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siderable tracts around Ballyshannon and Donegal on the south, and Dunfanaghy and Buncrana on the north. The mountain groups of Donegal together with the highlands of Tyrone and Derry present a deeply withdrawn amphitheatre to the north-east, enclosing the basin of the Foyle. That portion of the mountainous circuit which lies within this county is broken only in the north by the openings of Loch Swilly and Mulroy Bay; and on the south (where the connecting highlands of Donegal and o: are narrowed between the valley of the Finn and the Bay of Donegal) by the gap of Barnesmore. Slieve Snaght, which rises to a height of 2019 feet in the centre of the peninsula of Inishowen, forms the extremity of this chain on the north. Westward from Slieve Snaght and similarly situated in the centre of the peninsula of Fanad between Loch Swilly and Mulroy Bay, is Knockalla (1196 feet); backed in like manner by Loch Salt mountain (1541 feet), between the head of Mulroy Bay and the low country stretching inland from Sheep Haven. Westward again from the Sheep Haven is Muckish, 2190 feet in height, which slopes down on the north to the promontory of Horn Head; and Carntreena, (1396 feet), which extends to the sea at Bloody Foreland. Southward from Muckish stretches a vast region of highlands, which expands towards the west in wide-extended tracts of bog, interspersed with small lakes and covered with black heaths down to the sandy beach of the Atlantic: on the east it presents a series of bold continuous emimences overhanging the basin of the Foyle. The chief eminences of the chain are Erigal and Dooish on the north, the first 2462 feet in height (the highest ground in the county), the second 2143 feet; and Bluestack and Silverhill on the south, 22.13 and 1967 feet respectively. From Bluestack extends a series of considerable elevations westward, along the northern boundary of the bay of Donegal, which terminate in the precipices of Slieve League, and the promontory of Malin Beg; the Barnesmore mountains sweeping eastward continue the chain into Tyrone. This mountainous tract covers upwards of 700 square miles, or more than twice the area of the county of Carlo It contains several spots of great interest to the tourist; such as Loeh Salt, the prospect from which over Horn Head and Tory Island has been justly celebrated, and Glen Veagh, under the eastern declivity of Dooish, where cliffs of 1000 feet hang for upwards of two miles over a glen and lake; the opposite bank being clothed with a natural forest which is still the retreat of the red deer. From the liberties of Londonderry northward, the coast of Loch Foyle between the mountains of Inishowen and the sea, is well inhabited and improved. Muff, close to the county boundary, and Moville, near the mouth of the Loch, are much frequented, the latter especially by the citizens of Derry during the bathing season. From Inishowen Head at the entrance of Loch Foyle, the coast, which from this point is very rocky and precipitous, bends north-west to Malin Head, the most northern point of this county and of Ireland. The cliffs at Inishowen Head are 313 feet in height: at Bin Head, about half-way between Culdaff and Malin, they rise to the altitude of 814 feet above the sea. On the Loch Swilly side of the peninsula the coast is low, and in many places covered with sand, which the northwesterly gales heap up in immense quantities on all the exposed beaches of this coast. Loch Swilly extends inland upwards of twenty miles, and forms a spacious and secure harbour: the average breadth is about one mile and a half, and the inner basin is completely land-locked; but the vicinity of Loch Foyle, which floats vessels of 900 tons up to the bridge of Derry, renders Loch Swilly of less importance as a harbour. On the river Swilly, a little above its entrance into the Loch, stands Letterkenny, a thriving town, which supplies most of the country to the westward with articles of import. Rathmelton, and Rathmullen are situated on the western shore of the Loch, the latter nearly opposite Buncrana, and all in the midst of well improved vicinities. The rise of spring tides opposite Buncrana is 18 feet. Westward from Loch Swilly, the coast of Fanad, which is peninsulated by the Bay of Mulroy, is very rugged, and in many parts overspread with sand blown in between the higher points of rock. The Bay of Mulroy is encumbered with sandbanks and intricate windings: it extends inland upwards of ten miles, and is completely land-locked, being scarcely half a quarter of a mile wide at the entrance. The small peninsula of Rosguill intercepted between this bay and Sheep Haven, has been almost obliterated by the sands which have been
blown in here within the last century. Rosapenna-house, built by Lord Boyne, on the neck of the isthmus, with all its demesne, gardens, and offices, has been buried to such a depth, that the chimneys of the mansion-house some years since were all that was visible. On the opposite shore of Sheep Haven stand Doe Castle, and the house and demesne of Ardes, the most remote, and at the same time the most splendid seat in this quarter of Ulster. On a creek of Sheep Haven is the little port-town of Dunfanaghy, immediately under Horn Head, which rises north of it to the height .