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very early times divided into three tribes, and the epithet thrice-divided (rouxáirec) is applied to them by Homer in the passage referred to above. These three tribes were called the }. the Dymanes, and the Pamphylians. Now the two latter tribes are said to have descended from Dymas and Pamphylus, the two sons of AEgimius, a mythical Doric king, and the first claimed a descent from Hyllus, the son of Hercules. An attempt has been made to show that the Hyllaeans were of Doric origin as well as the other two tribes (Müller Dor. i., chap. 3, sec. 2), but we are inclined to infer from the traditions as well as from the duplicate divinities of the Dorians, that the genuine Dorians were included in the two other tribes, and that the Heracleidae were a powerful Achaean family united with them in a similar manner, but by a stronger tie than the AEtolians under Oxylus, who are also said to have taken part in this expedition. The Heracleidae, then, with their AEtolian and Dorian allies, crossed the Corinthian gulf from Naupactus, invaded and subdued Elis, which was assigned to the AEtolian chieftain, and bending their steps southward, conquered successively and with greater or less difficulty, Messenia, Laconica, Argolis, Corinth, and Mégaris. In Laconia they were joined by the Cadmaean clan of the AEgidae, who assisted them in their tedious war with Amyclac, and afterwards took a part in the colonies to Thera and Cyrene. [Boeoti A and CYRENE.] This invasion, which so materially affected the destinies of Greece, was very similar in its character to the return of the Israelites to Palestine. The invaders, who, like the descendants of Abraham, brought their wives and children with them, though they perhaps did not completely abandon their last settlement, which was still called and considered Dorian (Thucyd. i. 107), numbered about 20,000 fighting men on the highest estimate. (Müller, Dor. i., chap. 4, sec. 8.) . They were, therefore, very inferior in number to the inhabitants of the countries which they conquered ; but the superiority of their peculiar tactics ensured them an easy victory in the field, and they appear to have taken all the strong places either by a long blockade or by some lucky surprise; for they were João unskilled in the art of taking walled towns. The governments which the Dorians established in all the countries which they thus invaded and conquered was, as might have been expected, very analogous to that which the Norman invasion introduced into England, namely, an aristocracy of conquest; for while the successful invaders remained on a footing of equality among themselves, all the old inhabitants of the country were reduced to an inferior condition, like the Saxons in England. They were called Tepiotrot, or ‘dwellers round about the city,” a name corre. sponding exactly to the Pfahlbürger, or ‘citizens of the Palisade,’ at Augsburg, who dwelt in the city suburbs without the wall of the city; to the ‘pale’ in Ireland before the time of James I.; to the people of the contado in Italy; and to the fauxbourgeois in France. (Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, i. p. 398, Eng, tr. ; Arnold's Thucydides, i. p. 626; and Borghini, Origine della Città di Firenze, p. 280, ed. 1584.) All the members of the one class were gentle, all those of the other class were simple. The constitution of Sparta in particular was an aristocracy of conquest as far as the relations between the Spartans and Lacedemonians were concerned, while the Spartans themselves lived under a democracy with two head magistrates, who were indeed called kings, but possessed very little kingly power. The usual name for a constitution in a Dorian state was an order or regulative principle (káguoc), and this name appears to have arisen from the circumstance that the attention of the Dorian legislators was principally, if not solely, directed to the establishment of a system of military discipline and to the encouragement of that strict subordination which is the result of it. To bring this about the Dorian population Was continually engaged in public choral dances, in which the eyolutions of an army were represented, and which served as a rehearsal for actual war. These dances were professedly in honour of the Dorian god, Apollo, who was represented as the inventor of the lyre, their original accompaniment, and also as a god of war, and of civil government, as presiding over the Delphian Oracle, which regulated ali the Dorian law systems; but this is merely an expression of the fact that music was an important instrument in the civil and military organization of a Dorian state. Apollo had a duplicate in his sister Artemis, and this, as we have before hinted, points to an antient division of the Dorian race

