« EelmineJätka »
DOMINICAN S. [BLAck FRIARs.]
DOMITIA/NUS, TITUS FLAVIUS, younger son of the Emperor Wespasianus, succeeded his brother Titus as emperor, A.D. 81. Tacitus (Histor., iv., 51,68) gives an unfavourable account of his previous youth. The beginning of his reign was marked by moderation and a display of justice bordering upon severity. He affected great zeal for the reformation of public morals, and punished with death several persons guilty of adultery, as well as some vestals who had broken their vows. He also forbade under severe penalties the practice of emasculation. He completed several splendid buildings begun by Titus; *. an Odeum, or theatre for musical performances. e most important event of his reign was the conquest of Britain by Agricola; but Domitian grew jealous of that great commander's reputation, and recalled him to Rome. His suspicious temper and his pusillanimity made him afraid of every man who was distinguished either by birth and connexions or by merit and popularity, and he mercilessly sacrificed many to his fears, while his avarice led him to put to death a number of wealthy persons for the sake of their property. The usual pretext for these murders was the charge of conspiracy or treason; and thus a numerous race of informers was created and maintained by this system of spoliation. His cruelty was united to a deep dissimulation, and in this particular he resembled Tiberius rather than Caligula or Nero. He either put to death or drove away from Rome the philosophers and men of letters; Epictetus was one of the exiled. He found, however, some flatterers among the poets, such as Martial, Silius Italicus, and Statius. The latter dedicated to him his Thebais and Achilleis, and commemorated the events of his reign in his Silvae. But in reality the reign of Domitian was anything but favourable to the Roman arms, except in Britain. In Maesia and Dacia, in Germany and Pannonia, the armies were defeated, and whole provinces lost. (Tacitus, Agricola, 4.1.) Domitian himself went twice into Maesia to oppose the Dacians, but after several defeats he concluded a dis
raceful peace with their chief Decebalus, whom he acknowedged as king, and agreed to pay him a tribute, which was afterwards discontinued by Trajan; and yet Domitian made a pompous report of his victories to the senate, and assumed the honour of a triumph. In the same manner he triumphed over the Catti and the Sarmatians, which made Pliny the Younger say that the triumphs of Domitian were always evidence of some advantages gained . the enemies of Rome. In 95 A.D. Domitian assumed the consulship for the seventeenth time, together with Flavius Clemens, who had married Domitilla, a relative of the emperor. In that year a persecution of the Christians is recorded in the history of the church, but it seems that it was not directed particularly against them, but against the Jews, with whom the Christians were then confounded by the Romans. Suetonius ascribes the proscriptions of the Jews, or those who lived after the manner of the Jews, and whom he styles as ‘improfessi,’ to the rapacity of Domitian. Flavius Clemens and his wife were among the victims. [CLEMENs RoMANUs.] In the following year, A. D. 96, under the consulship of Fabius Valens and C. Antistius Vetus, a conspiraey was formed against Domitian among the officers of his guards and several of his intimate friends, and his wife herself is said to have participated in it. The immediate cause of it was his increasing suspicions, which threatened the life of every one around him, and which are said to have been stimulated by the predictions of astrologers and soothsayers, whom he was very ready to consult. He was killed in his apartments by several of the conspirators, after struggling with them for some time, in his
Coin of Domitian.
British Museum, Actual size. Copper, Weight, 432d grains,
forty-fifth year, after a reign of fifteen years. On the news of his death, the senate assembled and elected M. Cocceius Nerva emperor. The character of Domitian is represented by all antient historians in the darkest colours, as being a compound of timidity and cruelty, of dissimulation and arrogance, of self-indulgence and stern severity towards others. He punished satirists, but encouraged secret informers. He took a delight in inspiring others with terror, and Dion relates a singular banquet, to which he invited the senators, with all the apparatus of a funeral and an execution. He is also said to have spent whole hours in hunting after and killing flies. At one time, before his becoming emperor, he had applied himself to literature and poetry, and he is said to have composed several poems and other works. (Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion, and Pliny the Younger.) DON, the (Douna or Tuna in Tartar, and Tongoul in Calmuck), a considerable river of European Russia, and in the latter part of its course the boundary between Europe and Asia. It rises about 54° N. lat. in the small lake Ivanofskoe, in the government of Tula, close to the borders of the government of Ryazan, and thence flows in a general S. S. E. direction until it has passed Paulofsk, after .