# 833 feet, with a cliff to the ocean of 626 feet. On the western side of Horn Head is a perforation of the rock, known as Mc Swine's Gun: when the wind sets in from the north-west, the sea is driven into this cavern with such violence as to rise through an opening of the rock above in lofty jets, with a report which, it is said, may be heard at a distance of many miles. In the sound between Horn Head and Bloody Foreland are the islands of Innisboffin, Innishdoony, and Tory Island, which last is at a distance of eight miles from the shore. Tory Island is three miles and a half in length, by half a mile to three quarters in breadth, and is inhabited by perhaps the most primitive race of people in the United Kingdom. In 1821 the island contained 59 houses and 296 inhabitants, few of whom had ever been on the main land. It is stated by the only tourist who has given an account of his travels through this remote district, that seven or eight of the inhabitants of Tory having been driven by stress of weather into Ardes Bay about the year 1825, ‘Mr. Stewart of Ardes, gave these poor people shelter in a large barn, and supplied them with plenty of food and fresh straw to lie on ;-not one of these people was ever in Ireland before ; the trees of Ardes actually astonished them —they were seen putting leaves and small branches in their pockets to show on their return. Mr. Stewart had the good nature to procure a piper for their amusement, and all the time the wind was contrary those harmless people continued dancing, singing, eating, and sleeping—a picture of savage life in every age and clime.’ (Sketches in Ire land by the Rev. Caesar Otway, p. 13.) The average elevation of the western part of the island is no more than from 50 to 60 feet above the level of the sea, and the want of shelter is felt very severely in those north-westerly gales which set in with such violence on this coast. In the summer of 1826, it is said, a gale from this quarter drove the sea in immense waves over the whole flat part of the island, destroying the corn and washing the potatoes out of the furrows. From Bloody Foreland south to Malin Beg Head, a distance of 40 miles in a straight line, nothing can be more desolate than the aspect of the western coast of Donegal. Vast moors studded with pools of bog water descend to the Atlantic between barren deltas of sand, through which each river and rivulet of the coast winds its way to the sea. In winter when these sandy channels are overflowed, it is impossible to proceed by the coast line, as there are no bridges over any of the larger streams north of the village of Glanties. The wildest part of this district is called the Rosses, in which the village of Dunglo or Cloghanlea containing, in 1821, 253 inhabitants, is the principal place. A great number of islands lie off this coast separated from the main-land, and from one another by narrow sounds and sand-banks. Of these, eleven are inhabited; of which the principal are Aranmore, or the north Island of Aran, containing in 1821, 132 houses, and 788 inhabitants; Rutland or Innismacdurn, containing 29 houses, and 173 inhabitants; Innisfree, containing 25 houses, and 171 inhabitants; and Owney, containing 12 houses and 76 inhabitants. The cause of so dense a population in this desolate country is the success of the herring fishing here in 1784 and 1785, when each winter's fishing was calculated to have produced to the inhabitants of the Rosses a sum of 40,000l., who loaded with herrings upwards of 300 vessels in each of these years. These successes induced the government, in conjunction with the Marquis of Conyngham the proprietor, to expend, it is said, 50,000l. in the improvements necessary to erect a permanent fishing station on the island of Innismacdurn. A small town was built and called Rutland, but it was scarcely completed when the herrings began to desert the coast; at the same time the sands began to blow, and have since continued to accumulate to such a degree that at present the island is nearly half covered, . the fishing station quite obliterated. Below high-water mark on the coast of Innisfree, grows a marine grass peculiarly sweet and nutritive for cattle, which watch the ebb of the tide and feed upon it at every low water. The district of the Rosses is separated from the more reclaimed country about Glanties and Ardara, on the south by the river Gweebarra, the sandy channel of which is from a mile and a half to a quarter of a mile in breadth throughout the last eight miles of its course, and can only be passed by fording in dry weather. On the whole line of coast from Bloody Foreland to Malin Beg Head there is but one gentleman's seat: this is at Ardara, a village at the head of Loughrosmore Bay, from which there is a pretty good communication over the heights that stretch from Bluestack to Malin Beg, with Killybeggs and Donegal. Westward from Ardara, the coast again becomes precipitous, being lined with cliffs from 500 to 600 feet in height on the northern side of the great promontory terminated. by Malin Beg Head. The loftiest cliffs, however, on the whole line of coast are those of Slieve League immediately east of Malin Beg, where the height from the sea to the summit of the shelving rock above is at one point 1964 feet. Eastward from §l. League to the town of Donegal, the northern shore of Donegal Bay affords excellent shelter from the north-west gales in the successive creeks of Teelin Bay, Fintragh Bay, Killybeggs Bay, McSwine's Bay, and Inver Bay. Of these the harbour of Killybeggs is by much the most sheltered and commodious, being the only one secure from a gale from the west or south-west. The harbour of Donegal itself at the head of the bay is sufficiently good for a much more trading place; and ten miles south from it is the embouchure of the navigable river Erne, which flows from Loch Erne through Ballyshannon. [BALLYshANNoN.] Four miles from Ballyshannon on the coast, at the junction of the counties of Donegal and Leitrim, is Bundoran, a fashionable watering-place, much o by the gentry of the neighbouring counties. Round the head of Donegal