into two distinct tribes. (See Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, i. p. 217, comp. p. 224.) The necessity for such a religion, and such a system of worship depending upon it, is to be explained by the peculiar relation subsisting between the Dorians and their repiotrol. It was by superior prowess and discipline that they had acquired their rank, and it was only by a continuance of this superiority that they could hope to maintain themselves in the same position. Accordingly, it was important that while the bulk of the population was occupied as much as possible in agricultural employments, the Dorian aristocracy should enjoy sufficient leisure and have every inducement of religion and amusement to practise those martial exercises in which it was so needful for them to excel. The same ogcasion for strict discipline may also account for the extraordinary austerity which prevailed in most Dorian communities. The Dorian women enjoyed a degree of consideration unusual among the Greeks. The Syssitia, or common tables, which were established in most Dorian states, were designed to admonish those of the privileged class that, living as they did in the midst of a conquered but numerous population, they must not consider themselves to have any individual existence, but must live only for the sake of their order (kóapoc). In addition to the Dorian settlements which have been already mentioned, this race sent out many colonies: of these the most important were established along the southwest coast of Asia Minor. Rhodes, Cyprus, Corcyra, and Sicily also boasted a Dorian population; Byzantium and Chalcedon were Megarean colonies; and the celebrated cities, Tarentum and Crotona, in Italy, were founded under the authority of Sparta. The reader will find a full discussion of all questions relating to the history and peculiarities of the Dorian race in Müller's Dorier, Breslau, is 24 (translated into English, with additions and improvements by the author, Oxford, 1830; in the second chapter of K. F. Hermann's Lehrbuch der Griechischen Staatsalterthümer, Heidelberg, 1836, tranlated, Oxford, 1836; and in Lachmann's Spartanische Staatsverfassung, Breslau, 1836.) Dr. Lachmann adopts the view which we have given of the original two-fold division of the Dorians, but considers the two first tribes to have been the Hyllaeans and Dymanes, the Pamphylians being made up of volunteers who joined the expedition to the Peloponnese. RIC DIALECT, a variety of the Greek language }. to the Dorian race. It was spoken in the Dorian etrapolis; in the greater part of the Peloponnese; in the numerous Dorian .. in Italy, Sicily, and Asia Minor; in Crete, Ægina, Rhodes, Melos, Corcyra, and Cyrene. As a written language it is divided by grammarians into two classes, the old and new Doric. In the former Epicharmus, Sophron, and Alcman wrote; in the latter eocritus, Bion and Moschus. The lyric poets in general wrote in the Doric dialect; but Pindar, perhaps the greatest of them, at all events the best known to us, wrote a language based upon the epic or Ionic dialect, but with a liberal use of Doric and AEolic forms. (Hermann de Dialecto Pindari, Opuscula i. p. 247.) The choruses in the Attic plays are written in a kind of Doric; which circumstance (as well as the use of Doric words by Pindar, a Theban) is to be accounted for by the Dorian origin of lyric poetry; for as Herodotus, although a Dorian, wrote his history, which is a kind of epic, in the Ionic dialect, because that was the prescriptive language for epic poetry, so all writers of odes adopted the Doric more or less, because the oldest lyric poems were written in that dialect. The existing monuments of the pure Doric, in addition to the fragments of the old writers which have been carefully collected, are the specimens in the comedies of Aristophanes, the treaties and decrees quoted by the Athenian historians and orators, and the inscriptions collected by Chandler, Mustoxidi, and Böekh. The peculiarities by which the Dorian dialect was distinguished from the other varieties of the Greek language are to be attributed to the mountain life of the Dorians in their earliest settlements. We always find a tendency to the formation of broad vowel sounds in the language of mountaineers, and this fondness for the a and w, which the Dorians generally used where m and ov were used in other dialects, and also their aversion to sibilants, is perfectly analogous to what we observe in other languages which are o both by highlanders and lowlanders. The use of the article in the Greek language is attributable to the Dorians, the poetry of Alcman having first introduced it into the literature of Greece. The older language, which is called the AEolian or Pelasgian, and to which, according to Strabo, pp. 333 and 679, the Doric bore the same relation as the Attic did to the Ionian, was entirely without the article, as we may see in the Latin branch of it. On the Dorian dialect the reader may consult in addition to Maittaire and Gregory of Corinth, who have written on the Greek dialects in general, the excellent remarks of Müller, so. vol. ii., Appendix viii., p. 484, &c., English transtion. DORIC ORDER. [Civil ARCHITECTURE; Column.] DORIPPE (Fabricius), a genus of brachyurous decapod crustaceans belonging to the subdivision which have the feet of the fourth and fifth pairs elevated on the back, and not terminated with paddles, and the eyes supported upon simple peduncles (Notopoda). The genus is adopted by Latreille, Lamarck, Leach, Bosc, and Risso: it is the Notogastropus of Vosmaer, and was comprehended under the general term Cancer by Linnaeus, Herbst, Aldrovandus, and Plancus. Generic character—External antennae rather long, setaceous, inserted above the intermediate ones, which are folded (pliées), but not entirely lodged in the cavities where they take their insertion: third joint of the external jawJeet (pieds-mâchoires) straight, elongated, terminated in a point, buccal opening triangular: claws (chelae) small, short, equal; the other feet very long and compressed, the third pair being the greatest; the two last pair elevated upon the back, and terminated by a small hooked nail, which is folded back upon the next joint: carapace slightly depressed (the sides wider posteriorly than they are anteriorly), truncated, and spinous before; truncated, sinuous, and bordered behind; the surface marked with small humps or tubercles, which correspond exactly to the regions proper to the soft parts beneath: two great oblique openings, ciliated on their edges, communicating with the branchial cavity, and situated below the head, one at the right, the other at the left of the mouth: inferior and posterior part of the body truncated into a kind of gutter to receive the reflected abdomen, the pieces of which are nodulous or tuberculous: eyes small, lateral, supported on rather long peduncles, placed near the angles of the head, and protected by its angular projections, which form the edges of their orbits. (Desmarest.) Geographical Distribution.—Probably wide on the seacoasts of warm climates, where the water is deep. The Mediterranean and Adriatic seas, and Manilla, are among the localities given. Habits.-Not well known. The species haunt great depths in the sea, nor has it yet been proved whether they make use of the feet elevated on the back to cover themselves like the Dromiae with foreign bodies. It is however very probable that such is their use. Example, Dorippe lanata, Latreille, Lamarck; Dorippe Facchino, Risso; Cancer lanatus, Linnaeus; Cancer hirsutus alius, Aldrovandus. Description.—Four dentations in the front and a very strong lateral point, forming at the same time the angle of the head and the external border of the orbit. A short point on the middle of each side of the carapace. Anterior border of the thighs of the second and third pair of feet without spines. Fingers of the chelae compressed and arched within, having their internal edge armed with a series of dentilations, which are rather strong, oblique, equal, and white. Body often covered with reddish down.

