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seems inclined to believe this story. On Donne's return to England he was introduced to James I., and delighted the king by a polemic treatise against Catholicism, entitled • Pseudo-Martyr.’ James was so anxious that he should take holy orders, that Donne at length complied, and became the king's chaplain-in-ordinary. His style of preaching is thus described by Walton : “always preaching as an angel from a cloud, but not in a cloud.’ The University of Cambridge made him doctor of divinity; and now, just as he was rising from his misfortunes, his happiness was embittered by the death of his beloved wife. The benchers of Lincoln's Inn presented him with their lectureship; and after accompanying an embassy to the queen of Bohemia, James's daughter, he became dean of St. Paul's and vicar of St. Dunstan's, being then in the fifty-fourth year of his age. Falling into a consumption, he was unable to perform his clerieal duties; but some enemy having hinted that he merely feigned illness because he was too idle to preach, he mounted his pulpit, and almost in a dying state, preached what Walton has called his ‘own funeral sermon.’ This discourse was afterwards printed under the quaint title of “Death's Duel.” From this time he abandoned all thoughts of life, and even had a portrait painted of himself, enveloped in a shroud, which he kept in his bed-room. Shortly afterwards he died, having exalted himself (according to Walton), almost to a state of angelic beatitude. Of the real goodness and piety of Donne there can be no doubt. But while we admire these genuine qualities, we must not be blind to the superstitions and puerilities which were blended with Donne's religion, though these might be attributed partially (but not wholly) to the age. There was evidently a great deal of simplicity about him, as well as about his biographer Walton, who, enthusiastic in his admiration, exalts a weakness as much as his hero's most brilliant qualities. However, to those who wish to see characters like Donne treated in the spirit of their own time, we cannot recommend a more delightful book than Walton's Life of Donne. As a poet, Donne was one of those writers whom Johnson has (to use Wordsworth's expression) “strangely’ designated metaphysical poets: a more infelicitous expression could not well have been devised. In the biography of Cowley, Johnson has committed an unintentional injustice towards Donne. . By representing Cowley's faults as the faults of a school, he brings forward parallel passages from other authors containing like faults, and Donne is one of them. He has previously described the school as a set of cold unfeeling o o hence the reader finding Donne's worst lines cited in illustration of that remark, may easily imagine that he never did anything better, and set him down as a mere pedantic rhymer. The fact is, that “quaint conceits’ are only the deformities of Donne's poetical spirit: the man himself had a rich vein of poetry, which was rarely concealed even when most laboriously encumbered, while some of his pieces, both for thought and even melody, are absolute gems. His fault, far from being coldness, is too much erotic fervour: he allows his imagination to run loose into the most prurient expressions; and in some of his amatory pieces, the conceits stand as a corrective to their excessive warmth. His satires, though written in a measure inconceivably harsh, are models of strength and energy. Their merits were discovered by Pope, who (to use his own odd phrase) translated them into English. Donne's principal theological works, besides sermons, are the “Pseudo-Martyr, and a treatise against suicide, called ‘Bia-thanatos.’ We beg leave to call the attention of those readers who study the progress of their own language to one fact, and that is, that whilst many of the pieces of Donne, written in lyric measures, are absolute music, what he has composed in the heroic measure is painfully uncouth and barbarous. Thus, though the invention of heroic verse took place at an early period (it is attributed to Chaucer), we find that a language must be in a highly cultivated state before this kind of verse can be written in perfection. DOOM or DOUM, a remarkable palm-tree exclusively inhabiting Upper Egypt, especially the neighbourhood of Thebes, whence it is named Cucifera Thebaica. Its stem, instead of growing without branches like other palms, forks two or three times, thus assuming the appearance of a Pandanus. Clumps of it occur near Thebes; the fruit is about the size of an orange, angular, irregularly formed, of