Bay from i. to Bundoran, cultivation extends more or less up all the seaward declivities: the neighbourhood of Ballyshannon is well improved; and north-east from the town of Donegal a good tract of arable land stretches inland to the picturesque lake of Loch Eask, and the Gap of Barnesmore, where a mountain defile about seven miles in length connects it with the south-western extremity of the district of the Foyle at Ballybofey and Stranorlar, two thriving villages on the Finn. The Finn, which is the chief feeder of the Foyle on this side, issues from a lake 438 feet above the level of the sea, situated in the centre of the mountain chain extending south from Erigal, and after a course of about thirty miles eastward, joins the Foyle at Lifford bridge, eight miles be: low Castlefinn, where it is navigable for boats of 14 tons. Other feeders of the Foyle, out of Donegal, are the Derg, which comes from Loch Derg in the south-east extremity of the county of Donegal and joins the main stream in Tyrone; the Deele, which has a course nearly parallel to the Finn, and descends upwards of 800 feet in its course from Loch Deele to the Foyle, which it joins a mile below Lifford ; and the Swilly burn or brook, which passes by Raphoe, and is navigable for a few miles above its junction. Loch Derg is about 24 miles wide each way, and surrounded on all sides except the south by steep and barren mountains: it is 467 feet above the level of the sea, and its greatest depth is 75 feet. This lake is subject to violent gusts of wind. It abounds in excellent trout. The Swilly river, although it has a course of little more than fifteen miles, brings down a good body of water through Letterkenny to Loch Swilly. The Leannan river, which likewise flows into Loch Swilly by Rathmelton, is a considerable stream, as is also the Lackagh, which discharges the waters of the lakes of Gartan, Loch Veagh, Loch Salt, and Glen Loch into Sheep Haven. The waters of Loch Salt, which is perhaps the deepest pool in Ireland, descend 731 feet in a course of little more than three miles to Glen Loch. Of the rivers of the western coast the chief is the Gweebarra already mentioned: of a similar character is the Gweedore, which separates the Rosses on the north from the district of Cloghanealy. The Owenea, which flows through Ardara, is the only other considerable river on this coast; the minor streams issuing from small lakes, and the torrents which descend from the moors in winter, are almost innumerable. The general direction of all the valleys which interseet the hio of Donegal is north-east and south-west, and . C., No. 541.
this natural disposition marks out the three chief lines of mountain road; viz., from Ballyshannon and Donegal to Lifford and Londonderry, through the gap of Barnesmore; from Ardara to Lifford and Letterkenny, by the head of the Finn; and from Dunfanaghy and the cultivated country about Sheep Haven into the Rosses, by the passes between Dooish and Erigal. These latter roads are little frequented, so that west of Enniskillen the gap of Barnesmore is the only ordinary communication between Connaught and Ulster. The district along the Foyle and round the head of Loch Swilly is as well supplied with means of communication by land and water as any other part of Ireland. Throughout the county the roads are good. The climate of Donegal is raw and boisterous, except in the sheltered country along the Foyle. The prevalent winds are from the west and north-west, and the violence with which they blow may be estimated from the effects of the storm of December 4, 1811, in which His Majesty's ship Salhander was lost in Loch Swilly. The maws and gills | all the fish cast on shore—eels, cod, haddock, lobsters, &c.—were filled with sand; from which it would appear, that by the furious agitation of the sea, the sand became so blended with it, that the fish were suffocated. Eels are fished in fifteen fathoms, and cod in twenty to thirty; hence making allowance for their approach nearer shore before the storm, we may judge of the depth to which the agitation of the water descended : the ordinary depth in a gale of wind is seven feet below the surface, and in a heavy storm twelve to fourteen feet. (Geological Transactions, iii. c. 13.) From the remains of natural forests in many situations where no timber will at present rise against the north-west blast, it has been inferred that the climate is now more severe than it formerly was, a conjecture which would seem to be corroborated by numerous ruins of churches and houses, overwhelmed by sand blown in on situations where, had such events been common at the time of their foundation, no one would have ventured on building. The deposit of sand at the bottom of the sea is daily increased by the detritus of loose primitive rock brought down by every river of the coast; so that with each succeeding storm a greater quantity may be expected to be blown in, until the whole coast becomes one sandy desert, unless the danger be obviated by timely plantations of bent grass and the extirpation of those multitudes of rabbits whose burrows now extend, in many places, for several miles along the shore, and prevent the natural grasses from binding down the loose matter. The Floetz limestone-field, which occupies the central plain of Ireland, extends over the borders of this county from Bundoran, where the limestone cliff rises to the height of 100 feet over the Atlantic, ten miles north-east to Ballintra, where the extreme edge of the stratum is perforated by a subterraneous river. Limestone gravel is also found along the flanks of the primitive district as far as some miles north of Donegal town, and to the presence of this valuable substance