Dorippe lanata. a, external left jaw foot.

Locality,+the Mediterranean and the Adriatic. The Inhabitants of Rimini call it Facchino. (Desmarest.)

Fossil DoRIPPEP

Desmarest (Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés Fossiles, 1822), describes a species, Dorippe Rissoana, which has some resemblance to the species above figured and described, and still more to the crab figured by Herbst under the name of Cancer Frascone; and above all, to a species brought from New Holland by Péron, and named Dorippe nodosa. Desmarest observes that he is the more inclined to consider it as approaching very near to this last, inasmuch as he had thought that the specimen which he had described might not be in reality fossil. In fact, he adds, that though brown and shining, like the fossil crabs which come from the East Indies, it is much lighter, more friable, and not so much imbedded in the clay as they are. In his “Considérations Générales sur la Classe des Crustacés,’ (1825,) he describes the Dorippe d quatre dents with the synonyms-Dorippe quadridens, Fabr. Latr.; Dorippe nodosa, Coll. du Mus. ; Cancer Frascone, Herbst. ‘This Dori from the East Indies,” he adds, “has lately been brought from Manilla by M. Marion de Procé. It so much resembles a species which I have described with doubt as fossil, that I know not how precisely to point out the difference. This species belongs to M. Defrance, who has stated its characters in the article ‘Dorippe' (fossil) of the Dict. des Sc. Nat.”

DORKING.. [SURREv.]

DOROG, a market town of eastern Hungary, in what is called the ‘Haydu Varosok,” or privileged district of the Haydukes, lying north-east of Böszörmény, the head town of that district, in 47° 30' N. lat. and 21° 20' E. long. (according to the Austrian quartermaster-general's map). It contains about 920 houses and 6650 inhabitants.

DORPAT, or DOERPT, a circle in the north-eastern part of the Russian government of Livonia, bounded on the north by Esthonia, and lying in the large subdivision of the empire, called ‘The Provinces of the Eastern Sea,” or Baltic. It has an area of about 4257 square miles, and contained, in 1792, 130,904 inhabitants; in 1816, 140,606; and in 1833, 179,819. There are 2 towns (Dörpt, or Dörpat, and Verroe), 20 parishes, 206 equestrian estates, and 15,331 small farms in the circle. Ridges of low hills and gentle eminences occur alternately with lakes, streams, marshes, forests, and cultivated plains: the largest lake, next to its eastern boundary, lake Peipus, the western side of which, together with a portion of the bay of Pskow, belongs to this circle, is the Würzyerva, which is navigable, and discharges its waters through the river Embach into the Peipus. Independently of the Little Embach, which enters lake Würzyerva from the south, and the Great Embach, which flows out of that lake into the Peipus, and is navigable from the town of Dörpat, the circle has no streams of any note: one of them, the Schwarzbach, contains pearls. The forests are of considerable extent, and in conjunction with the cultivation of buckwheat, flax and hemp, and the fisheries, afford employment to the people. A considerable quantity of cattle are reared. The only mechanical occupations are sawing timber, for which there are 18 mills, and making potashes, and a small quantity of Popo Verroe, the second town, which lies on a lake in 57° 46' N. lat. and 27°3' E. long., has a Lutheran and a Greek church, and about 3500 inhabitants,

DORPAT, or DOERPT (in Esthonian, Tart Ling, and in Livonian, Tehrpata), the chief town of the circle, is agreeably situated at the foot and on the declivity of an eminence, part of a range of hills, about 200 feet high, which rise abruptly from the spacious plain below, and is built on each bank of the Great Embach, in 58° 22' N. lat. and 26°42' E. long., 290 versts (about 193 miles) north-east of Riga. The river is crossed by a handsome bridge of granite of three massive arches, and the town, which is embellished with gardens, forms a semicircle, laid out in straight broad streets, which are kept very clean, and adorned with some handsome public buildings of freestone, l articularly the government offices and university buildings. The houses, constructed either of bricks or wood, the walls and roofs of which are painted in showy colours, do not in general exceed one story in height. The eminence, at the north-western extremity of the town, is approached from one of the principal squares, and laid out in avenues and walks: the summit is called the “Place of the Cathedral,' from its having been the site of a cathedral which was o down

