the next band., The whole of these bands are fixed with iron wedges, driven into the rubble with mallets. Sheets of lead are placed under the iron circles. In the “Encyclopédie Méthodique' there is a detailed account of the various fractures of the dome, and the means employed to repair them. (“Coupole,' Encyclopédie Méthodique, “Architecture.') The dome of St. Paul's cathedral, London, is placed over the intersection of the four naves. The ground plan is a regular octagon, each face of which is 44 feet 83 inches wide: four of these sides are formed by the four great arches of the naves; the other four sides are formed by false arches of the same size; in each of these arches there is a great niche, the base of which is pierced with two arches. By this means eight supports are obtained instead of four, and the corbellings do not project too much, as in other similar constructions. The corbellings gather in a circle, the diameter of which is 104 feet 4 inches, the octagon base being 107 feet. The corbellings are surmounted by a complete entablature 8 feet 3 inches high, decorated with consoles. The drum is set back 3 feet 2+ inches from the face of the frieze, and this intermediate space is occupied by two steps and a seat. The cornice is 98 feet 93 inches from the pavement. The height of the drum from the top of the seat is 62 feet 6% inches to the springing of the internal dome. The wall forming the drum is inclined internally 4 feet 1 13 inches, or about the 12th part of its height. This was designed by the architect to increase the resistance of the walls to the united pressure of the large internal vault and the conical dome which carries the lantern. The interior of the drum is decorated with a continuous stylobate, on which is an order of Corinthian pilasters. The 32 spaces between the pilasters are filled with 24 windows and eight large niches. Externally the drum is decorated with an order of 32 Corinthian columns engaged, which are united to the wall of the drum by eight solid constructions in masonry. In each space between the constructions there are three intercolumnations, the columns being joined at their bases by walls pierced with arches. The external colonnade is surmounted by an entablature, with a mutuled cornice, on which is a balustrade; behind this is a terrace, formed by the recessing back. The attic is 22 feet 4% inches high from the top of the balustrade to the under side of the cornice of the attic. Above the internal order of the drum rises the interior dome, the diameter of which at the springing is 102 feet 23 inches by 51 feet in height. The top of the dome has a circular opening 14 feet 10% inches in diameter. Above the attic are two steps, from which the external dome springs. The external dome is constructed of wood, covered with lead, and decorated with projecting ribs forming pannels, curved at the ends. This dome terminates with a finishing which joins the base of the lantern: the circular gallery formed on the finishing is 274 feet 9 inches above the pavement of the nave. The lantern is supported on a conical tower, terminated by a spherical dome. This tower, which is joined to the internal dome at its base, disengages itself from it at the height of 8 feet 6 inches above the springing of the same. The perpendicular height of this tower is 86 feet 9 inches, and the walls are inclined 24 degrees from the perpendicular: the diameter of the base is 100 feet 1 inch measured externally, and 34 feet 1 inch at the springing of the spherical dome which finishes it. The wall of this tower is built of brick, and is 1 foot 7 inches thick, with circular rings of masonry, fastened with iron bands. The spherical dome at the top of the tower has an opening 8 feet in diameter at the summit. Between the attic and the wall of the tower are 32 walls or buttresses, 3. also serve to bear the ribs of the wooden external onne. About the same time that Wren built the dome of St. Paul's, Hardouin Mansard, a French architect, constructed the dome of the Invalidos at Paris. The plan of this dome is a square, in which is inscribed a Greek cross; in the angles of the square there are four chapels. The dome is raised in the centre of the Greek cross; the base supporting it is an octagonal figure, with four large and four small sides. The four small sides form the faces of the piers of the dome; the large sides are the arched openings of the nave and transverse aisles. A circular entablature is placed over the corbellings, and on the entablature is raised the drum of the dome, the diameter of which is 79 feet 9% inches. The interior of the drum is decorated with a continuous