may be chiefly attributed the cultivation: which distinguishes this part of the county from the steril tract that separates it from the basin of the Foyle. From the mountains of Barnesmore, north, the whole formation of this county, with the exception of the transition tract along the basin of the Foyle, is primitive. The prevalent rocks are granite and mica slate, passing into gneiss, quartz slate, and clay slate. The granite is a coarse granular syenite, the detritus of which gives a strong reddish tinge to the sands washed down by the streams that traverse it. It occurs supporting flanks of mica-slate along the whole line of mountains from Loch Salt to Barnesmore. On the eastern flanks of this range the mica slate passes into greywacke, which forms the substratum of the valley of the Foyle: the same rock occurs over the lower parts of Inishowen, and also appears on the southern side .." the range near Donegal town. Granular limestone is found in beds throughout the whole mountain district in great quantity and variety of colour, as among various other indications, grey at Malin Head; greyish-blue at Loch Salt; fine granular, pearl-white, pearl-grey, flesh-red, and bright bluish-grey, at the marble hill near Muckish ; yellowish-white, greyish-white, and rose-red, at Bally more; pearl-white and pale rose colour at Dunlewy, under Erigal; pearl-grey in extensive beds at the head of the river Finn ; and greyish fine blue at Killybeggs. Siliciferous, magnesian, and marly limestone also occur in various parts of the baronies of Inishowen and Raphoe, with a remarkable Vol. IX.-M
steatite near Convoy, on the Deele, which cuts under the knife like wood, and is used by the country people for the bowls of tobacco-pipes. Beds of greenstone and greenstone porphyry are sometimes found resting on the deposits of granular limestone, and occasionally on the mica slate and granite, and the dikes from which these originate may be seen traversing the primitive rock at Horn Head and Bloody Foreland. Among the rarer minerals occurring in this remarkable region are columnar idocrase, malacolithe, epidote, and essonite (cinnamon stone), from a bed of mica slate in the Rosses, and from the bar of the Gweebarra river; garnet in hornblende slate over the marble of Dunlewy; and cherry-red garnet from Glanties: also plumbago from the shore of Ardes; copper Ko from Horn Head ; lead earth and iron ochre from Kildrum, in Cloghanealy; pearl-grey and yellowish-white porcelain clay from Aranmore Island; potter's clay from Drumardagh, on Loch Swilly; iron pyrites from Barnesmore; lead ore from Finntown, Letterkenny, Glentogher, and various other places; and pipe-clay from Drumboe, near Stranorlar. The white marble of Dunlewy, near the mountain Erigal, is stated to be of an excellent quality, and its bed very extensive; it has been traced over a space of half a mile square, and is so finely granular, that it may be employed *. nicest works of sculpture. “Its texture and whiteness,’ says Mr. Griffith, “approach more to those of the Parian than of the Carrara marble. It is very well known that perfect blocks of the Carrara marble are procured with great difficulty, and I firmly believe that the marble of Dunlewy is free from mica, quartz grains, and other substances interfering with the chisel, which so frequently disappoint the artists who work upon the marble from Carrara.’ A large supply of fine siliceous sand was formerly drawn from the mountain of Muckish by the glass-houses of Belfast, and considerable quantities have been of late exported to Dunbarton for the manufacture of plate and crown glass: the sand is rolled down the hill in canvas bags. The soil of the primitive district is generally cold, moory, and thin. The limestone tract from Ballyshannon to Donegal is covered with a warm friable soil, varying from a deep rich mould to a light-brown gravelly earth. The soil of the transition district, arising chiefly from the decomposition of slaty rock, is a light but manageable clay, which is very well adapted for crops of potatoes, flax, oats, and barley, and in some situations, as along the rivers Finn and Foyle, bears wheat abundantly. The ordinary rotation of crops in the limestone district is potatoes, oats, or on the sea-coast, barley, and flax: on the cold lands of the western coast potatoes and barley, and among the mountains, potatoes and oats. Alternate green crops and house-feeding have been practised by some of the leading gentlemen farmers since before 1802, but the practice is not general. The loy, or one-sided spade, and old wooden plough, are still in common use in the highland districts. Donegal is not a grazing country; the good land is almost all under tillage; and the grasses of the remainder are generally too sour for feeding. Cattle grazing on the mountain districts are liable to two diseases, the cruppan or crippling, and galar or bloody urine, which are said to alternate as the cattle are removed from the higher to the lower pastures: horses are not subject to these diseases. The Raphoe and Tyrhugh farming societies originated about A. D. 1800, and have been of some service in the encouragement of green crops and nurseries. The principal plantations are at Ardes and Tyrcallan, a fine seat near Stranorlar, where Mr. Stewart, the proprietor, has a nursery of sixteen acres. Two thousand larchtrees, each measuring at nine feet from the butt, from two
feet to two feet ten inches in girth, are at present (April, 1837) for sale in the latter neighbourhood. This is the first home growth of timber offered for sale in Donegal. The trees lave been grown on steep and poor land, and are good evidences of the capabilities of the waste lands of this county.