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[graphic]

in the great fire of 1775, and is at present the site of an observatory, admirably supplied with instruments by the well-known astronomer, Dr. Struve, as well as of the university library and medical school. In the middle of the sixteenth century Dörpat had a cathedral, and seven churches within the walls, besides three outside of them, but at present it has only one Lutheran and one Greek church. In 1782 it had 546 houses and 3603 inhabitants; in 1816 the population had increased to 7376; and at resent the number of nouses is about 1200, and the popuF. is about 11,000. In 1833 it was 10,802; viz., 5011 males and 5791 females; and in 1835 the births were 772 and the deaths 653. Internal trade, the navigation of the Embach, and the wants of those who are connected with the university afford employment to the people of the town. They also hold a large annual fair in January for the sale of Russian and foreign manufactures. The university was founded in 1632 by Gustavus Adolphus, at a time when Livonia, Esthonia, and Ingria, belonged to the Swedish crown, but was suppressed by Alexis Michaelovitsh in 1656. The Swedes having however recovered possession of Livonia, it was re-established in 1690: in 1699 they transferred it to Pernau; and in December, 1802, it was reconstituted by the Emperor Alexander for the benefit of Livonia, Esthonia, and Courland, the nobility of which elect a curator or superintendent, who, conjointly with its heads, administers its revenue, which amounts to about 5800l. a year (126,000 roubles). The university, which is open to students of every religious persuasion, consists of the four faculties of theology, law, medicine, and philosophy; has 30 professors, and is attended by about 580 students. It has a library of nearly 60,000 volumes, and suitable collections for natural and experimental philosophy, mineralogy, zoology, anatomy, and pathology, &c.; a botanical garden, clinical institutions, a theological and a philological seminary, an establishment for educating Russian professors, a gymnasium, and a school for educating teachers in the elementary schools. Public education throughout Livonia, Esthonia, and Courland, is under the direction of the University of Dörpat. DORR-HAWK. [Go Atsuckers.] DORSET. [Sackville.] DORSETSHIRE, an English county, bounded on the east by Hampshire, on the north by Wiltshire, on the northwest by Somersetshire, and on the west by Devonshire: along all its southern borders it is washed by the English Channel. Dorsetshire is for a short distance separated from Hampshire by a rivulet which joins the Avon of Wiltshire and Hampshire above Christchurch: for a short distance it is separated from Somersetshire by the Ivel or Yeo, and the brooks that run into it; and in the west it is separated from Somersetshire and Devonshire by the Axe and some small streams that run into that river. The form of the county is very irregular, and one small part is entirely detached from the rest and inclosed by Devonshire. Its greatest length is from east to west, from Alderholt, near Fordingbridge, in Hampshire, to the western extremity of the detached part, which is inclosed within the boundary of Devonshire, 57 or 58 miles: but from the irregular course of the boundary, the line joining these two points is not wholly in Dorsetshire. The breadth from north to south varies much; the greatest breadth is from the spot where the river Stour enters Dorsetshire to Portland Bill or Point, 40 miles: at the eastern extremity, along the Hampshire border, the breadth is 16 miles; at the western extremity, near Lyme Regis, only 5 miles. The area, as given in the table in Arrowsmith's large map of England and Wales, and in the population returns, is i006 square miles, or 643,840 acres: the population in 1831 was 159,252, or about 158 to a square mile. In respect of size, it is below the average of the English counties; and in respect, both of amount and density of population, very much below. Dorchester, the county town, is 115 or 116 miles from St. Paul's, London, in a straight line south-west by west, or 1.19% from Hyde Park Corner by the road through Basingstoke, Andover, Salisbury, and Blandford. Dorsetshire is included between 50° 30' and 51° 5' N. lat., and 1" 48' and 3° 7' W. long. Dorchester is in 50° 43' N. lat. and 2° 26' W. long. Coast, Bays, and Islands.-At the eastern end of Dorsetshire the coast is precipitous; but the cliffs extend scarcely a mile south-west from the border of Hampshire, and are succeeded by a low sandy tongue of land, running about a mile farther in the same direction to the narrow entrance