stylobate, above which are coupled pilasters of the composite order, and the wall is pierced with 12 windows. The dome, which is double, rises from a springing common to both. The lower or internal dome, constructed with masonry, is spherical, and is 83 feet in diameter, with an opening or eye at the top 53 feet 3 inches in diameter, through which part of the outer dome can be seen. The outer dome is of a spheroidal form, and constructed of stone at the base, and of brick above. Externally the dome is formed with a stylobate, on which is a Corinthian order of columns, over which is an attic with pilasters, and buttresses in the form of consoles. The drum is fortified externally by eight projections, placed two and two above each pier of the dome. The external dome is framed of wood, and covered with lead, like St. Paul's, London, but the construction is much heavier. The external diameter of the dome is 85 feet 4 inches, and its height is 57 feet 2% inches. The finishing of the dome is decorated with consoles, on which is formed a circular balcony round the base of the lantern, constructed of wood, which is 39 feet 4% inches high; the lantern above it, with the cross, is 35 feet 4% inches high. The total height from the ground is 330 feet. The dome of the Pantheon at Paris is constructed entirely of stone, and is placed in the centre of a Greek cross. It is supported by four triangular piers strengthened by engaged columns of the Corinthian order. The four piers with the lines of the intermediate arches form externally a large square, each side of which is 74 feet 9 inches. These four piers are pierced above with arched openings, and between the piers with the openings are large arches, the diameter of which is 44 feet 11% inches, and the height 85 feet 5 inches. Between these arches rise the corbellings, which are gathered in to form the circular plan of the drum. The arches and the corbellings are crowned with a large entablature 13 feet 4 inches high. The upper part of the cornice of the entablature is raised 101 feet above the pavement of the nave. The diameter taken at the frieze is 66 feet. The internal drum which is constructed on this entablature is 55 feet 7% inches in height to the springing of the internal dome. The interior of this drum is decorated with a continuous stylobate, which is the basement of a colonnade of 16 Corinthian columns almost isolated from the wall. These columns are 35 feet 2; inches in height. Between the columns are 16 windows; four of which are false, and placed above the four piers of the dome. The colonnade is crowned with an entablature, above which is a large plinth which rises to the springing of the internal dome. The internal dome is 66 feet 84 inches in diameter at the springing, and is decorated with octagonal caissons or sinkings with a rose in the centre of each. The eye at the top of the dome is 31 feet 3% inches in diameter. Through this eye is seen the upper part of another or intermediate dome. The external dome is placed on a circular base 108 feet 74 inches in diameter and square at the bottom. The angles are strengthened by flying buttresses. Above the corbellings a circular wall is constructed, forming an external continuous stylobate which supports an external colonnade. The external colonnade constructed on the stylobate forms a peristyle round the dome, and is composed of 32 isolated columns of the Corinthian order 36 feet 5} inches high. This colonnade is divided into four parts by the solid constructions in masonry raised over the four piers. The external colonnade is surmounted with an entablature and balustrade above it. There is an attic constructed above the circular wall of the drum, set back 13 feet 10 inches, and pierced with 16 windows, twelve of which light the space between the internal dome and the intermediate dome which bears the lantern. This attic is terminated with a cornice with a step or plinth above. The external dome 77 feet 83 in diameter, measured on the outside, is constructed with masonry; the height is 45 feet 9% inches from the top of the attic to the underside of the finishing against which the curve terminates. The outside of the dome is covered with lead, and is equally divided vertically by 16 projecting ribs. The intermediate dome, built for the purpose of carrying the lantern, was intended to be decorated with jo, the painter, and we believe it has since been decorated. The form of this dome resembles the small end of an egg: its springing commences at the base of the attic at the point where the internal dome begins to disengage itself. This dome is 50 feet 3 inch high, and 70 feet 3} inches in diameter, and is pierced with four great openings at the lower part 37 feet 3 inches high, and 30 feet 10% inches wide at the base. On a circular platform above the summit of the dome are eight piers with arches, which support the finishing against which the ex. dome terminates. Above this is the lantern of the
Very full details of the most remarkable domes in Europe are given in the “Encylopédie Méthodique' (Architecture), from which this brief notice is in a great measure taken. For an account of the construction of wooden-ribbed domes, see Nicholson's Architectural Dictionary; also the section of the Pantheon dome by Taylor and Cressy; and the work on St. Peter's, by Fontana.
The following admeasurements of most of the principal domes of Europe are from Mr. Ware's ‘Tracts on Vaults and Bridges.”