The linen manufacture is carried on to a very considerable extent, and is still increasing in the cultivated country about Raphoe and Lifford, and also in the neighbourhood of Ballyshannon. Bleachgreens are numerous in the neighbourhood of Stranorlar, but spinning by machinery has not yet been introduced. Strabane, in the county of Tyrone, within two miles of Lifford, is the principal linen market for the southern district: the sale here averages 500 pieces weekly. Londonderry and Letterkenny are the markets for the district to the north the weekly sale in the former place is about 400, and in the latter about 120 pieces. The manufacture of stockings by hand formerly employed many females on the western coast, a pair of Boylagh knit woollen stockings selling for seven shillings, but the common wear of trousers has now taken away the demand. Burning kelp continues to be a profitable occupation along the coast. About the beginning of the present century private distillation was carried on to an immense extent all over this county, particularly in the baronies of Inishowen and Kilmacrenan: repeated baronial fines and the vigilance of the authorities have latterly checked the practice, but it still exists to some extent in the mountain districts. Considerable numbers of whales have from time to time been taken off this coast; but this, as well as the herring fishery, is now neglected. In 1802 there were but two flour mills in this county. There is an export of three to four thousand tons of corn annually from Letterkenny, and the remaining export of the county is from Londonderry. The condition of the peasantry in the south and west is not much better than that of the wretched inhabitants of northern Connaught: land is let exorbitantly high; 31.5s. per acre is paid in the neighbourhood of Donegal town, and ll. and 18s. on the declivities of the mountain district. All the butter and eggs of the poorer farmers go to market to make up the rent, and buttermilk and potatoes constitute their diet. The traveller is much struck with the improved appearance of the peasantry north of the gap of Barnesmore; * ragged, rather than a whole coat,’ says Mr. Inglis, vol. ii., p. 109, was now a rarity, and the clean and tidy appearance of the women and girls was equally a novel as it was an agreeable sight. The farm-houses too were of a superior order: most of the houses had inclosures and clumps of sheltering trees.” The majority of the population in this district is Protestant.
Donegal is divided into six baronies; Tyrhugh on the south, Bannagh and Boylagh on the west, Kilmacrenan on the north-west, Inishowen on the north-east, and Raphoe on the east and centre. Ballyshannon (pop. 3775), Killybeggs (pop. 724), and Donegal (pop. 830), were erected into corporations in the reign of James I.: these corporations are now extinct. Lifford, which is the assize town of the county, is governed by a charter of the 27th February, 10th James I. This corporation still possesses some property, and has a court of record with jurisdiction to the amount of five marks, but no criminal "...". The vicinity of Strabane has prevented Lifford from increasing . the court-house and county gaol constitute the greater part of the town: pop. 1096. The other towns are Letterkenny, pop. 2168; Rathmelton, pop. 1783; Buncrana, pop. 1059; Ballybofey, pop. 874; and Stranorlar, pop. 641. Donegal is represented in the imperial parliament by two county members.
Table of Population. Families o: chiefly em- Families - chiefly em- ployed in not Date. How ascertained. à: rèio, ployed in Trade. included in Males. Females. Total. - Agricul- || Manufac- preceding | ture. tures, and classes. Handicraft. | 1792 Estimated by Dr. Beaufort. 23,531 -- -- -- -- - - -- 140,000 1821 | Under Act 55 Geo. III. c. 120. 44,800 || 48,030 -- -- -- 120,559 197,711 248,270 1831 Under Act 1 Wm. IV. c. 19. 50,171 52,739 38,178 7,204 7.357 141,845 147,304 289, 149
The southern part of Donegal, down to the plantation of Boylagh and the Rosses; the Mac Swines (Mae Suibhne) in Ulster, was known as Tyrconnell, and was the patrimony of Bannagh, Rossguill, and Fanad; and the O’Doghertys in
the O'Donnells, whose chief tributaries were the O'Boyles in Inishowen.