# the southern extremity of the government of Ryazan an north-western parts of that of #. and traversing the reater part of the government of Voronesh. Within these mits the Don receives the Sosva, Voronesh near Tavtof, and Sosna near Korotoszak. From Paulofsk it inclines more to the east, and quitting the government of Voronesh, enters the western districts of i. territory of the Don Cossacks: soon afterwards it turns due east, and after having been joined by the Khoper at Khopeiskaya, the Medveditsa near Ostrofskaya, and the Ilawla above Katchokinskaya, flows with numerous bendings until it approaches the mountains of the Volga, through which it forces a passage about forty-five miles from that river. The Don now proceeds in a south-western and then a W. S. W. direction towards its mouth, near which it receives on its right bank, above New Tsherkask, the Donecz, or Little Don, the most considerable of its tributaries, which rises above Belgorod, in the government of Kursk, and is upwards of four hundred miles in length. On its left bank the Don is joined by the Manitsh, which rises on the southern termination of the Irgeni mountains, crosses the great Caucasian steppe, flows through lake Bolshoi, and falls into the Don at Tsherkask. The Don discharges its waters by three branches into the sea of Azof, not far from Nachikgesan, Asof, and Tsherkask, about 46° 40' N. lat. The length of its course is estimated at about 900 miles, but the distance from its source to its mouth would not exceed 490. It has a very slow current, and abounds in shallows and sand-banks, but has neither falls nor whirlpools. In spring it overflows its banks, and forms broad and unwholesome swamps; it is navigable as high as Zadonsk, and has depth of water enough from the middle of April to the end of June for the larger description of vessels, but is so shallow during the remainder of the year, that there is scarcely two feet of water above the sand-banks. Its mouths are so much choked with sand as to be unnavigable for any but flat boats. The current of its tributaries is also sluggish, and none but the Donecz are navigable. As far as Voronesh, near the junction of the Voronesh and Don, the river flows between fertile hills; but from that point until its passage through the chain of the Volga, its left bank is skirted by lowlands, and its right by a range of uplands; thence to its confluence with the Donecz, its high bank is skirted by chalk hills, and its left is bounded by a continued steppe. The waters of the Don are impregnated with chalk, and are muddy, and prejudicial to the health of those who are unused to them: they however abound in fish, though in this respect the Don is much inferior to the Volga. The Don is the Tanais of Herodotus (iv., 57) and other Greek and Roman writers. Herodotus states that the river rises in a large lake and flows into one still larger, the Maietis, or sea of Azof. The Hyrgis, which he mentions as a tributary of the Don, appears to be the Donecz. DON-COSSACKS, the Territory of the (or, in Russian, Donskich Kosak of Zembla), so called from the river Don, is a free country which acknowledges the Russian sovereign as its chief, but is not reduced to the condition of a province, or organized as a government, like other parts of the empire. It lies between 47° and 54° N. lat., and 55° and 67° E. long.; and is bounded on the north by the governments of Voronesh and Saratof, on the east by Astrachan, on the south-east by the government of Caucasia, on the south-west by the sea of Azof and the Nogay Steppes in Taurida, and on the west by the governments of Ekaterinoslaf and the Ukraine. It occupies an area of about 76,000 square miles. The general character of the country is that of a plain, in many parts consisting entirely of steppes, especially in the south-eastern districts bordering on the Sal and Manitsh. The interior is a complete flat, but in the north and along the banks of the Don there are slight elevations, and the south-eastern parts bordering on lake Bolskoi are traversed by low offsets of the Caucasian mountains. The rest of the country, with the exception of the parts immediately adjacent to the banks of the larger rivers, is a broad steppe, which contains abundance of luxuriant pasturage intermixed with tracts of sand and sluggish streams. The whole territory does not contain a single forest, and even brushwood is only occasionally found. The northern districts are far the best adapted for agriculture; the southern, where the soil is saline and sandy, for grazing. The steppes are full of low artificial mounds and antient tumuli, which are so numerous in some places as to give rise to the conjecture that they are the vestiges of some great and extinct race, probably of Mongolian origin, as the rude images in stone erected over some of them bear, in their features and peculiar style of head-dress, traces of that origin. Many of these tombs have been opened, and found to contain gold and silver urns, rings, buekles, &c. The chief river is the Don, which enters the territory in the west, winds across it to the east, and then turning suddenly round, flows through the eastern and southern districts to the sea of Azof. In its course through this country it is joined by the Khoper, Medwedicsa, Ilawla, Sal, Donecz, and several minor streams. Besides these there are several other rivers which discharge their waters into the sea of Azof, such as the Krinka, Kagalnik, Yega, &c.; and there are numerous