of Poole harbour. This bay penetrates six miles inland towards the west, and expands to a breadth of four or five. Its outline is very irregular, and it forms several small bays; as Hole's Bay, Lytchet Bay, Arne Bay, &c. It receives the Frome, the Piddle, and other streams: it consists for the most part of banks of mud, which are dry at low water, and covered with sea-weed, and are separated from each other by deeper channels. The town of Poole is on a peninsula at the entrance of Hole's Bay, on the north side of the harbour. There are several islands in Poole harbour; Brownsea or Brownsey, the largest, which lies near the entrance of the harbour, is a mile and a half long from east to west, and nearly a mile broad. It is sandy, partly covered with heath, furze, and fern, and partly cultivated or laid out in a plantation. There are on it an old castle and one or two tenements. The water is so shallow in Poole Harbour, except in the channels, that only small or lightly-laden boats can pass over the banks, even at high water; several of the channels are only sufficient for fishing boats and small craft: the Wareham and Main channels, the south or Wych channel, and that which leads to the town of Poole, are navigable for larger vessels. The shore round Poole harbour is low, and near where the Frome falls into it the land is protected from inundation by an embankment. From the entrance of Poole harbour a low shore runs southward nearly three miles, and then becomes steep and turns eastward, forming Studland Bay, the southern limit of which is Handfast Point. From Studland Bay, the coast, still for the most part abrupt, runs about 4 miles south by west to Peverel Point and Durlston Head, forming the two small bays, Swanage or Swanwich Bay and Durlston Bay. From Durlston Head a precipitous coast runs west by south 5 miles to St. Aldhelm's or St. Alban's Head (344 feet high, B.), and from thence in an irregular line west by north 17 or 18 miles to Weymouth Bay, forming several small bays, such as Chapman's Pool, Kimmeridge Bay, Worbarrow Bay, Lulworth Cove, and Ringstead Bay. The cliffs which extend from Peverel Point to the neighbourhood of Weymouth are a longitudinal section of the high land which forms this part of the coast. The shore of Weymouth Bay is low, and extends 2 miles south to the towns of Melcomb Regis and Weymouth: here the cliffs recommence, and run l mile south-west to SandsFoot Castle, from whence a low shore extends 2 miles south cy east to Portland Castle, on the peninsula or Isle of Portland. The lofty coast of this island takes a circuit of 5 or 6 miles to the Bill of Portland, the southernmost point of the county, and from thence above 3 miles northward to the commencement of the Chesil Bank, which connects the north-west extremity of the Isle of Portland with the main land. The bay between Weymouth and the Isle of Portland is called Portland Road. The Isle of Portland is about four miles long, and in the widest part nearly one and a half broad. It is one continued bed or rock of freestone. The highest point in the island is 458 feet (B.) above the level of the sea: the cliffs on the Western side are very lofty; those at the Bill are not more than 20 or 30 feet. There is sufficient depth of vegetable soil to render the island tolerably productive, but not sufficiently so for the entire sustenance of the population, who get much of their provisions from Weymouth. Water is plentiful and good ; one stream has sufficient volume to turn a mill. The herbage is very fine, and affords pasturage to a number of sheep, whose flesh is considered to be excellent mutton. In wet seasons the meadows produce a good crop of grass, but in a dry spring it is so much parched as not to be worth mowing. The arable land is mostly common field; what inclosures there are, are bounded by stone fences: wheat, oats, peas, and a little barley are grown; sainfoin is also cultivated. The grain harvest is small, but the corn is fine, and in request for seed. There are very few trees in the island except a few elms in the southern part; and from the scarcity of other fuel, the islanders are obliged to use dried cow-dung mixed with the stubble of their corn, which they gather for the purpose. (Hutchins’s Dorsetshire, vol. ii. p. 354, 2nd edit., †. 1796-1815.) The whole island is included in one parish, which contained in 1831 a population of 2670. The islanders are a robust race, peculiarly adapted to the hard labour of quarrying stone, in which a considerable number are employed: they are not long-lived, which is ascribed to their free use of ardent spirits. (Hutchins's Dorsetshire.) They occasion . ally engage in fishing, and some few are employed in agriculture, trade, and handicraft. The custom of gavelkind prevails here. The island has one village, Chesilton, at the commencement of the Chesil bank, on the north-west side of Portland: there are several hamlets. There are two castles; one, on the east shore of the isle, is very antient, and built in the form of a pentagon, with a number of small loop-holes, whence it has been vulgarly called ‘Bow and Arrow Castle: it is sometimes called Rufus's Castle. The other is on the northern side of the island, built by Henry VIII., and, in connexion with Sandsfoot Castle, commands Portland Road: a few guns are still mounted. Near the Bill are two lighthouses. The quarries will be noticed hereafter. Masses of rocks extend under water to a considerable distance from the island. A dangerous surf, called “The Race of Portland,” extends from the west of the island eastward to St. Aldhelm's Head. Portland Road is sheltered from the south-west wind, and affords good holding ground at eight or nine fathoms. Leland, Hollinshed, and Camden agree in speaking of Portland as having been once separated from the main land; but it has long been united to it by the Chesil Bank, one of the longest and most extraordinary ridges of pebbles in Europe. From its commencement at the Isle of Portland, near the village of Chesilton, to which it gives name, it extends in a remarkably straight line northwest for many miles, not joining the shore at the part nearest to Portland, but running parallel to the coast, from which it is separated by a narrow arm of the sea called “The Fleet,’ as far as Abbotsbury, 10 miles from Portland: here it unites with the main land and runs along the shore nearly six miles further to the commencement of the cliffs at Burton Castle, not far from Bridport. The breadth of the Chesil Bank is in some places near a quarter of a mile, but commonly much less. The base is formed of a mound of blue clay, which is covered to the depth of four, five, or six feet, by a coat of smooth round pebbles, chiefly of white calcareous spar (these are called Portland pebbles), but partly of quartz, chert, jasper, &c., so loose that a horse's legs sink almost knee deep at every step. The bank slopes on the one side toward the open sea, and on the other toward the narrow inlet intercepted by it: it is highest at the Portland end, and is there composed of pebbles as large as a hen's egg; but they diminish in size towards the west so regularly, that it is said the smugglers who land in the night can judge where they are by examining the beach; at Abbotsbury they are little bigger than horse-beans. Marine plants grow in patches along the edge of the bank by the water-side. The pebbly covering is continually shifting: a north-east wind sometimes clears away the pebbles in parts, leaving the blue clay exposed; but the denuded spaces are covered again with pebbles by the heavy sea which the south-west wind brings up. “The Fleet' receives the water of several rivulets, and runs into the open sea at its south-eastern extremity by a narrow channel called “Small Mouth: it is in some places half a mile broad; there are two or three passages or causeways over it. At the north-western extremity it forms a “swannery,’ which once consisted of 7000 swans. The Fleet is much frequented by water-fowl, among which Dr. Maton observed the wild swan. (Hutchins's Dorsetshire : Smeaton's Hist, of the Edystone Lighthouse; and Maton's Western Counties.) From Burton Castle the coast, generally abrupt and frequently high, runs W.N.W. ten or twelve miles to the border of Devonshire: the cliffs in this part are remarkable for the beauty and variety of the fossils which they contain. The whole extent of the Dorsetshire coast, including the circuit of the Isle of Portland, may be estimated at above 75 miles. What is sometimes called “the Isle of Purbeck,” being really a part of the main land, is not noticed here; it comprehends the peninsula formed by the river Frome and Poole Harbour on one side, and the sea on the other. Surface, Hydrography, Communications.—The surface of this county is for the most part uneven. The principal elevations are the chalk downs, which, entering Dorsetshire from Wiltshire on the northern side of Cranbourne Chase, two or three miles south-east of Shaftesbury, turn to the south, and run to the valley of the Stour, in the neighbourhood of Blandford. In this range of downs, some parts of which are covered with wood, are Melbury Down, Ashmore