Prior to the fifteenth century, Inishowen had
been in the possession of the MacLoughlins, a family of the Kinel Owen or O'Neills. The most distinguished of the chief. tains of Tyrconnell was Hugh O’Donnell, surnamed the Red, whose entrapment by Sir John Perrot, and subsequent imprisonment at Dublin as a hostage for the good conduct of his clan, caused much hostility against the government of Queen Elizabeth in this part of Ulster. O'Donnell, after more than three years’ confinement, escaped, and with much risk made his way through the English pale and reached Dungannon, the residence of the disaffected earl of Tyrone. Here, it is supposed, the plan of the great rebellion, commencing with the attack on the fort of the Blackwater [BLAckwater], was originally formed. From Dungannon he proceeded to Ballyshannon, the residence of his father, who immediately resigned the chieftainship into his hands. A council of the tribe was then held on Barnesmore mountain, the result of which was a sanguinary irruption into Connaught, which they wasted as far as Galway and Limerick. O’Donnell next turned his arms to the assistance of Tyrone, who had risen in rebellion, and was present at the battle of the Blackwater. His confederates, Maguire and O'Rourke, soon after obtained an equally signal victory over Sir Conyers Clifford, the governor of Connaught, whom they met in a pass of the Carlow mountains on his way to lay siege to Belleek. O'Donnell next invaded Thomond, which he laid waste; but he soon after returned to oppose Sir Henry Dockwra, governor of Loch Foyle [London DERRY], who had seized on his castle of Donegal in his absence, and had set up his cousin Neal Garv O’Donnell, who was in the queen's interest, as chieftain in his place. But the Spanish troops who had been sent by Philip II. to the assistance of the rebels, having landed at Kinsale [KINSALE] in the mean time (23rd of September, 1601), he was obliged to raise the siege of Donegal and march into Munster. Here having formed a junction with Tyrone (23rd of December), they attempted the relief of Kinsale, in which the Spanish auxiliaries were besieged by the lord deputy, but owing, it is said, to a dispute about precedence, their armies did not act in concert, and a total defeat was the consequence. O'Donnell then sailed for Spain, to solicit in person new succours from Philip. After spending a year and a half in fruitless negotiation, he was seized with fever and died at Valladolid, where he was interred with royal honours in the church of St. Francis. On the death of Hugh, Neal Garv having proved refractory, his cousin Rory O'Donnell was promoted to the chieftainship, and afterwards to the earldom of Tyrconnell, which produced an ineffectual rebellion on the part of Neal and his allies the Mac Swines; but on the 7th of May, 1607, a letter accusing Rory of having entered into a conspiracy with Tyrone, Maguire, O'Cahan, and other Irish lords, was dropped in the council-chamber at Dublin Castle, in consequence of which it was judged expedient for him to accompany the flight of his alleged associates, who immediately went beyond seas. In the mean time a town had been walled in at Derry by Sir Henry Dockwra, who had also built a castle at Lifford for the control of Tyrconnell. The vicinity of an English garrison proved so unsatisfactory to the proprietor of Inishowen, Sir Cahir O'Dogherty, that on some vague assurances of aid from Spain, communicated by the exiled earls, he broke into open revolt May 1st, 1608, and having surprised Culmore and put the garrison to the sword, advanced on Derry next day, which he carried with little resistance and burned to the ground. He then fell back on Kilmacrenan, and took up a strong position on the rock of Doune, where he held out for five months until he was killed by a Scotch settler, who shot him as he leaned over the edge of the rock. O’Dogherty being thus slain in rebellion and the exiled earls attainted of high treason, Donegal, along with five other counties of Ulster, escheated to the crown. On the plantation, the district about Lifford was allotted to English undertakers, of whom the chief were Sir Ralph Bingley and Sir John Kingsmill; the whole of Boylagh and Bannagh was allotted to John Murray, Esq., and his sub-patentees; tlic district of Portlough to Scottish undertakers, of whom the chief were Sir John Stewart and Sir James Cunningham ; the district of Kilmacrenan to servitors and natives, of whom the chief were Sir William Stewart, Sir John Kingsmill, Sir George Marburie, Captain Henry Hart, Sir Mulmory Mac Swine, Mac Swine Banagh, Mac Swine Fanad, and Tirlagh Roe O'Boyle. In Inishowen Muff was granted to the Grocers' Hall. Letterkenny owes its origin
to Sir George Marburie, and Rathmelton to Sir William Stewart. At the time of the plantation the old Irish were in a very uncivilized state: in many of the precincts those who were permitted to remain, still practised their barbarous method of ploughing by the tail at the time of Pynnar's survey. During the wars that succeeded the rebellion of 1641, the British of the district along the Foyle, called the Laggan forces, did excellent service in this and the adjoining counties. There were some few forfeitures among the proprietors of Irish descent at the time of the Act of Settlement. The forfeitures consequent on the war of the revolution of 1688 did not extend into Donegal. The last historical event connected with this county was the capture of the French fleet off Tory Island by Sir John B. Warren in 1798. The most remarkable piece of antiquity in Donegal is the Grianan of Aileach, the palace of the northern Irish kings from the most remote antiquity down to the twelfth century. It stands on a small mountain 802 feet in height, near the head of Loch Swilly. The summit of the mountain, which commands a noble prospect, is surrounded by three concentric ramparts of earth intermixed with uncemented stones. The approach by an antient paved road leads through these by a hollow way to a dun or stone fortress in the centre. This part of the work consists of a circular wall of Cyclopean architecture varying in breadth from 15 feet to 11 feet 6 inches, and at present about 6 feet high, enclosing