streams in the steppes, of which the greater part terminate in marshes, and are dry in summer. The principal lake is the Bolskoi, an enlarged bed of the Manitsh, about 70 miles long and 9 broad, the length of which forms for that distance the boundary between the territory of the Don-Cossacks and Caucasia. Next to this the most considerable lakes are those of Nowoe and StaroeOsero, which are covered in summer with an incrustation of salt from one to two inches in thickness, of which they furnish an abundant supply. No mineral springs have yet been discovered. The country enjoys a mild and not unhealthy climate. The spring sets in early, and in the summer, which is of long continuance, the land is refreshed by frequent showers; the autumn is at times damp and foggy, and the winter, though clear and not accompanied with much snow, is severe and attended by much stormy weather. The rivers are closed by ice from the end of November to the month of February. Failures of the harvest are rare, but the inhabitants often suffer severely from the ravages of the locust, which is the scourge of the eountry. Agriculture, eattle-breeding, the fisheries, and the cultivation of the vine, eonstitute the principal occupations of the Don-Cossacks; but, according to the most recent writer on this country, Schnitzler, agriculture, not the rearing of cattle, as most authors have affirmed, forms the chief employment of the people. In the low-lands of the north, which lie along the banks of rivers, the soil is very fertile, and produces grain of various kinds, such as rye, barley, wheat, oats, maize, and buckwheat; also peas, flax, and hemp. But even in the south, fields are found in the heart of the steppes at a distance of thirty and even forty miles from the Don, with rich crops of grain upon them; these fields are cultivated by the richer class of proprietors. In 1832, 91,486 tshetwerts of winter-corn (about 68,370 quarters), and 359,643 (about 260,230 qrs.) of spring-corn were sown ; the former yielded two, and the latter three grains for one, without the use of manure or much cost of labour. The average crops of wheat are estimated at about two millions of tshetwerts (1,447,180 quarters) annually. None of the Cossack families are without gardens, in which they raise vegetables of the ordinary descriptions, melons, cucumbers, and fruit; the last is not however an object of much attention. The culture of the vine was introduced by Peter the Great, and has been followed up with
spirit, especially along the banks of the Don, where a very pleasant wine, not unlike Champaign, is made, and has become a favourite beverage in Russia. There are superior kinds, the Stanitze and Zimlyanskoye, which resemble Burgundy in colour and flavour; but the favourite species is the Vinomarozka, or frozen wine, which is made from a mixture of wine with brandy and the juice of various berries. In what is called the “First Natshalstoe (district) of the Don,’ which lies east of Tsherkask, there are at present 9710 vineyards, and in the ‘Second,’ northeast of Tsherkask, 2590; these vineyards contain from 200 to 800, and even as many as 1000 vines, and about fifteen different kinds of grasses. The inferior descriptions of wine are red ones, of which about 70,000 vedros (about 225,800 gallons) are annually sent to Moscow, and 30,000 (about 96,770 gallons) to Kharkof, beside considerable quantities to Kursk and other parts. The yearly sale of these wines produces about two millions of roubles, or 92,000l. sterling. The vines also yield about 10,000 vedros (32,250 gallons) of brandy spirit annually. The rearing of cattle is pursued with great industry both by the Cossacks and Calmucks; the wealth of the more affluent among them consists, in fact, of their numerous herds and flocks, and they have large Khutors, or cattlefarms, for breeding them in the steppes. The native Cossack horse is small and spare in flesh, with a thin neck and narrow croup; he is, on the whole, an ill-looking animal, but strong, fleet, and hardy. The common Cossack is rarely owner of less than three or four horses, but many of the Tabunes or herds, of the wealthier breeders, contain 1000 or more. All, with the exception of the saddle-horses, are kept on the pasture-grounds throughout the year, and in winter are forced to seek for their food either beneath the snow or from the high reeds on the banks of rivers. The Cossack himself does not keep either camels or dromedaries, but they are reared by their Calmuck fellow-countrymen and thrive well on the saline plants of the steppes. Next to the horse the sheep is the most common domestic animal; the ox is used for draught; goats are bred principally by the Calmucks; but swine and buffaloes are rare. The stock of the Cossack population in 1832 was composed of 257,211 horses, of which 123,328 were mares, 2,110,539 sheep, from which 217,775 poods (about 7,839,900 pounds) of wool were obtained; and 840,683 heads of horned cattle. The Calmucks at that time possessed 33,747 horses, 55,574 o: of cattle, 28,574 sheep, and 1365 camels and dromearles. The chase is unproductive, as the steppes are not the usual resort of wild animals or of much game; wolves, foxes, marsh-cats, dwarf otters, martens, marmots, jerboas, a species of gazelle, and hares are occasionally met with. Of wildfowl there