DOMENICHINO, DOMENI'CO ZAMPIERI, called DOMENICHINO, was born at Bologna, in 1581, of poor parents. According to some authorities, his first master was Denis Calvart; but Bellori gives him Fiammingo for his first teacher. The latter, entertaining a jealous dislike (says the biographer) to the Caracci, beat his pupil, and turned him out of doors, because he found the boy copying a design by Annibale. On the occasion of his dismissal being made known to Agostino Caracci, he was admitted to the study of the Caracci, and he soon gained one of the prizes which Lodovico customarily distributed, to the surprise of his fellow-students, who had expected little from a youth of his bashful, retiring, awkward manners. After visiting Parma, Domenichino went to Rome, where he studied and worked for some time under Annibale Caracci. He afterwards obtained the patronage of Cardinal Gieronimo Agucchi, and while he lived in his house painted many pictures for him. Besides painting, he studied architecture, and was appointed architect to the apostolic palace by Gregory XV. After the death of that pontiff, finding himself somewhat reduced in circumstances, A., a eiving an invitation to Naples, he removed thithead..!... is wife and children. He died in 1641. During his fi, 9 he was much respected. He formed a particularly strict friendship with Albano, in whose house he lived for two years when he first arrived in Rome.
Domenichino was so slow in his early progress as to disappoint many of his friends, and he had the appellation of Bue (ox) among his fellow-students; but Annibale Caracci, who perceived in him the marks of that genius which he afterwards developed, told the jeerers that their nickname was only applicable to the patience and fruitful industry of the laborious student. He retained the utmost deliberation in his mode of working to the last; and it was his custom, if he had anything to design, not to proceed at once to work with his pencil, but to reflect some time upon
his subject; when, however, he once took it in hand, slow as he was, he did not leave it until he had completed it. It is said that he had many maxims which justified his slowness: such as, that no line was worthy of an artist which was not in his mind before it was traced by his hand. He entered so fully into his subject, that he was once surprised acting the scene which he had to paint, in person, by Annibale Caracci, who burst into raptures at so instructive a lesson. Annibale ever sympathized with enthusiasm and activity of will in painting. Domenichino only left his retired study to make sketches and observations upon expression in active life, and spent much of his time in reading history and poetry. Domenichino was profoundly studied in his drawing, rich and natural in his colouring, and, above all, correct and lifesome in his expression. Annibale is said to have been decided in his judgment between two pictures of the Scourging of St. Andrew, painted in competition by Domenichino and Agostino Caracci, by hearing an old woman point out with much earnestness the beauties of Domenichino's to a little child, describing every part as if it were a living scene, while she passed the other over in silence. To the graver design of the Bolognese school Domenichino added something of the ornamental manner of the Venetian, his pictures being rich in the accessaries of architecture and costume. His genius, however, is not characterized by great invention, and he has been accused of borrowing too directly from the works of others; and his draperies have been confessed by his admirers to be harsh and too scanty in the folds. Nevertheless, he has been esteemed by the best judges (and among them are the Caracci and Nicholas Poussin) as one of the first of painters, and by some second only to Raphael. Such, however, he will never be thought by the world at large. Domenichino excelled also in landscape, and was famous for his admirable execution of the figures with which he enlivened them. His principal works are at Rome and Naples; among them the Communion of St. Jerome and the Martyrdom of St. Agnes are the most celebrated. (Bellori.) DOMESDAY BOOK, the register of the lands of England, framed by order of King William the Conqueror. It was sometimes termed Rotulus Wintoniae, and was the book from which judgment was to be given upon the value, tenures, and services of the lands therein described. The original is comprised in two volumes, one a large folio, the other a quarto. The first begins with Kent, and ends with Lincolnshire; is written on three hundred and eighty-two double pages of vellum, in one and the same hand, in a small but plain character, each page having a double column; it contains thirty-one counties. After Lincolnshire (fol. 373), the claims arising in the three ridings in Yorkshire are taken notice of, and settled; then follow the claims in Lincolnshire, and the determinations of the Jury upon them (fol. 375); lastly, from fol. 379 to the end there is a recapitulation of every wapentake or hundred in the three ridings of Yorkshire; of the towns in each hundred, what number of carucates and ox-gangs are in every town, and the names of the