a reddish colour, and has a spongy, tasteless, but nutritious rind. The albumen of the seed is hard and semitransparent, and is turned into beads and other little ornaments. Gaetrner described it under the name of Hyphaene coriacea. DOQMS, FALSING OF, a term of the old Scots law, somewhat similar in import with appeal of false doom in the law of England. A doom or judgment thus falsed or charged with injustice, was of old taken from the bailies of burghs to the court of Four-boroughs, and from the court baron or freeholder's court to the court of the sheriff, thence to the justice ayre, and thence to the parliament. But on the institution of the court of session, in 1532, a new method of review was established, the proceedings of the inferior courts being thenceforward carried into the court of session by advocation, suspension, and reduction, a form of process derived from the tribunals of modern Rome, and from the court of session to parliament by protest for remeid of law, and now to the House of Lords by appeal. The civil jurisdiction of the court of justiciary declined immediately on the institution of the court of session. By the Jurisdiction Act, however, 20 Geo. II., a power of appeal to a limited extent was again bestowed on the circuit court of justiciary, and a process of appeal laid down entirely in the spirit of the antient falsing of dooms. This method of appeal has, with some slight alterations, been continued to the present time. For the old falsing of dooms, see Stat. Will. c. 10; 1429, c. 116; 1471, c. 41; 1503, c. 95, 99. DOONGURPORE, a small principality, situated in the district of Bagur and province of Gujerat, in a hilly tract, as to which but few particulars are known. This principality was formerly united to Odeypore, in Rajpootana, and the rajah of Doongurpore still claims seniority over the reigning sovereign of Odeypore, but this distinction is merely nomi. nal, and there is in fact no political connexion between the two rajahs. The greater part of the inhabitants of Doongurpore are Bheels, who are considered to be the Aborigines of the country. , Some years ago the rajah to preserve his authority, which was threatened by the more powerful among his subjects, took some bands of Sindes into his pay, but they soon usurped all power, and were proving destructive to the country, when the rajah sought and obtained the protection of the English under whose intervention the country has recovered from the desolate condition to which it had been reduced. The town of Doongurpore, the capital, is situated in 23°54' N, lat. and 73° 50' E. long.: about 95 miles north-east from Ahmedabad. A lake near this town is said to have its mounds constructed with solid blocks of marble. DOOR and DOORWAY, the entrance leading into a public or private edifice, and the opening or entrance way into an apartment or from one apartment to another. This wa is closed with the door, which is generally made of .. and hung to one of the sides or jambs of the doorway. The name door is from the Saxon part of our language, but it is one of those roots which occur also in the cognate languages, as the Greek and Latin. The doorway consists of a sill, or horizontal piece laid on the ground, the perpendicular pieces, architraves or jambs, called also by R. the antepagmenta, and the lintel, or piece laid on the top of the jambs. According to Vitruvius (iv. 4), who gives general rules for the proportions of the portals of temples, the hypothyron, or aperture for doors, should be as follows:—The height from the pavement to the ceiling of the temple being divided into three o: and a half, two of the whole parts were allowed for the height of the door. These two parts were subdivided into twelve smaller parts, of which five and a half were allowed as the width of the door at the base; and the upper part was contracted according to the following rules: if not more than 16 feet high, the contraction was one-third of the width of the jamb on the face; if the height was more than 16, and not exceeding 25 feet, a fourth part of the width of the jamb only was employed; and from beyond 25 feet, and not exceeding 30 feet oneeighth only. Doors higher in proportion were made perpendicular. The Egyptian doorway is perpendicular, and consists of two flat architraves of stone, with a flat lintel surmounted by an astragal moulding, above which is a frieze terminated with a bold cavetto and fillet. The doorway inclosed between the architraves and lintel is narrow in its proportions. The form of the door itself (if there ever was one used) is

unknown. . .

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wood let into grooves in the compartments formed by the joining the rails and styles together. Munnions, a corruption of mullions, are short upright pieces let into the rails. The panels have often a moulding running round their edges, either on one or both sides. For the technical terms of framed doors, the reader may consult Nicholson's Dictionary; and for the best general information on doors, the recent work of T. L. Donaldson on Doors.