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Preston Down, Main Down, Gunville Down, Pimperne Down, Stowerpaine Down, Furze Down, Camp Down, and Mill Down, with the outlying eminences Hod Hill and Hamilton Hill. From the valley of the Stour the chalk downs run nearly west to the neighbourhood of Beaminster, and form the northern boundary of the basin whose drainage is received by Poole Harbour. In this part we have Okeford Hill, Bell Hill, White Hill (between the last two is Bulbarrow, 927 ft. high) (A.), Great Ball, Little Ball, Revels Hill, Dogberry Hill, High Stoy, 891 ft. (A.), |Highcombe Hill, Row Hill, East Hill, West Hill, Evershot, Rampisham, Corscombe, and Beaminster Downs, White. sheet Hill, and Horn Hill. The foregoing eminences belong to the range of the ‘North Downs, and lie along the northern escarpment of that range. The hills near Beaminster form, with the exception of some outlying masses, the western extremity of the great chalk formation. The chalk hills from Beaminster run south-east or east, and form ‘the South Downs,’ the highest points in which are along the southern escarpment. The hills gradually ap” roach the coast a few miles north-east of Melcombe egis. In this range we have Hackthorn Hill, Chilfrome Down, Eggardon, where is an old entrenchment, Chilcombe Hill, Little Bredy Down, Black Down, 817 ft. (A.), Whaddon Down, Ridgeway Down, and Bincombe Down (if these be not two names for the same), Came Down, Moignes or Maine Down, Holworth Down, and Chaldon Down. From Lulworth the chalk hills run eastward to Handfast Point, the headland which separates Studland and Swanage Bays. In this part of the range are Purbeck Hill, Knowl or Norden Hill, west of Corfe Castle, 369 ft. (B.), Corfe Castle Hill, 207 ft. (B.), Challow Hill, east of Corfe Castle, 390 ft. (B.), Nine Barrow Down, 625 ft. (B.), or 642 ft. (O.), and Ballard Down. Pillesdon Pen, west of Beaminster, which is 934 ft. high (O.), is the highest point in the county, and belongs to the green sand formation. Swyre Hill, on the coast, near Kimmeridge, in the Isle of Purbeck, is 669 ft. high. (B.) For the above elevations we have given our authorities: O. the Ordnance Survey; A. Arrowsmith's ‘Map of England and Wales;' and B. Dr. Berger in “Geol. Trans.’ vol. i. p. 268. The Stour, the chief river of Dorsetshire, rises in Wiltshire, in Stourhead Park, on the border of Somersetshire, and running south-by-east, enters Dorsetshire between 3 and 4 miles from its source. After flowing about 4 miles farther in the same direction, it receives the Shreen Water from the north, and soon after the Lidden River from the north-east. It then flows in a very winding channel, southsouth-east, for 8 miles, to the junction of the Cale, which comes from the neighbourhood of Wincanton, in Somersetshire. From the junction of the Cale the Stour flows south about 3 miles to the junction of the Lidden, and thence winds to the east past the town of Sturminster Newton, and through a depression in the range of the North Downs, and asses in a south-east course to the town of Blandford orum, after which it flows south-east for 20 miles to the village of Corfe Mullen; and from thence 4 miles east to the junction of the Allen, which flows from the north near Cranbourne. After it receives the Allen the Stour flows east-south-east 6 or 7 miles into Hampshire, after entering which it receives a considerable stream, 16 or 18 miles long, from Cranbourne; and about 4 miles lower it joins the Avon near Christchurch, in Hampshire. The whole course of the Stour is nearly 65 miles, for 40 of which, viz. up to Sturminster Newton, it is navigable. The river Yeo, Ive or Ivel, is formed by two brooks, one rising in Somersetshire, and one in Dorsetshire, which uniting near Milbourne Port (Somersetshire), and flowin south-west, enter Dorsetshire between Milbourne Port an Sherbourne, about three miles from their respective sources. The Yeo then flows first west-south-west, then west-northwest for about seven miles, when it again touches the border of Somersetshire, along which it winds for about three miles, and then entering Somersetshire flows north-west into the Parret. The Stour and the Yeo carry off the drainage of all that part of the county which lies north of the North Downs. The North and South Downs inclose the basin of the two rivers Piddle or Trent and Frome, which unite in Poole Harbour below Wareham, and from their situation with respect to that town are opo called Wareham North and Wareham South river. The Piddle rises in the