are the steppic-fowl (Otis tetrax), water-starling, Muscovy duck, swan, snipe, pelican, and falcon. The principal amphibious animals are tortoises, The steppes also breed the Polish cochineal insect, of which however no use is made, the silkworm, and the cantharides. Next to agriculture the people derive their chief subsistence from their fisheries. Fish indeed is their ordinary food, and consists of the sturgeon, trout, pike, tench, perch, salmon, carp, &c., for which the richest fishing grounds are the Don and the shores of the sea of Azof. The produce of 1832 was 1,033,935 poods (about 37,221,660 pounds weight), of which 496,512 poods were appropriated to internal consumption, and the remainder was exported. Caviar and isinglass are sent abroad in large quantities. Turtles and crabs in immense numbers, and of large size, are taken in the Don and its tributary streams. The Cossacks rear little poultry, but they keep large stocks of bees; the number of apiaries a few years ago was 1044, which contained 30,201 hives, and produced annually 8299 poods (about 298,764 pounds weight) of honey and Wax. Trades and mechanical pursuits are carried on only in the two chief towns, New and Old Tsherkask, and the larger stanitzes, or villages; for as the Cossack depends upon himself for the supply of his daily wants, there is conse: quently little encouragement for the manufacturer and mechanic. The only large manufactures are caviar, wax, and isinglass. The exports are inconsiderable, and consist principally of horses, cattle, tallow, skins, glue, fish, and their products, wine, and a little grain; the greater part of these exports are sent to Taganrog, which is the chief mart for the sale of what the country produces, or find a vent at the periodical fairs of Tsherkask, &c. They amounted in 1832 to 4,943,930 rubles (about 226,600l.), while the imports in that year were to the extent of 13,886,133 rubles (about 666,450l.) The territory of the Cossacks is divided into seven Notchalstoe, or provinces, namely, 1. Aksai, on the Don, in which are Old Tsherkask, and New Tsherkask (14,000 inhabitants), the only towns in the country; 2. The First District of the Don, containing the large villages of Troilinskaya, Bistrianskaya, Tsiemlianskaya, &c.; 3. The Second District of the Don, with the large villages of Tsherskaya, and Gelubinskaya; 4. Medwedicsza, with the large villages of Ust-Mestwedicsza, Beresofska, and Ostiofskaya; 5. Koperskye, with the large villages of Urupinskaya (1200), Kotofskaya and Dobrinskaya; 6. Donecszkaya, with the large villages of Kasanskaya, Luganskaya, and Mikitenska; and 7. Minsk, with the large villages of Grabova and Alexiefkaya. The great mass of the population are Cossacks and Little Russians, among whom a number of Great Russians, NogayTartars, Gypsies, Armenians, and Greeks are intermixed. The Calmuek part of the population are a nomadic people: in 1832 their numbers were 16,413, of whom 7889 were males and 8524 females. The following is given as the official return of the remaining inhabitants of the territory:— Bondsmen in the service of Cossack proprietors . 389,371 Free labourers, &c. . - - - . 123,299 512,670 This return does not comprise the chiefs or great landowners, or the ecclesiastics, nor probably the principal starchines or nobility; it may be concluded, therefore, that Arsenief's ealeulation, that the population amounts to 600,000 of all classes, is not above the mark. The census of 1796 gave 366,274, but there are reasonable grounds for questioning its correctness. The territory of the Don Cossacks, which is more extensive than the whole area of the Austrian States in Germany, contains but two towns, and 120 stanitzes. The villages, many of which have markets, are always placed on the banks of rivers and composed of from fifty to three hundred houses, well built, clean, and conveniently arranged, with one or more churches of stone or wood. Some of these stanitzes are large, and resemble towns, and are surrounded by a wall and narrow ditch; the khutors, or stables, stalls, &c., lie outside of them. The Cossacks, who have been settled in the country since 1569, are genuine Little Russians, and speak pure Russian mixed with occasional provincialisms. They are proverbially hospitable and cheerful, but violent when excited; and although they consider the plunder of their enemy lawful in war, theft is almost unknown among them. Their mode of life is in general very simple and frugal, and the enjoyment of civil freedom has given them an independence of mind, which places them far higher in the social scale than the abject Russian. Their starehines, or nobles, are in general well educated. With regard to public instruction, their establishments are within the jurisdiction of the University of Kharkof. The state of those establishments was in 1825, 12 schools with 46 teachers and 937 pupils, and in 1832, the same number with 45 teachers and 1031 pupils, all males. Besides these, there are 5 ecclesiastical seminaries in the Eparchy of New Tsherkask, with 10 teachers and 274 students. The entire number of scholars, therefore, was 1035, which averages very nearly 1 scholar in every 580 inhabitants. . But, as the Raskolniks, a sect of the Graeco-Russian church, have doubtless schools of their own, this proportion can be approximative only. In respect of church matters, this territory was formerly dependent upon the diocese of Voronesh, but the eparchate of New Tsherkask was established expressly for it by the ukase of May, 1829: it contained in 1830 369 churches, of which 5 are.cathedrals, beside three monasteries and one convent. The majority of the people are of the RussoGreek church. The Calmucks are Lamaists, and the Nogay and other Tartars are Mohammedans. The Cossacks are exempt from taxes, but are liable to do military duty, and are bound to dress, arm, and equip themselves entirely at their own expense, in return for ... the overnment provides for their maintenance while in the field, allows them pay, and supplies them with field equipage. Few Cossacks are unskilled in the use of the bow and