DORA'DO (constellation), the sword-fish, a constellation of Bayer, situated in the southern hemisphere, and cut nearly in half by a line joining a Argūs and a Eridani. The principal stars are as follows,

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DORAT, CLAUDE JOSEPH, was born at Paris in the year 1734. Having a considerable fortune he devoted himself entirely to poetry, and produced a number of tragedies, which, though some were successful, drew on him torrents of ridicule from contemporary wits. He seems however to have attained some reputation as a writer of the lighter class of poems. He had a great passion for bringing out splendid editions of his own works, and the cost of vignettes and tail pieces consumed his fortune. He died in the year 1780. The works of Dorat fill twenty volumes, but they are not highly estimated. La Harpe will scarcely allow him mediocrity. La Déclamation Théâtrale, a work on the proper department of actors, is considered his chef d'oeuvre; but, though it is replete with wholesome advice to performers, it is deficient in everything that can be called poetry. His lighter tales in verse are told with naïveté and humour; of these Alphonse ". the best reputation, but they are terribly indecent. His dramas are entirely forgotten. It should be observed that the edition of the works of Dorat in twenty volumes is adorned with engravings superior to most works of the time ; and though we may blame the author for his prodigality in lavishing his fortune on such ornaments, we must not refuse the praise which is due to his taste, considering that these choice engravings were made at his own suggestion. DORCHESTER, a borough and market-town, having separate jurisdiction, in the division of Dorchester and county of Dorset, 120 miles south-west by west from London. Dorchester was called by the Romans ‘Durnovaria,’ and “Durinum.’ Hutchins, in his history of Dorsetshire, says that the first part of the name Dorchester is from Dur, or Dwr, in antient British, water, which seems the best opinion. By the Saxons it was called ‘Dornceaster,’ from whence we have the modern name Dorchester. It has also been called ‘Villa Regalis, to distinguish it from Dorchester in Oxfordshire, called ‘Villa Episcopalis.” Placed on the ‘Via Icenia' (the Icknield street), it must have been a place of some importance in the time of the Saxons, as two mints were established here by King Athelstan. The town was nearly destroyed by fire in 1613: 300 houses, and the churches of the Holy Trinity and All Saints, were totally consumed; and the loss is estimated by Hutchins at the enormous sum of 200,000l. Many severe battles were fought in the vicinity of Dorchester between the king's and the parliamentary forces during the civil war. At the assizes held here on the 3rd of September, 1685, by Judge Jefferies and four other judges, out of 30 persons tried on a charge of being implicated in Monmouth's rebellion, 29 were found guilty and sentenced to death. The following day 292 persons pleaded guilty, and 80 were ordered for execution, John Tutchin,

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who wrote the ‘Observator’ in Queen Ann me, was sentenced to be whipped in every town in the county once a year, but on his petitioning to be hanged as a mitigation i. * punishment, he was reprieved, j subsequently parOne (1. The manor of Dorchester has passed through the hands of a great many families, and in the 11th year of the reign of King Henry IV. appears to have been the king's demesne borough. In the 1st of Henry V. the profits of the borough were confirmed to the burgesses at a fee-farm rent of 20l. The rent was subsequently granted, and is now paid, to the Hardwicke family. The corporation claim a o right, but they have charters of Edward III, Charles I., and of other reigns: the governing charter is that of the 5th Charles I. The assizes and courts of quarter-sessions for the county and for the borough are held here; as well as a court of record and a court leet. A high steward is appointed for life. The borough has returned two members to parliament since the 23rd year of the reign of King Edward I., but, by the Boundary Act, the boundaries are considerably extended, and include Fordington, Colleton Row, and part of Trinity parish, and include a population of 4940 inhabitants. The population of the town itself is 3033, of whom 1552 are females. The town of Dorchester is pleasantly situated on a slight elevation near the river Frome, and consists principally of three spacious streets, which are well paved and lighted. A delightful walk, well shaded, o two-thirds of the town. Races are annually held here in September; and a theatre was erected in 1828. The shire hall is a plain building of Portland stone, and is commodiously fitted up. The gaol, built in 1795, contains the county gaol, the house of correction, and the penitentiary: the interior is divided into four wings, communicating by cast-iron bridges. The trade is now very trifling, but in the reigns of King Charles I. and James I. the manufacturing of cloth was carried on to some extent: the market-days are Saturday and Wednesday. There are fairs on Trinity Monday, St. John the Baptist's, and on St. James's days; the three last are principally for sheep and lambs, for which Dorchester is celebrated. A tract of