owners placed in a very small character above them. The second volume, in quarto, is written upon four hundred and fifty double pages of vellum, but in a single column, and in a large fair character, and contains the counties of Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. In these counties the “liberi homines' are ranked separate; and there is also a title of “Invasiones super Regem.” These two volumes are preserved, among other records of the Exchequer, in the Chapter House at Westminster: and, at the end of the second, is the following memorial in capital letters of the time of its completion: ‘Anno Millesimo Octogesimo Sexto ab Incarnatione Domini, vigesimo vero regni Willielmi, facta est ista Descriptio, non solun, per hos tres Comitatus, sed etiam per alios.' From internal evidence there can be no doubt but that the same year, 1086, is assignable as the date of the first volume. In 1767, in consequence of an address of the House of Lords, George III. gave directions for the publication of this Survey. It was not, however, till after i770 that the work was actually commenced. Its publication was entrusted to Mr. Abraham Farley, a gentleman of learning as well as of great experience in records, who had almost daily recourse to the book for more than forty years. It was completed early in 1783, having been ten years in passing through the press, and thus became generally ac
Jessible to the antiquary and topographer. It was printed in fac-simile, as far as regular types, assisted by the representation of particular contractions, could imitate the original. In 1816 the commissioners upon the Public Records published two volumes supplementary to Domesday, which now form one set with the volumes of the Record: one of these contains a general introduction, accompanied with two different indexes of the names of places, an alphabetical index of the tenants in capite, and an ‘Index Rerum.” The other contains four records; three of them, namely, the Exon Domesday, the Inquisitio Eliensis, and the Liber Winton, contemporary with the Survey; the other record, called “Boldon Book,” is the Survey of Durham, made in 1183, by bishop Hugh Pudsey. These supplementary volumes were published under the superintendence of Sir Henry Ellis. Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Durham were not included in the counties described in the Great Domesday ; nor does Lancashire appear under its
proper name; but Furness, and the northern part of that
county, as well as the south of Westmorland and part of Cumberland are included within the West Riding of York. shire: that part of Lancashire which lies between the rivers Ribble and Mersey, and which at the time of the Survey comprehended six hundreds and 188 manors, is subjoined to Cheshire. Part of Rutlandshire is described in the counties of Northampton and Lincoln; and the two antient hundreds of Atiscross and Existan, deemed a part of Cheshire in the Survey, have been since transferred to the counties of Flint and Denbigh. In the account of Gloucestershire we find a considerable portion of Monmouthshire included, seemingly all between the rivers Wye and Usk. Kelham thinks it probable that the king's commissioners might find it impossible to take any exact survey of the three counties northernmost of all, as they had suffered so much from the Conqueror's vengeance. As to Durham, he adds, all the country between the Tees and Tyne had been conferred by Alfred on the bishop of this see; and at the coming in of the Conqueror he was reputed a countpalatine. The order generally observed in writing the Survey was to set down in the first place at the head of every county (except Chester and Rutland) the king's name, Reir Willielmus, and then a list of the bishops, religious houses, churches, any great men, according to their rank, who held of the king in capite in that county, likewise of his thains, ministers, and servants; with a numerical figure in red ink before them, for the better finding them in the book. In some counties the cities and capital boroughs are taken notice of before the list of the great tenants is entered, with the particular laws or customs which prevailed in each of them; , and in others they are inserted promiscuously. After the list of the tenants, the manors and possessions themselves which belong to the king, and also to each owner throughout the whole county, whether they lie in the same or different hundreds, are collected together and minutely noted, with their under-tenants. The king's one. under the title of Terra Regis, always stand rSt. For the adjustment of this Survey certain commissioners, called the king's justiciaries, were appointed. In folios 164 and 181 of the first volume we find them designated as “Legati Regis.' Those, for the midland counties at least, if not for all the districts, were Remigius, bishop of Lincoln, Walter Giffard, earl of Buckingham, Henry de Ferrers, and Adam, the brother of Eudo Dapifer, who probably associated with them some principal person in each shire. These inquisitors, upon the oaths of the sheriffs, the lords of each manor, the presbyters of every church, the reves of every hundred, the bailiffs and six villains of every village, were to enquire into the name of the place, who held it in the time of king, Edward, who was the present possessor, how many hides in the manor, how many carucates in demesne, how many homagers, how many villains, how many cotarii, how many servi, what free-men, how many tenants in socage, what quantity of wood, how much meadow and pasture, what mills and fish-ponds, how much added or taken away, what the gross value in king Edward's time, what the present value, and how much each free-man, or soc-man had or has. All this was to be triply estimated: first, as the estate was held in the time of the Confessor; #hen as it was bestowed by king William ; and thirdly, as