arrow, although they do not use them in war. Their principal weapon in battle is the lance. They live under a military government wholly distinct from the government of every other Russian province, at the head of which is a Voiskovoi-Attaman, or Captain-general; but as the present emperor has vested this office in the heir-apparent, his powers are delegated to a Nakazmi or Vice-Attaman; and on this model every stanitze has its local attaman, who is elected by the inhabitants. The Cossacks have a supreme council of state, called the Chancery of the Voiskofmya, or Captaincy, which controls both the civil as well as the military affairs of the territory. The attaman or his deputy is its president, and he is assisted by two perpetual members and four other members, who are elected § the people every three years. The expenses of the administration, including the allowances to the vice-attaman, the attorney-general, and the officers attached to the attaman, amounted in 1832 to upwards of 150,000 silver rubles (about 26,000l.) The Cossacks are divided into Polks, or regiments, and Sotnyes, or companies; which last are again divided into sections: each polk has a standard-bearer and a major. In return for the exemption from taxes, crown monopolies, and other privileges, they are bound to keep in a constant state of readiness for the Imperial service about 25,000 cavalry, who are reckoned among the regular Cossacks. From the age of 15 to 50 every Cossack is a soldier, and in case of pressing emergency, all males capable of service are bound to take up arms. The Calmucks are governed by the same laws, and subject to the authority of the Voiskovoi-Attaman. They are equally bound to serve with their Cossack fellowcountrymen, by whom, however, they are held in great contempt. They dwell in tents of skin, lead a wandering life, and are exclusively occupied in rearing cattle, sheep, camels, and especially horses, with which they supply the Russian light cavalry. The Cossacks pay much attention to their dress; which consists of a blue jacket, frequently laced with gold and lined with silk, a is: vest and girdle, full white trowsers, and black woollen cap, with a large red bag dangling behind. The females, who are inferior in symmetry of form to the males, have agreeable features, a florid complexion, and fine black eyes. They wear a long falling tunic of cotton or silk, partly open in front, and confined by an ornamental waistband. eneath this upper garment appear broad trowsers, with which yellow boots are usually worn. The hair of the unmarried female floats in long braided tresses over the shoulder, but when married she conceals it under a cap richly embroidered with gold and pearls. Their dances resemble those of the Russian gipsies, and are performed by two persons only, who accompany their movements with loud cries. DONAGHADEE, a mail-packet station, in the barony of Ards and county of Down, in Ireland: distant 94 Irish or 119 English miles from Dublin, seventeen English miles from Belfast; and twenty-one English miles from Portpatrick, on the opposite coast of Great Britain. Donaghadee owes its rise to being the most convenient point of communication between the latest colonists of Ards, and their countrymen in Scotland, with whom they carried on a sufficient traffic to induce the proprietor, the Lold Montgomery, about A. D. 1650, to erect a quay 128 yards in length, and from 21 to 22 feet broad, which continued during the last century to afford pretty good shelter to all the craft employed. The Scottish mails have landed here since before 1744, at which time Donaghadee enjoyed a large share of the imports and exports of this part of the country. The accommodation of the old quay being latterly found insufficient for the better class of steam-packets, as well as for merchantmen, which frequently experienced the want of an asylum harbour on this coast, a new pier was commenced at the expense of government, which is now completed, enclosing a basin of seven acres, and calculated to hold sixty vessels of the larger class. The expense has been upwards of 150,000l., and the work is executed in the best manner; but the benefits so far derived from it are not considered commensurate with so great a cost. The town, which consists of two principal, streets, is well built and airy: it has at present a considerable export trade in cattle and grain, and a large import of coal. There are a handsome church, two Presbyterian meeting-houses, two Seceders' meeting-houses, and one Wesleyan Methodist meeting-house.