land, called Fordington Field, partly meadow, partly arable, surrounds a portion of the town: its soil is particularly adapted for the feeding of cattle, and it extends over a surface seven miles in circumference, without any inclosures. The town is divided into three parishes, All Saints (commonly called All Hallows), St. Peters, and the Holy Trinity, and is in the archdeaconry of Dorset and diocese of Bristol. St. Peter's church contains some curious monuments, is spacious, well built, and consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, and an embattled tower, 90 feet in height. The living of Trinity is by far the best, ...; now worth 4391, a year. There are also places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists, and Unitarians. A free grammar-school was founded and endowed by Mr. Thomas Hardy in the year 1579, the government of which is vested in trustees. It has two exhibitions, of 10l. per annum, to St. John's College, Cambridge, and one of 5l. per annum to any college of either University. A second school, founded prior to the grammar-school, was refounded in 1623 by the corporation, the master of which instructs five boys gratuitously in reading, writing, and arithmetic. There are almshouses, founded by Sir Robert Napier in 1615, by Matthew Chubb in 1619; and the Whetstone almshouses, for the support of four couples, or four single persons, The town was strongly fortified and entirely surrounded by a wall, when in possession of the Romans; and the site where an antient castle stood is still called Castle Green. The building itself was totally demolished, and a priory for Franciscan monks was constructed out of the materials by one of the Chidiock family, in the reign of Edward III., near the site of the old castle. The church of the priory was pulled down at the Reformation, and the house the residence of Sir Francis Ashley, and was subsequently converted into a Presbyterian meeting-house. Tesselated pavements, Roman urns, and a quantity of coins of Antoninus Pius, Vespasian, Consto", , and other Roman emperors, have been dug up to the vicinity of Dorchester. - DORDOGNE, a river in the south of France, rises in the department of Puy de Dôme, on the slope of Mon: Dor, the summit of which (Puy de Sancy, 6224 feet high) is the highest point of central France. The Dordogne flows ast the towns of Bort, Argentat, and Beaulieu, all in the §. artment of Corrèze, to the junction of the Cére. rom the junction of the Cére the course of the Dordogne is westward; at Mayronne, 14 miles below the Junction, the navigation commences; and at Limeuil, about 40 miles below Mayronne, the Dordogne receives the Vezère, a navigable tributary, which rises in the department of Corrèze, and has a south-western course of about 100 miles. [CorREze.] At Libourne, 70 miles below the junction of the Vezère, the Dordogne receives the Isle, its largest tributary, which rises in the department of Vienne, and has a south-west course of nearly 120 miles. About 22 miles below the junction of the Isle, the Dordogne unites with the Garonne, and forms the aestuary of the Gironde. Its whole length is about 240 to 250 miles, for more than 130 of which it is navigable. The tide flows up to Castillon, nearly 50 miles above its junction with the Garonne; and sometimes at spring tides, when the water in the river is low, sets in with a violence which overwhelms everything. The anchors of the boats and vessels moored in the stream are carried away, the cables broken, and the vessels wrecked, unless the owners have taken the precaution to place them in the middle of the channel, where the depth of the water diminishes the violence of the stream. This violent flow of the tide is called Le Mascaret; the noise which it makes may be heard as far off as seven or eight miles. [Bore.] The Dordogne is noticed in the writings of Ausonius and Sidonius Apollinaris, in the 4th and 5th centuries under the name of Duranius. o of Tours, in the 6th century, calls it Dorononia; and Eginhard (9th century) Dornonia. Dordonia, the Latinized form of Dordogne, first appears in the writings of Aymoin or Aimoin in the end of the 10th or beginning of the 11th century. DORDOGNE, a department in the south of France, taking its name from the river just described. Its figure approximates to that of an equilateral triangle, having its sides respectively facing the S., N.E. and N.W. It is bounded on the N. and N.E. by the department of Haute Vienne; on the E. by that of Corrèze; on the S.E. by that of Lot; on the S. by that of Lot and Garonne; on the S.W. by that of Gironde; on the W. (for a very short distance) by that of Charente Inférieure; and on the N.W. by that of Charente. Its greatest length from N. to S. is about 80 miles, and its greatest breadth from E. to W. about 72 miles. The area of the department, according to M. Malte Brun, is 3640 square miles; rather more than the joint area of the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk; the population in 1832 was 482,750 (not more than 12-17ths of the population of the two English counties just mentioned), giving 133 inhabitants to a square mile. Perigueux, the capital, on the Isle, (population in 1832, 8700 for the town, or 8966 for the whole commune,) is about 264 miles in a straight line S.S.W. of Paris, or 294 miles by the road through