its value stood at the formation of the Survey. The jurors were, moreover, to state whether any advance could be made in the value. Such are the exact terms of one of the inquisitions for the formation of this Survey, still preserved in a register of the monastery of Ely. The writer of that part of the Saxon Chronicle which relates to the Conqueror's time, informs us with some degree of asperity, that not a hide or yardland, not an ox, cow, or hog, was omitted in the census. . It should seem, however, that the jurors, in numerous instances, framed returns of a more extensive nature than were absolutely required by the king's precept, and it is perhaps on this account that we have different kinds of descriptions in different counties. From the space to which we are necessarily limited, it is impossible to go more minutely into the contents of this extraordinary record, to enlarge upon the classes of tenantry enumerated in it, the descriptions of land and other property therewith connected, the computations of money, the territorial jurisdictions and franchises, the tenures and services, the criminal and civil jurisdictions, the ecclesiastical matters, the batorical and other particular events alluded to, or the illustrations of antient manners, with information relating to all of which it abounds, exclusive of its particular and more immediate interest in the localities of the country for the county historian. As an abstract of population it fails. The tenants in capite, including ecclesiastical corporations, amounted scarcely to 1400; the under-tenants to somewhat less than 8000. The total population, as far as it is given in the record itself. amounts to no more than 282,242 persons. In Middlesex, pannage (payment for feeding) is returned for 16,535, in Hertfordshire for 30,705, and in Essex for 92,991 hogs; yet not a single swine-herd (a character so well known in the Saxon times) is entered in these counties. In the Norman period, as can be proved from records, the whole of Essex was, in a manner, one continued forest; yet once only in that county is a forester mentioned, in the entry concerning Writtle. Salt-works, works for the production of lead and iron, mills, vineyards, fisheries, trade, and the manual arts, must have given occupation to thousands who are unrecorded in the survey; to say nothing of those who tended the flocks and herds, the returns of which so greatly enlarge the pages of the second volume. In some counties we have no mention of a single priest, even where churches are found; and scarcely any inmate of a monastery is recorded beyond the abbot or abbess, who stands as a tenant in capite. These remarks might be extended, but they are sufficient for their purpose. They show that, in this point of view, the Domesday Survey is but a partial register. It was not intended to be a record of population further than was required for ascertaining the geld. There is one important fact, however, to be gathered from its entries. It shows in detail how long a time elapsed before England recovered from the violence attendant on the Norman Conquest. The annual value of property, it will be found, was much lessened as compared with the produce of estates in the time of Edward the Confessor. In general, at the Survey, the king's lands were more highly rated than before the Conquest; and his rent from the burghs was greatly increased; a few also of the larger tenants in capite had improved their estates; but, on the whole, the rental of the kingdom was reduced, and twenty years after the Conquest the estates were, on an average, valued at little more than three fourths of the former estimate. An instance appears in the county of Middletox, where no Terra Regis however occurs. he first clonbeaded t. R. E., shows the value of the estates in the t oliate ing Edward the Confessor; the second, the sums at Sanch they were rated at the time of the Survey, tempore Regis Willielmi —