On the north-east side of the town stands a remarkable artificial mount or rath, surrounded by a dry fosse from 27 to 32 feet broad. The circumference of the mount at the bottom is 480 feet, at the top 219 feet, and its greatest conical height 140 feet. A powder magazine has been built on the summit, from which Scotland and the Isle of Man are visible in fair weather. In 1834 there were in the parish 15 schools, educating 703 young persons: of these schools three were in connexion with the Board of National Education. Population of town in 1821, 2,795: in 1831, 2,986. (Harris's History of the County of Down ; Northern Tourist; Reports, &c.) DONATELLO. Donato di Belto di Bardo, called Donatello, was born at Florence in the year 1383. He was brought up in the house of a Florentine gentleman named Ruberto Martelli, a liberal patron of the arts, and received his first instructions from Lorenzo Bicci, from whom he learned painting in fresco; but he afterwards became more famous as a sculptor. He also practised architecture. In the course of his life he visited many towns of Italy, among which were Venice and Padua, where the people wanted to detain and naturalize him, and Rome. Donatello was much esteemed by his contemporaries, and executed a great number of works, both in private and public buildings, and for the grand-duke Cosmo I. He was the first to employ basrelief in telling stories, according to the more elaborate style of Italian sculpture. He died paralytic, December 13, 1466. When he first became so infirm as to be unable to work, the grand-duke Piero I, gave him a small estate: but he was so much annoyed by the troublesome references of his labourers, that he insisted on relinquishing it; and Piero gave him a pension instead, in daily payments, which perfectly contented him. Some relations visited him one day, for the purpose of persuading him to leave them at his death a vineyard which he owned; but he answered, that it seemed more reasonable to leave it to the peasant who had always worked upon it than to those who had done no labours for him, except paying him that visit: and he did so. His principal works are at Fiorence; but some have decayed, or been removed from their original station. One, a figure of St. Mark, which was nicknamed (according to the common propensity of the Florentines) Lo Zuccone (the Gourd) on account of its bald head, is much commended. A St. George is also much esteemed; and Vasari, speaking of a Judith bearing the head of Holofernes, in bronze, calls it, with all the strength he gathered from his intense love of his art, “A work of great excellence and mastery, which, to him who considers the simplicity of the outside, in the drapery and in the aspect of Judith, sees manifested from within it the great heart (animo) of that woman and the aid of God; as in the air of that Holofernes, wine and sleep, and death in his members, which, having lost their spirit, show themselves cold and falling.’ Donatello left several pupils, to whom he bequeathed his tools. The most noted are Bertoldo, Nanni d'Anton di Bianco, Rossellino, Disederio, and Vellano di Padova. To the last he left all the works which he retained at his death. (Vasari; Baldinucci.) DONA"TIO MORTIS CAUSA (Law), a gift made in prospect of death. The doctrine is derived from the civil law, and a donation of this kind is defined in the Institutes (lib. ii., tit. 7) as “a gift which is made under an apprehension of death, as when a thing is given upon condition that, if the donor die, the donee shall have it, or that the thing given shall be returned if the donor shall survive the danger which he apprehends, or shall repent that he has made the gift; or if the donee shall die before the donor.” In the English law it is necessary to the validity of this gift that it be made by the donor with relation to his dying by the illness which affects him at the time of the gift, but it takes effect only in case he die of that illness. There must be a delivery of the thing itself to the donee; but in cases where actual transfer is impossible, as, for instance, goods of bulk deposited in a warehouse, the delivery of the key of the warehouse is effectual. A donatio mortis causā partakes of the nature of a legacy so far as to be liable to the debts of the donor, and, by 36 Geo. III., c. 52, § 7, to the legacy duty; but as it takes effect from the delivery, and not by a testamentary act, it is not within the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical
court, and neither probate or administration is necessary, nor the assent of the executors, as in the case of a legacy. On the Roman donatio mortis causã the reader may consult Heineccius, Op., tom. vi., p. 581, and the references there given; and the Pandect, xxxix., tit. 6. The Constitution of Justinian put donations mortis causā very nearly on the footing of legacies in the Roman law. As to the English law, see Roper on Legacies, vol. i. DONATISTS, Christian schismatics of Africa, of the fourth century, originally partisans of Donatus, bishop of Casa Nigra in Numidia, the great opponent to the election of Cecilianus into the bishopric of Carthage. Donatus accused Cecilianus of having delivered up the sacred books to the Pagans, and pretended that his election was thereby void, and all those who adhered to him heretics. Under this false pretext of zeal he set up for the head of a party, and, about the year 312, taught that baptism administered by heretics was ineffectual; that the church was not infallible; that it had erred in his time ; and that he was to be the restorer of it. But a council held at Arles, in 314, acquitted Cecilianus, and declared his election valid. The schismatics, irritated at the decision, refused to acquiesce in the sentence of the council; and the better to support their cause, they thought it proper to subscribe to the opinions of Donatus, and openly to declaim against the Catholics. They gave out that the church was become