Orléans, Vierzon, Châteauroux, and Limoges. There are no very lofty hills in this department. The hills which run, N.W., from the mountains of Auvergne send off a subordinate chain which just crosses the northern part of the department near Nontron. Other hills of lower elevation traverse the department, and form, except in the instance of the two great rivers, the Dordogne and the Isle, narrow valleys, which are liable to be inundated and damaged by the floods. The department is watered by the Dordogne, which passes through it from E. to W.; and is navigable throughout this part of its course. The Vezère enters this department from that of Corrèze, and flows past Montignac, where it becomes o into the Dordogne. The Isle arises in the department of Haute Vienne, and entering that of Dordogne on the N.E., flows through it in a S.W. direction, until it enters the department of Gironde a few miles above its junction with the Dordogne. The Dronne rises in the department of Haute Vienne, and entering that of Dordogne, flows through it or along the border until it enters the department of Gironde, and unites with the Isle. These are the principal rivers. Of the smaller ones, the Nizonne, which receives the Belle and the Pude, falls into the Dronne; as do also the Boulou and the Colle: the Loue, the Haute Vezère (which rises in the department of Corrèze), the Vern, the Salambre, and the Grande Durche, fall into the Isle : the Beune falls into the Vezère; and the Melve, the Ceou, the Couze, the Coudou united with the Louire, into the Dordogne : the


Bandiat, in the northern part of the department, belongs to the basin of the Charente, and the Dropt and the Allemance, in the southern part, to that of the Garonne. “The soil is far from productive: the calcareous rock often presents its bare surface, or is covered only with heath, broom, and chestnut-trees, which occupy immense tracts. Sometimes the continuity of these arid lands is broken only by the intervention of marshes. Rich and fertile spots occur, as it were, accidentally in the midst of this district. The grain harvests would be insufficient for the support of the inhabitants, were they not eked out by the use of chestnuts as food: but of the produce of the vineyards more than half is sold as wine or converted into brandy for exportation. The mineral wealth of the department is considerable: it consists of pit coal, manganese, and several other articles, especially iron. But that which entitles this department to the consideration of epicures is the white wine of Bergerac, the delicacy of the pork, the abundance of red partridges, the excellent pike which are found in the ponds, the liqueurs, the fine confectionary of Perigueux, and, above all, the #. which the distriet round that town affords." (Malte run.) The department contains 635 communes, and is divided into five arrondissements or sub-prefectures, viz., Perigueux, central (101,527 inhabitants); Nontron, in the north (82,122 inhabitants); Bergerac, in the south (116,897 inhabitants); Sarlat, in the east (109,430 inhabitants); and Riberac, in the west (72,774 inhabitants). Of the towns, Perigueux and Bergerac on the Dordogne (population, 5966 for the town, 8557 for the whole commune,) are described in their respective articles. Sarlat is between the Dordogne and the Vezère, on a brook which flows into the former and in a deep valley. The neighbourhood abounds with copper and iron mines, coal-pits, and mill-stone quarries. The population of Sarlat in 1832 was 3917 for the town, or 6056 for the whole commune. The inhabitants are engaged in making paper. Though it is so small a place, Sarlat was before the Revolution a bishop's see. The bishop was a suffragan of the archbishop of Bordeaux. Sarlat was one of the strongholds of the Huguenots, and was twice besieged in the religious wars of the sixteenth century. Riberac is on the left or south bank of the Dronne in a fertile plain, in which corn and hemp are grown, and sent to Bordeaux. There are at Riberac the remains of a strong castle, once belonging to the viscounts of Turenne. The population of the whole commune in 1832 was 3954; that of the town is not distinguished. Riberac is not on or near any main road. Nontron is on the Bandiat, in the north orn part of the department. The inhabitants amounted in 1832 to 2132 for the town, or 3246 for the whole commune. They manufacture leather and common cutlery, and carry on trade in the iron produced by the mines and wrought in the forges of the surrounding country. Beside the above, which are the capitals of arrondissements, there are in the north, St. Jean-de-Colle, on the river Colle; Mareuil and Thiviers, on the Belle ; and La Roche-Beaucour, on the Nizonne. The last is on the road from Paris to Perigueux, 20 or 21 miles from the latter, and consists of one crooked, steep and ill-paved street, with ill-built houses. The situation however is pleasant. The inhabitants are given by Vaysse de Villiers (A. D. 1818) at 1500. Many sheep, whose flesh is in good esteem, are fed in the neighbourhood. In the castern part there are Excideuil, near the Loue, Terrasson and Montignac on the Vezère, and St. Cyprien on the Dordogne. Montignac had in 1832 a population of 2629 for the town, and 3922 for the whole commune : the navigation of the Vezère begins here. Terrasson is on the road from Perigueux to Brives and Tulle. St. Cyprien had in 1832 a population of 1541 for the town, or 2375 for the whole commune. In the western part are St. Aulaye and La Roche-Chalaus or Chalais, on the Dronne, and LaTour Blanche, near the source of the Pude; and Villefranche-de-Louchapt, between the Isle and the Dordogne : these are all very small places. In the south are Eymet, on the Dropt; Beaumont, on the Couze; Issigéac, Belvés, Biron, Monpazier, and another