We shall now say a few words on the uses and consequences of the Survey. By its completion the king acquired an exact knowledge of the possessions of the crown. It afforded him the names of the landholders. It furnished him with the means of ascertaining the military strength of the country; and it pointed out the possibility of increasing the revenue in some cases, and of lessening the demands of the tax-collectors in others. It was moreover a register of appeal for those whose titles to their property might be disputed. Appeals to the decision of this Survey occur at a very early period. Peter of Blois notices an appeal of the monks of Croyland to it in the reign of Henry I. Others occur in the Abbreviatio Placitorum from the time of John downward. In later reigns the pleadings upon antient demesne are extremely numerous: and the proof of antient demesne still rests with the Domesday Survey. Other cases in which its evidence is yet appealed to in our courts of law, are in proving the antiquity of mills, and in setting up prescriptions in non decimando. By stat. 9 Edw. II., called Articuli Cleri, it was determined that prohibition should not lie upon demand of tithe for a new mill. The mill, therefore, which is found in Domesday must be presumed older than the 9th Edw. II., and is, of course, discharged, by its evidence, from tithe. On the discharge of abbey-lands from tithes, as proved by Domesday, it may be proper to state that pope Paschal II. at an early period, exempted generally all the religious from paying tithes of lands in their own hands. This privilege was afterwards restrained to the four favoured Orders, the Cistercians, the Templars, the Hospitallers, and the Premonstratensians. So it continued till the fourth Council of Lateran in 1215, when the privilege was again restrained to such lands as the abbeys had at that time, and was declared not to extend to any after-purchased lands. And it extends only to lands dum propriis manibus coluntur. From the paucity of dates in early documents, the Domesday Survey is §§ frequently the only evidence which can be adduced that the lands claiming a discharge were vested in the monastery previous to the year expressed in the Lateran Council. Although in early times, Domesday, precious as it was always deemed, occasionally travelled, like other records, to distant parts, till 1696 it was usually kept with the king's seal, at Westminster, by the side of the Tally Court in the exchequer, under three locks and keys, in the charge of the auditor, the chamberlains, and deputy chamberlains of the exchequer. In the last-mentioned year it was deposited among other valuable records in the Chapter House, where it still remains. The two most important works for the student of the Domesday Survey are Kelham's Domesday Book illustrated, 8vo., Lond, 1788, and the General Introduction to the survey, reprinted by command of His Majesty under the direction of the commissioners on the Public Records, 2 vols., 8vo., 1833, accompanied by fresh indices. A translation of the whole, under the title of “Dom-Boc,’ was undertaken early in the present century by the Rev. William Bawdwen, vicar of Hooton Pagnell, in Yorkshire, who ublished Yorkshire, with the counties of Derby, Notting}. Rutland, and Lincoln, in 4to., Doncaster, 1809, followed by the counties of Middlesex, Hertford, Buckingham, Oxford, and Gloucester, 4to., Doncaster, 1812; but the work went no further. County portions of this record will be found translated in most of our provincial histories; the best are undoubtedly those in Dugdale's Warwickshire, Nichols's Leicestershire, Hutchins's Dorsetshire, Nash's Worcestershire, Bray and Manning's Survey, and Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire. Mr. Henry Penruddocke Wyndham published Wiltshire, extracted from Domesday Book, 8vo. Salisb. 1788, and the Rev. Richard Warner, Hampshire, 4to. Lond., 1789. Warwickshire has been published recently by Mr. Reader. There are numerous other publications incidentally illustrative of Domesday topography, which the reader must seek for according to the county as to which he may desire information. . DOMINANT, in music, the fifth of the key. Thus, if the key be c, the dominant is G. DOMINGO, S.T. [Hispaniola.] DOMINI'CA, one of the Antilles, belonging to the Eng. lish, and lying between the French islands of Martinique and Guadaloupe: the parallel of 15° 18' N. lat. and the meridian of 61. 28' W. long, pass through the island. Do* P, C., No, 540,
minica was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and received its name in consequence of its being first seen on a Sunday. The right of occupancy was long claimed equally by England, Spain, and France, without any active measures being taken on the part of any of those powers for its exclusive possession; so that it became virtually a kind of neutral ground until the year 1759, when its possession was assumed by the English, and their right to hold it was formally recognized, in 1763, by the treaty of Paris. On this occasion commissioners were sent out by the English government, who sold the unsettled lands by auction to the highest bidders. In this way nearly half the island was disposed of in small lots, at prices amounting on the average to 65s. per acre. The occupiers of lands already settled were confirmed in their possession by leases granted for forty years, and renewable, at the annual rent of 2s. per acre. In 1778 Dominica was taken by a French squadron under the Marquis de Bouillé, but was restored to England at the peace in 1783. In 1805 the island was again attacked by the French fleet under Admiral Villeneuve, but was successfully defended by the garrison under Sir George Prevost.