prostituted; they re-baptized the Catholics; trod under foot the hosts consecrated by priests attached to the Holy See ; burned their churches; and committed various other acts of violence. They had chosen into the place of Cecilianus one Majorinus, but he dying soon after, they brought in another Do. different from him of Casa Nigra, as bishop of Carthage. it was from this new head of the cabal, who used so much violence against the Catholics, that the Donatists are believed to have received their name. As they could not prove, however, that they composed a true church, they bethought themselves of sending one of their bishops to Rome. They attempted likewise to send some bishops into Spain, that they might say their church began to spread itself everywhere. After many ineffectual efforts to crush this schism, the emperor Honorius ordered a council of bishops to assemble at Carthage in the year 410, where a disputation was held between seven of each party, when it was decided that thc laws enacted against heretics had force against the Donatists. The glory of their defeat was due to St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo, who bore the principal part in this controversy. The Donatists, however, continued as a separate body, and attempted to multiply their sect even in the sixth century; but the Catholic bishops used so much wisdom and prudence that they insensibly brought over most of those who had strayed from the bosom of the church. The church of the Donatists gradually dwindled to nothing, and became quite extinct in the seventh century. (Broughton’s Dict of all Religions, fol. Lond., 1756, pp. 340, 341 ; Mosheim’s Eccl. History, 4to. Lond., 1765, vol. i., pp. 211,214. 259, 305; Moreri, Dict. Historique, fol., Paris, 1739, tom. iv. . 214.) p DONATIVE. [BENEFICE, vol. iv., p. 220.] DONATUS, AELIUS, a celebrated grammarian, who lived in the middle of the fourth century. He wrote a Grammar, which long continued in the schools; and also Notes upon Terence and Virgil. He was most eminent in the time of Constantius, and taught rhetoric and polite literature at Rome in the year 356, about which time St. Jerom studied grammar under him. Donatus has given ample employment to the bibliographers, who all speak of an “Editio Tabellaris sine ulla nota’ of his Grammar, as one of the first efforts at printing by means of letters cut on wooden blocks. (See Meerman, Origines Typograph. of this and other editions, 4to., Hag. Com. 1765, tom. i. pp. 126, 132; ii. pp. 107, 215, 218.) This Grammar has been printed with several titles, as ‘Donatus,’ ‘Donatus Minor,’ ‘Donatus Ethimolyzatus,’ ‘Donatus pro puerulis, &c., but the work is the same, namely, “Elements of the Latin Language for the use of Children.” In the volume of the Grammatici Veteres, printed by Nic. Jenson, without date, it is entitled ‘Donatus de Barbarismo et de octo partibus Orationis.' Dr. Clarke, in his ‘Bibliographical Dictionary,’ vol. iii. p. 144-148, has given a long list of editions of Donatus, to which the more inquisitive reader is referred. Donatus's ‘Commentarii in quinque Comoedias Terentii,' were first printed without date,
probably before 1460, and reprinted in 1471 and 1476. The * Commentarius in Virgilium, fol., Ven., 1529, though ascribed to him, is thought by many not to be his. Donat, in the middle ages, both in English and French, became a synonym for any system of grammar: as in Piers Plowman— "Then drave I me among drapers my Donet to lerne.' . In the statutes of Winchester College, written about 1386, grammar is called ‘Antiquus Donatus,’ the old Donat. Cotgrave quotes an old French proverb, “Les Diables estoient encores en leur Donat,’ the devils were but yet in their grammar. (See Harles, Introd. in Hist. Ling. Latinae, 8vo., Bremae, 1773, pp. 202, 203; Clarke, Bibliogr. Dict, ut supra; Warton's Hist. Eng. Poet., 4to., vol. i. p. 281; Chalmer's Biogr, Dict, vol. xii. p. 241.) DONAX. [ConchACEA, vol. viii., p. 428.] DONCASTER, a market-town, borough, and parish in the West Riding of the county of York, in the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill. It is situated on the river Don, on the great north road, which passes through the whole length of the town; it is 162 miles north-north-west of London, and 37 miles south-by-west of York. Doncaster was the Danum of Antoninus, and was called Dona Ceastre by the Saxons, from which its present name is derived. Doncaster is one of the cleanest, most airy, and most beautiful towns in the kingdom. The approach from London, by a wide and nearly level road, ornamented with antient elm-trees, is magnificent. The town stands on the Watling-street of the Romans. Coins, urns, and other Roman remains are occasionally dug up in various parts of the town and j Under the Municipal Reform Act the borough is divided into three wards, with six aldermen and eighteen councillors; it has also a commission of the peace. The clear income of the corporation is about 8000l. per annum, of which large sums are expended in lighting, paving, cleaning, and watching the town, in repair of roads, improvement of the estates, police expenses, and in contributions to various charities. The air is considered remarkably pure and salubrious, and this circumstance, combined with its advantageous situation and its comparative freedom from local assessments, renders it a desirable residence for persons of limited income. The population of the borough was, in 1801, 5697; in 1811, 6935; in 1821, 8544; in 1831, 10,030. The population of the townships in the soke of Doncaster, including Hexthorpe-with-Balby, Loversal, Rossington, Aukley, Blaxton, and Wheatley-with-Sandall, was, in 1831, 1700. Doncaster has a few iron foundries, a sacking and a linen manufactory on a small scale. In 1787, Dr. Cartwright introduced the manufacture of muslins by power-looms, of which he was the inventor, into the town; but the attempt to make Doncaster a manufacturing town was unsuccessful. As the centre of a