Villefranche. Belvés had, in 1832, a population of 1781

for the town, or 2363 for the whole commune. A considerable quantity of nut-oil is made here. Biron was a barony held by the Maréchal de Biron, one of the chief supporters of Henry IV., and was made a duchy in favour of the son of the Maréchal, who was afterwards beheaded for a conspiracy against Henri. In the centre of the department are Brantôme and Bourdeilles, on the Dronne; St. Astier, on the Isle; and La Linde, on the Dordogne. Brantôme has a population of nearly 3000. According to the “Dictionnaire Universelle de la France' (A.D. 1804), the manufactures of Brantôme were serges, hosiery, and cotton and woollen yarn. There was at this place a Benedictine abbey, founded by Charlemagne, A.D. 769. This abbey was held in commendam by Pierre de Bourdeilles, author of the well-known “Mémoires de Brantôme.” The town of Bourdeilles is said by Expilly to have an antient castle. The inhabitants of the town were, according to the “Dictionnaire Universelle,’ engaged in weaving serges and other light woollens, and cotton hose. Not far from the bourg or small town of Miremont, near the Vezère, is a cavern whose ramifications extend for about five miles. Another cavern, that of Mussidan, in the west of the department, is remarkable for the fountain of Sourzac, which gushes from it and forms a cascade. For ecclesiastical purposes, the department forms the diocese of Périgueux, the bishop of which is a suffragan of the archbishop of Bordeaux: for the administration of justice, it is included in the jurisdiction of the Cour Royale of Bordeaux; and for military affairs it is comprehended ir the eleventh division, of which the head-quarters are at JAordeaux. It sends seven members to the Chamber of Deputies. (Malte Brun; Balbi; Vaysse de Villiers.) In respect of education, this department is rather behind the average of France. M. Dupin assigns to it, in the chart subjoined to his “Forces Productives, &c. de la France’ (Paris, A.D. 1827), one male child at school to every 104 inhabitants. DORDRECHT. [DoRT.] DO'RIA, ANDRE'A, was born in 1466 at Oneglia, in the western Riviera of Genoa, of an antient noble family, to which Oneglia belonged as an imperial fief. Having lost his parents at an early age, Doria embraced the profe-sion of arms, served under several princes in various parts of Italy, and lastly entered the service of Francis I., who made him commander of his fleet in the Mediterranean. Genoa had been for a long time distracted by factions, which had brought it under the dominion or protection, as it was styled, of the Visconti and Sforza, dukes of Milan. The French having conquered the duchy of Milan, placed a garrison in Genoa, upon condition of respecting th. liberties of the citizens, a promise which they kept with the usual faith of conquerors. The citizens were oppressed in various ways, and Doria having remonstrated with the agents of Francis in behalf of his countrymen, a secret order came for his arrest, just after his nephew and lieutenant, Filippino Doria, had gained an important victory for the French over the imperial fleet near the coast of Naples in 1528. The French were then besieging Naples by land. Barbezieux, a French naval officer, was sent to Genoa with twelve galleys to seize on the person of Andrea Doria, who, having had intimation of this design, retired into the gulf of La Spezia, sent for his nephew to join him with the galleys which he had fitted out at his own expense, and offered his services to Charles V., who received him with open arms. Doria stipulated with Charles that Genoa, as soon as it was freed from the French, should be restored to its independence under the imperial protection, but no foreign garrison or government should be admitted into it. At the same time he engaged to serve the emperor with twelve galleys, fitted out ; himself, which number was afterwards raised to fifteen, for which Charles agreed to pay him 90,000 ducats a year. Doria soon after appeared before Genoa with his little squadron, and being favoured by the inhabitants, he obtained possession of the city, and drove the French away. It is said that Charles offered him the sovereignty of Genoa; but Doria preferred a nobler course. He re-organised the government of the republic, and, in order to extinguish the factions, he named a certain number of families of nobles and citizens, out of which the legislative council was to be chosen annually. New families might be added to the number from time to time. A Signoria, or Council of Sixteen, with a Doge, renewed every two years, composed the executive, and, five censors were appointed for five years as guardians of the laws. Doria was appointed censor for life, with the title of ‘Father and Liberator of his country.' . He now resumed his naval career as admiral of Charles V., and losushed himself against the Turks No. 542.