Dominica is 28 miles long and 16 miles broad in the broadest part; but its mean breadth is not more than 9 miles. No regular survey has ever been made; but the area is computed at 260 square miles. The origin of the island is volcanic. Pumice-stone, sulphur, and other volcanic productions are found. An attempt was recently made to trade in sulphur with the United States, but the speculation proved unsuccessful. There are numerous quarries of a volcanic lava, sufficiently durable for the purpose of ordinary buildings, which are worked for the use of the colony. The surface of the island is rugged, and its mountains are among the highest in the Antilles. Morne Diablotin is 5300 feet above the sea. The valleys are very fertile, and watered by numerous streams, of which there are thirty in different parts. About the centre of the island, and about six miles from the town of Roseau, on the top of a high mountain, is a fresh-water lake, with an area of several acres, and in some parts unfathomable. The soil in the valleys having been washed down from the hills by the periodical rains and mixed with decayed vegetable matter, has formed a light brown coloured mould, which is highly productive; towards the coast the soil is a fine deep black mould on a subsoil of yellow brick clay. The island contains an abundance of large timber-trees of the kinds commonly found in the West India Islands; among these the trunks of the gum-trees are hollowed out to form canoes. The streams abound with excellent fish, among which are mullets, pike, eels, and crayfish; the fishery on the coast also yields abundantly for the supply of the inhabitants.
The principal produce of Dominica consists of sugar (and of course rum) and coffee; the quality of the latter has a higher repute than that of any other of the West India Islands. The island is unequally divided into ten parishes. The town Roseau is in St. George's parish, on the southwest side of the island, and on a tongue of land, having Woodbridge Bay on the north and Charlotteville Bay on the south. The town is regularly built, with long and wide paved streets, which intersect each other at right angles. The roadstead is safe, although the anchorage is far from good, from October to August; but during the hurricane months a heavy sea frequently rolls in from the south. Prince Rupert's Bay, on the north-west side of the island, is at all times safe and commodious.
The population, according to a census taken in 1833, consisted of—
- Males. Females. Total. Whites . . . 38.2 338 720 Free coloured people 1,673 2, 141 3,814 Slaves . 6,802 7,324 14, 126 Total, 8,857 9,803 18,660
The population of the town consisted of 244 whites, 1289 free coloured people, and 739 slaves; altogether, 2272 persons. There were in 1835, in Roseau, 3 schools, in which there were 245 children, taught according to the Madras system; there was one other school, in the parish of St. Joseph, wherein 40 children were instructed. The greater part of the inhabitants profess the Roman Catholic faith.
The shipping that arrived and sailed from the island in 1835 were as follows :
- Wol, IX-L
week. The dominical letter for any year is the letter on
Example 1. What was the dominical letter of the year 763, before Christ, old style? Look on the left, opposite to 63, in the column which has 7 among the headings, and the small letter there found is e. Hence E was the dominical letter of 763 B.c., or the fifth of January was a Sunday. Example 2. What is the dominical letter of 1819, after Christ, old style? Look on the left, opposite to 19, in the column which has 18 among its headings, and the large letter there found is E. Hence E is the dominical letter of 1819 (old style), or the fifth of January was a Sunday. Example 3. What will be the dominieal letters of the year 1896, new style? Look on the right, opposite to 96, in the column which has 18 among the headings, and E D is found. Hence in this leap-year E is the dominical letter § * opening of the year, or the fifth of January will be a Nuns ay. Having found the dominical letter for a given year, the
following table will assist in finding the day of the week
. which a given day of the month falls. It is the list of
days which have A for their letter.
January . . . 1 8 15 22 29
Thus the dominical letter being E, we ask on what day the 20th of July falls. The E being Sunday, the A is o, and July 16 is Wednesday, whence July 20 is unday