Down, Fontmell Down, Iwerne Free Down, Bushy Down, village of Alton on the southern declivity of the North

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Downs, and flows south and south-east past Piddletrenthide and Piddlehinton to Piddletown. From Piddletown it has a general east-south-east course to its entrance into Poole Harbour. Its whole course is about twenty-two miles; or, if we add seven or eight for the length of the low water channel through the astuary of Poole Harbour, 30 miles. the Frome rises on the Downs near Corscombe, northeast of Beaminster, and flows south-east. At Maiden Newton it receives a stream from the Downs near Beaminster. From Maiden Newton the Frome flows south-east eight miles to Dorchester. From Dorchester the Frome flows east nearly twenty miles into Poole Harbour; just upon entering which it unites with the Piddle, and has the same low water channel as that river: its whole length is about thirty-five miles, or, including the channel through Poole Harbour, forty-two or forty-three miles. For a considerable bart of their course both the Frome and the Piddle flow through low meadows; the channel of each is repeatedly divided and reunited. They are not navigable, at least above Wareham. The western extremity of the county is watered by the Brody, the Brit, the Char, and the Axe, which last rather belongs to Devonshire. The Bredy flows westward seven or eight miles from Little Bredy into the sea, near Burton Bradstock, at the north-west extremity of the Chesil Bank. The Brit rises near Beaminster on the southern slope of the chalk hills, near the junction of the North and South Downs, and flows south about nine miles into the sea below Bridport: the mouth of it forms Bridport Harbour. The Char is about as long as the Brit; it rises near Pillesdon Pen, and flows south and south-west into the sea at Charmouth : it receives many brooks. The Axe rises in Dorsetshire, and flows for some miles along the border of the county. Dorsetshire has no canals. The Dorset and Somerset canal, for which acts were obtained in 1796 and 1803, but which was never executed, was to have entered the county near Stalbridge, and to have followed the valley of the Stour till it opened into that river above Blandford Forum. The intended English and Bristol Channels' ship canal was to cross the western extremity of the county. There is a short railway from the clay pits at Norden, near Corfe Castle, to the Quay on Middlebere Channel, Poole Harbour. The Penzance, Falmouth, and Exeter mail-road crosses the county in nearly its whole extent. It enters it near Woodyates' Inn, between Salisbury and Blandford, and runs south-west through the latter town, Winterbourne Whitchurch, Milbourne St. Andrew, and Piddletown to Dorchester; and from thence west by Winterbourne Abbas, Bridport, Chidcock, and Charmouth to Axminster in Devonshire. The Exeter mail-road crosses the northern part of the county, entering it near Shaftesbury, and running thence sometimes in Somersetshire and sometimes in Dorsetshire, by Sherbourne to Yeovil in Somersetshire. It just crosses the western extremity, and the detached portion of the county between Chard and Honiton. The Falmouth, Devonport, and Exeter mail-road also just crosses the western part of the county. The Southampton and Poole mail-road enters the county beyond Ringwood, and runs by Wimbourne Minster to Poole. Roads run from Dorchester to Weymouth, to Wareham, Corfe Castle and Swanage, to Beaminster and Crewkerne, and to Sherbourne; from Shaftesbury to Sherbourne, to Sturminster Newton, and to Blandford, and from Blandford to Wimbourne. Geological character.—The direction of the chalk-hills, which has been already noticed, furnishes the key to the geological structure of Dorsetshire. The North and South Downs, which respectively extend westwards from the neighbourhood of Shaftesbury and the Isle of Purbeck, and unite at their western extremity near Beaminster, inclose a basin, “the Trough of Poole,” in which we have the formations superior to the chalk; beyond or without this basin we have the formations which underlie the chalk. The eastern part of the county, as far as Cranbourne, Chalbury and Wimbourne Minster, and the Trough of Poole (bounded on the north by a line drawn from Wimbourne by Bere Regis and Tolpiddle to Stinsford near Dorchester, its western extremity, and on the south by a line drawn from Broad Mayne along the northern slope of the South Downs to Studland bay) are occupied by the plastic clay. The undulations of the surface occupied by this formation are considerable. Potters' clay in beds of various thickness and at different depths alternates with loose sand in this formation in the Trough of Poole. It is sent to Staffordshire, where