and the Barbary pirates. He escorted Charles V. to the expedition of Tunis in 1535, and contributed greatly to the taking of the place. In 1538 he joined the Venetian fleet off Corfu, when he lost the opportunity of attacking, with every chance of success, the Turkish armament commanded by the famous Barbarossa. . [BARBARoss A; KHAIR EDDIN.] His conduct on the occasion was attributed to secret instructions from the emperor. In 1541 Doria commanded the fleet in the expedition of Charles V. against Algiers, from which he is said to have tried in vain to dissuade the emperor. It turned out as he had foreseen, and he could only save the emperor with a small part of the army. In his old age, Doria retired to Genoa, where he lived in great splendour and reputation, the first among his fellow-citizens, respected by all, and consulted upon all matters of importance. Charles V. created him Prince of Melfi and Tarsi in the kingdom of Naples. At the beginning of 1547 his life was threatened by the conspiracy of Fieschi: his nephew Giannettino was murdered, but Andrea escaped, and Fieschi perished in the attempt. A few months after a fresh conspiracy was formed against him by Giulio Cibo, a Genoese emigrant, who however was discovered and executed. In 1548 some of the ministers of the emperor proposed to build a fortress, and introduce a Spanish garrison, in Genoa, under the pretence of preventing any new conspiracies, but the Genoese appealed to Doria, who interposed and prevented the execution of the project. In 1532 Doria, then eighty-five years old, went to sea again, to attack his old enemies the Turks, who, under Dragut Reis, were ravaging the coast of Naples. Doria lost some of his galleys, which were surprised by the Turks, but Dragut sailed away for the Levant. In 1556 he resigned his command to his nephew, Gian Andrea Doria, who was confirmed as admiral by Philip II. Andrea Doria died in his palace at Genoa in November, 1560, being then ninety-four years of age. He left no issue, and no very large fortune, owing to his splendid way of living and generous disposition. The Genoese paid great honours to his memory, and lamented his death as a public calamity. Doria was one of the greatest characters that Italy produced during the middle ages, and one of the few that were fortunate to the last. Several individuals of his family have distinguished themselves at various times in the service of the republic of Genoa. A branch of the Doria family are settled at Rome, with the title of princes. (Casoni, Annali di Genova; Botta, Storia d'Italia.) DORIANS, the most powerful of the Hellenic tribes, derive their origin from a mythical personage named Dorus, who is generally made the son of Hellen, though he is described as the son of Xuthus by Euripides (lon., 1590). Herodotus mentions (I. 52) five successive migrations of this race. Their first settlement was in Phthiolis, in the time of Deucalion; the next, under Dorus, in Hestiaeotis, at the foot of Ossa and Olympus; the third on Mount Pindus, after they had been expelled by the Cadmavans from Hestiaeotis. In this settlement, says Herodotus, they were called the Macedonian people; and he elsewhere (viii. 43) attributes to the Dorians a Macedonian origin; but there does not appear to have been any real connexion between the Dorians and the Macedonians (who, it has been shown, were of Illyrian extraction: Müller, Dar., i., p. 2) beyond this vicinity of abode. The fourth settlement of the Dorians, according to Herodotus, was in Dryopis (afterwards called the Dorian Tetrapolis); and their last migration was to the Peloponnese. Another, and most remarkable expedition, not mentioned by Herodotus, was the voyage of a Dorian colony to Crete, which is stated to have taken place while they were in their second settlement at the foot of Olympus (Androm. apud Strabon., p. 475 D); and Dorians are mentioned among the inhabitants of that island even by Homer (Od. xix., 174). The eastern coast was the first part which they occupied. (Staphylus apud Strabon., p. 475 C.) This early settlement in Crete must not be confused with the two subsequent expeditions of the Dorians to that island, which took place after they were well settled in the Peloponnese, the one from Laconia under the guidance of Pollis and Delphus, the other from Argolis under Althaemenes. The migration of the Dorians to the Peloponnese, which is generally called ‘the return of the descendants of Hercules,’ is expressly stated to have occurred 80 years after the Trojan war, i. e. in 1104 B. c. (Thucyd. i., 12.) The origin and nature of the connexion which subsisted between the Heracleidae and the Dorians are involved in much obscurity. The Dorians were from Vol. IX.-N

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