an area of 77 feet 6 inches in diameter. The thickness of this wall is diminished at about 5 feet from the base by a terrace extending round the interior, from which there are flights of steps somewhat similar to those at Steague Fort, another remarkable Cyclopean erection in the county of Kerry. There was probably a succession of several such terraces before the upper part of the wall was demolished. Within the thickness of |. wall, opening off the interior, are two galleries, 2 feet 2 inches wide at bottom and 1 foot l l inches at top by 5 feet in height, which extend round one-half of the circumference on each side of the entrance doorway, with which however they do not communicate: their use has not been determined. The remains of a small oblong building of more recent date but of uncertain origin, occupy the centre. The space contained within the outer enclosure is about 5, acres, within the the second, about 4; within the third, about 1; and within the central building, or cashel, #. The stones of the wall are generally of about 2 feet in length, polygonal, not laid in courses, nor chiselled, and without cement of any kind. The .." is thus minute, as, from an antient Irish 8. published in the first part of the “Memoir of the rdnance Survey of Ireland,’ and which bears conclusive internal evidence of having been written before A. D. 1101, the building of Aileach (‘the stone fortress’) is attributed, with every appearance of accuracy, to Eochy Ollahir, whose reign is one of the very earliest i. epochs in Irish history. In this poem are preserved the names of the architects, the number of the ramparts, and the occasion of the undertaking. Until the publication of the Memoir, the uses and history of this remarkable edifice were totally unknown. It was reduced to its present state of ruin A. D. 1 101, by Murtagh O'Brien, king of Munster, who, in revenge of the destruction of Kincora [CLARE] by Donnell Mac Loughlin, king of Ulster, A. D. 1088, invaded this district and caused a stone of the demolished fortress of Aileach to be brought to Limerick for every sack of plunder carried home by his soldiery. This event was remembered as late as 1599, when the plunder of Thomond by Hugh O'Donnell was looked on as a just retaliation. ô. Tory Island also are some Cyclopean remains, not improbably connected with the very antient tradition of the glass tower mentioned by Nennius. Tory signifies the island of the tower. On the same island are also a round tower and the remains of seven churches and two stone crosses. Throughout the county are numerous memorials of St. Columba, or as he is more usually known in Ireland, St. Columbkille. This distinguished saint, the apostle of the Picts and founder of the church of Iona, was born at Gartan, a small village south of Kilmacrenan, where he founded an abbey which was aferwards richly endowed by the O'Donnells. Near Kilmacrenan is the rock of Doune, on which the O'Donnell was always inaugurated. The remains of the abbey of Donegal still possess interest for the antiquarian, and on the north of Glen Veagh are some very antient remains of churches. But by i the most celebrated ecclesiastical locality in this county is the Purgatory of St. Patrick, situated on an island in Loch Derg. The antient purgatory was in high repute during the middle ages: the penitcnt was supposed to pass through ordeals and undergo temptations similar to those ascribed to the Egyptian mysteries. (See O'Sullivan, Hist. Cathol. Hib.) In #. * Foedera,’ are extant several safe conducts granted by the kings of England to foreigners desirous of visiting Loch Derg during the fourteenth century. On Patrick's day, A. p. 1497, the cave and buildings on the island were demolished by order of Pope Alexander VI., but were soon after repaired: they were again razed by Sir James Balfour and Sir William Stewart, who were commissioned for that purpose by the Irish government A. D. 1632. At this time the establishment consisted of an abbot and forty friars, and the daily resort of pilgrims averaged four hundred and fifty. The cave was again opened in the time of James II., and again closed in 1780. At present the Purgatory, which has been a fourth time set up, but on an island at a greater distance from the shore than the two former, draws an immense concourse of the lower orders of Roman Catholics from all parts of Ireland, and many from Great Britain and America every year. The establishment consists, during the time of the station from the 1st of June to the 15th of August, of twenty-four priests: the pilgrims remain there six or nine days; the penances consist of prayer, maceration, fasting, and a vigil of twenty-four hours in a sort of vault called the “prison.” The fees are 1s. 4d. each, of which 63d. is paid for the ferry. During the time the pilgrims remain on the island they are not permitted to eat anything but oaten bread and water. Water warmed in a large boiler on the island is given to those who are faint; this hot water is called “wine,' and is supposed to possess many virtues. One of the pilgrims whom Mr. Inglis saw here, had her lips covered with blisters from the heat of the “wine’ she had drank. The number of pilgrims is variously estimated from 10,000 to 13,000 and 19,000 annually, and is at present on the increase. A station was advertised here in the year 1830 by a Roman Catholic bishop. For the state of education in this county, see RAPHoe, with which diocese the county of Donegal is nearly coextensive. The only newspaper published in this county is the Ballyshannon Herald; number of stamps used in 1835, 71.85. The county expenses are defrayed by Grand Jury presentments. The amount of direct taxation averages about 24,000l. per annum. Assizes are held twice a year at Lifford, where there is a county gaol: there are bridewells at Donegal and Letterkenny. The district lunatic asylum is at Londonderry. The share of the expense of erecting this establishment, which falls on Donegal, is 9055l. 10s. 1d. (Statistical Survey of Donegal, 1802; Sketches in Ireland, by the Rev. C. Otway; Northern Tourist; Inglis's Ireland in 1834; Memoirs of Ordnance Survey of Ireland, Hodges and Smith, Dublin, 1837; Parliamentary Papers,