large agricultural district, the markets and fairs are attended by a large rural population, who contribute greatly to its support. Although it is one of the largest corn-markets in the kingdom, there is no cornexchange; a spacious area between the shambles and the cattle-market is used for the sale of corn. The town also derives support from the numerous opulent families residing in its vicinity, and from the continual intercourse on the north road. #. the navigation of the Don renders it an eligible situation for general traffic between the manufacturing districts and the eastern coast, no advantage has yet been taken of the facilities thus afforded for making it a place of trade. The public buildings in Doncaster are the mansion-house, a handsome structure, which has cost about 10,000l., and which is used for the meetings of the corporation, for concerts, assemblies, and occasionally for public meetings; the town-hall, in which the quarterly sessions for the borough and the annual sessions for the wapentake are held: §. gaol, which is built on the improved principle for the classification of prisoners, a betting-room, and a theatre. The stand, on the race-ground, may also be considered as one of the public buildings; it was erected at the expense of the corporation, and is both elegant and commodious. The stand tickets sold during the race week produce an income of about 1700l. a year. The churches of Doncaster are, the parish church, dedicated to St. George, and Christ Church. The former is a spacious and elegant cruciform structure, with a fine square tower, 141 feet high. The various details of the exterior and interior are particularly fine, and well
deserving of the attention of the antiquary. Christ Church was erected a few years ago, from a fund left for that pur.. by the late John Jarratt, Esq. The spire was 160 feet igh; in November, 1836, it was struck by lightning, the tower was much injured, and that part of the edifice is at present (May, 1837) a mass of ruins. The interior is uninjured, and the service has not been interrupted by the accident. The living of the parish church is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, and in the patronage of the archbishop of York. Christ Church is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the trustees of the late Mr. Jarratt. The dissenting places of worship are for Friends, Methodists, Independents, Catholics, and Presbyterians. The educational establishments are numerous. There are many boarding-schools for both sexes, a grammarschool, a national-school, a British-school, and six Sundayschools. All these schools are well supported. The number of pupils instructed in Sunday-schools exceeds 1000; they are taught by 150 teachers and superintendents. The Yorkshire institution for the Deaf and Dumb is situated near the race-course: it is a school of instruction and industry. (DEAF and DUMB.) Other institutions are the Subscription Library, the Mechanics' and Apprentices' Library, and the Lyceum Literary, and Scientific Society. A valuable library also belongs to the church, which is accessible to all the inhabitants. The public charities which belong to the town are numerous... St. Thomas's Hospital, endowed in 1588 by Thomas Ellis, is an asylum for six “poore and decayed housekeepers of good name and fame.” Its present income is 335l. 3s.6d. a year. Quintin Kay's charity of 300 per annum, is chiefly, devoted to the relief of poor and reduced j. and to the apprenticing of six poor children to mechanical or handicraft trades. Jarratt's charity is for the relief of six reduced housekeepers. There are several other bequests for purposes similar to those enumerated. The other charities in Doncaster are the dispensary, the lying-in, clothing, sick, and soup charities. The total number of accounts kept at the Doncaster savings' bank to November 1836 was 2050, amounting to 81,711!. 9s. 6d. The races at Doncaster are held in the third week of September, and continue for five days. It is said that they are a source of great emolument to the town, but this is very doubtful. It is certain that they are productive of great immorality, not only among the casual visiters, but also among the permanent residents. The race-ground, which is about a mile from the town, is perhaps unrivalled. The St. Leger stakes excite great interest not only throughout the kingdom, but in all parts of the world. The municipal body subscribes largely to the maintenance of the races, under the idea that they tend to the prosperity of the town. Potteric Car, on the south of Doncaster, was a morass of many miles in extent, till the year 1766. It is now completely drained, and yields luxuriant crops. DONEGAL, a maritime county of the province of Ulster in Ireland; bounded east and south on the inland side by parts of the counties of Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, and Leitrim; and on the south-west, west, and north, by the Atlantic Ocean. Greatest length from Inishowen head on the north-east, to Malin Beg head (sometimes called Teelin head,) on the south-west, 85 statute miles: greatest breadth from Fearn-hill on the south-east to Horn Head on the north-west, 41 statute miles. Area according to Ordnance survey of Ireland, consists of
Or, about 1865 square miles.
Gross population in 1831, 289,149.
Donegal forms the north-western extremity of Ireland. The inland boundary preserves a general direction of south-west by north-east, and from Lifford northward is formed by the navigable river and harbour of Loch Foyle. The maritime boundary is extremely irregular, being deeply indented on the north by the aestuaries of Loch Swilly, Mulroy, and Sheephaven, and on the south by Donegal bay. The whole county is uneven and mountainous, with the exception of the midland district extending from the liberties of Londonderry westward to Letterkenny and Rathmelton, on Loch Swilly, and southward along the Foyle to Lifford and Castle Finn and some other incon