it is mixed with ground flints and employed in the finer kinds of pottery. Beneath the potters’ clay lies a seam of very friable earthy brown coal, which crumbles when put into water, burns with a weak flame, emitting a particular and rather bituminous smell, somewhat like Bovey coal. An extensive horizontal bed of pipeclay skirts the northern declivity of the South Downs, and it contains a bed of coal exactly resembling that of Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight; clay of the same bed, but not of equal quality, may be found in other parts of the Trough of Poole. it is quarried o near the town of Poole, where clay for fire-bricks is also dug. Near Handfast Point the said of this formation passes into sandstone. The plastic clay is found capping one or two hills south-west of Dorchester. The chalk formation bounds the plastic clay. In the North Downs the chalk occupies a breadth of nearly ten miles, viz., from Shaftesbury to Cranbourne and along the valley of the Stour from above Blandford to Wimbourne Minster: at its western extremity the formation is still broader, extending about eighteen miles from beyond Beaminster to Stinsford near Dorchester. On the southern side of the Trough of Poole it becomes much narrower, scarcely averaging two miles in breadth. The cliffs along the south coast are partly chalk: the strata are in some places curved and occasionally vertical. The valleys, drained by the upper part of the Frome and its tributaries, are occupied by the green sand, so that the mass of the chalk-hills about Beaminster is cut off from the rest of the formation. The remainder of our geological notice must be arranged in two parts: the first referring to the district south of the chalk range and extending to the coast: the second referring to the district west and north-west of the same range. We shall first speak of the southern districts. The chalk marle, green sand, weald clay, and iron sand skirt the chalk in the order in which we have named them in the Isle of Purbeck, and extend along the coast between the chalk and the Purbeck and Portland limestone next to be noticed. The iron sand near Lulworth contains imperfect beds of wood-coal. The weald clay is not found along the coast west of the Isle of Purbeck. The Purbeck strata, belonging to the upper series of the Oolitic formation, consist of argillaceous limestone alternating with schistose marle: they crop out from under the iron sand in the Isle of Purbeck. A variety of the Purbeck stone, known as Purbeck marble, was formerly much used for columns and ornaments in our cathedrals and old churches, but is now out of use. The thickness of the Purbeek beds is estimated at 290 feet. The Portland Oolite, another member of the same series, which succeeds the Purbeck stone, occupies the remainder of the Isle of Purbeck and the whole of that of Portland. It consists of a number of beds of a yellowish white calcareous freestone, i. mixed with a small quantity of siliceous sand. ut the different beds of which it is composed often vary in their characters, nor are the same beds of an uniform character in different localities. The varieties of this formation afford the greater part of the stone used for architectural purposes in London. The Portland stone came into repute in the time of James I., who used it by the advice of his architects in rebuilding the banqueting-house at Whitehall. After the great fire of London, A.D. 1666, vast quantities of this stone were used in rebuilding St. Paul's and other public edifices.

A considerable portion of Westminster Bridge and the
whole of Blackfriars Bridge are built of it. The quarries
are thus described by Mr. Smeaton in his ‘Narrative of the
Building, &c., of the Edystone Lighthouse:’
‘The first thing that excited my curiosity was the very
subject I came upon ; that is, the quarries from whence the
stone sent from Portland is produced. The upper surface
of the island I found was totally flat, but elevated above the
sea, according to the estimation of my eye, at least 200
feet.* The stratum of stone, that is wrought for sale, lies
nearly parallel with the upper surface of the island, and
with not much cover of earth or rubbish upon it. There are
several beds of stone, lying in contiguity one above another,
varying in thickness in general from two to four feet, and
upward. Those which are usually called the merchantable
beds (on account of the blocks for sale being produced there-
from) are universally covered with a stratum called the cap,
which is formed entirely of a congeries of petrified sea shells
of a great variety of kinds, but in general so distinet and
* The highest point as we have seen is much higher than this,

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