&c.) DO'NGOLA, a province of Upper Nubia, extending southwards from the borders of Mahass about 19° 30' N. lat., along the banks of the Nile as far as Korti, about 18° N. lat., where it borders on the country of the Sheygia Arabs. The Nile coming from Sennaar flows in a northern direction through Halfay, Shendy, and the Barabra country to about 19° N. lat. and 33° E. long, when it suddenly turns to the south or south-south-west, passing through the Sheygia country. [BARKAL.] After passing below the rock of Barkal, as it reaches the town or village of Korti, its course assumes a direction nearly due west, which it continues for about 20 or 30 miles, and then resumes its north direction towards Egypt. The province called Dongola stretches along the banks of the river from Korti first to the westward, and then northwards, following the bend of the stream to below the island of Argo, where it borders on Dar-Mahass, which last is a distinct province of Nubia. The whole length of Dongola is about 150 miles, and its breadth may be considered as extending no further than the strip of cultivable land on each bank, which varies from one to three miles in breadth, beyond which is the desert. The left or west bank is the more fertile, the eastern being in most places barren, and the sands of the desert stretch. ing close to the water's edge. (Waddington and Hanbury's Travels.) The fine and fertile island of Argo is included within the limits of Dongola. The principal place in Dongola is Maragga or New Dongola, on the left or west bank,
in 19° 0' N. lat., which was in great measure built by the Mamelukes during their possession of the country from 1812 to 1820, when they were driven away by Ismail, son of the pasha of Egypt. (Caillaud's Travels.) Further south and on the right bank of the Nile, is Dongola Agous or Old Dongola, formerly a considerable town, but now reduced to about 300 inhabitants. At one end of it is a large square building, two stories high, which was formerly a convent of Coptic monks, and the chapel of which has been turned into a mosque. There are also other remains of Christian monuments, for Dongola was a Christian country till the fourteenth century, and Ibn Batuta speaks of it as such. Makrizi in the fifteenth century describes Dongola as a fertile and rich country with many towns; and Poncet, who in 1698 visited Old Dongola and its king and court, speaks of it as a considerable place. The king was hereditary, and aid tribute to the king of Sennaar. After Poncet's time, |. the Sheygia Arabs desolated Dongola, and reduced it to subjection during a great part of the last century, a cireumstance which accounts for the present depopulated and poor state of the country. When the Mamelukes who had escaped from Egypt came to Dongola in 1812, the country was under several Meleks or petty native chiefs, subject however to the Sheygia Arabs. It is now a Beylik dependent on the pasha of Egypt; and the bey of Dongola, who resides at Maragga, extends his jurisdiction also over the country of the Sheygia Arabs. The natives of Dongola resemble those of Lower Nubia in appearance, they are black, but not negroes; they produce dourra, barley, beans, and have sheep, goats, and some large cattle. The fine horses which in Egypt are known by the name of Dongola come chiefly from the Sheygia or Barabra countries. The houses are built of unbaked bricks, made of clay and chopped straw. The country of Dongola is more fertile than Lower Nubia, but the people are few and indolent or dispirited by long calamities. Rüppel, in his “Travels to Nubia and Kordofan,” gives particulars of the manners and habits of the people of Dongola. DONNE, JOHN, was born at London in the year 1573 of respectable parents. At the early age of eleven, being esteemed a good Latin and French scholar, he was sent to the University of Oxford, and after remaining there a few years was removed to Cambridge. Although he greatly distinguished himself in his studies he took no degree, as his family being Catholic had conscientious objections to his making the requisite oath. At the age of seventeen he went to Lincoln's Inn to study the law; and while here, in order to satisfy certain religious doubts, he read the controversies between the Roman Catholics and Protestants, and decided in favour of the latter. After travelling for about a year in Spain and Italy, he became on his return secretary to Lord Elsinore, and fell in love with that nobleman's niece, the daughter of Sir George More. The lady returned his affection, and they were privately married. When this union was discovered by Sir George he was so indignant, that he induced Lord Elsinore to dismiss Donne from his service. The unfortunate secretary was afterwards imprisoned by his father-in-law, and his wife was taken from him; but by an expensive law-proceeding, which consumed nearly all his property, he was enabled to recover her. , Sir George forgave him shortly afterwards, but absolutely refused to contribute anything towards his support, and he was forced to live with his kinsman, Sir Francis Whalley. Dr. Morton, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, advised Donne to enter into the Church, and offered him a benefice; but although in great poverty he refused the offer, thinking himself not holy enough for the priesthood. Sir Francis Whalley at last effected a complete reconciliation between Donne and Sir George, who allowed his son-in-law 800l., in quarterly sums of 20l. cach, till the whole should be paid. Still he continued to be in embarrassed circumstances, and after residing some time at Mitcham, whither he had removed for the sake of his wife's health, he lived in the house of Sir Robert Drury, at Drury Lane. He accompanied that gentleman to Paris, contrary to the solicitations of his wife, who could not bear to be parted from him, and who, as she said, felt a foreboding of some evil. While Donne was in Paris, there is a story that he saw the apparition of his wife enter his apartment bearing a dead child, and shortly afterwards received the intelligence that his wife . actually been delivered of a dead child at that very moment. The honest angler, Isaac Walton, who writes Donne's Biography,