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and order, I know not whether any contro. CHAP. versy concerning this affair can remain among the brethren.

V. The V. As to the imputation of Christ's righteous-righteousness in order to justification, I have learned the ness of

Christ itfollowing things from scripture. As our sins self is im

puted to were imputed to him, which we have proved

believers. above, so that very righteousness, or obedience which he performed to the Father in the most perfect holiness of his life, and in his voluntary sufferings, is imputed to us. It is evident, that in scripture, the righteousness of Christ is called our righteousness. Now, it behoved to be ours, either by way of inhesion, by a certain transfusion, whereby the habits of Christ's holiness and righteousness should become the habits of our soul, which transfusion of habits is absurd and impossible; or, by imitation, that we should perform a righteousness conformable unto it: but in that sense the Apostle opposes it to ours, Phil. iii. 9. Or - finally by imputation, so that it is reckoned no less ours, than if it had been performed by us. Since, therefore, the two former ways, whereby the righteousness of Christ might become ours, are entirely contrary to reason, the latter only remains, viz. God imputing unto man righteousness without works, Rom. iv. 6. VI. If I am not mistaken, it is confessed

the sin of by all the orthodox, that the righteousness

Adam to of Christ is so imputed to believers for jus- his posteritification, as Adam's sin is imputed to men for condemnation: now, it is so imputed,

VI. As


CHAP. that all are said to have sinned in him; so likeVI.

wise we are said to be not only righteousness, but also pure righteousness; not only righteousness, but even TNE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF

God in Christ. VII. Al VII. Further, the righteousness of Christ So the holiness of consists, partly in the most perfect holiness Christ is

of his life, partly in his sufferings and death. imputed.

Now, the whole righteousness of Christ must be ours, if it be in our stead, in order to justification. Therefore also the holiness of Christ is ours; in regard that perfect holiness is required in order to a title unto happiness. In Christ therefore we are. righteous and holy, not by our own personal or inherent righteousness and holiness, but by that which is his, and becomes ours by imput

ation. [10.] VIII. It

VIII. Moreover, since the righteousness may be said in a

and holiness of Christ are absolutely perfect, soundsense,

and the same made ours, in respect whereof that be. lievers are it is not improperly said, that we are perfectperfectly Righters ly righteous and holy in Christ, why may and holy in it not be added, no less than Christ himChrist.

self? Although the honour of performing perfect holiness agrees to Christ only, not at all to us, who by nature are miserable sinners, and who only by the assistance of grace, aspire to perfection, at a great distance.

IX. Those things which belong to justifbecause

cation must be carefully separated from such


Note (10.)


by the

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as are proper to sanctification. If any man CHAP.
should boast that he had made such advances
in the study of virtue and sanctity, that he

they are had reached its very summit, no less than righteous Christ himself, he would be justly accused

righteousby all, not only of lying, and intolerable arro-ness of

Christ, that gance, bue also of madness and blasphemy. they are as But what believers are by no means in them- righteous selves, that they are in Christ. There is no himself. righteousness which can abide the severity of the Divine tribunal, except that which is absolutely perfect. Such only is the righteousness of Christ. And in virtue of his sureti ship for the believing elect, and their union with him, that righteousness becomes theirs. Since all the elect are equally partakers of it, they likewise must all, by the same most perfect righteousness of Christ, be perfectlyrighteous, even as Christ himself; since their righteousness is the very righteousness of Christ itself: with this difference only, that it is his, because accomplished by him; ours, because imputed to us.

X. Certainly Paul is not afraid to say, that .. X. The we are complete in Christ, Col. ii. 10. On Catechism which place, Davenant quotes that of Chry- not differ

ing. sostom, from Homil. 17. on the xth. to the Ro. mans,

« But if thou believest in Christ thou hast also fulfilled the law, and much more than it had commanded; forasmuch as thou hast now received a far greater righteousness." And a little before, Chrysostom's words run thus, “ Therefore be not afraid, says he,

CHAP. after thou hast-transgressed the law, since VI,

thou hast come to the faith: for then thou transgressest it, when by reason of it thou dost not believe in Christ: but if thou believest in him, thou hast also fulfilled it, and much more than it had required: for thou hast received a far greater righteousness.” Neither does the Palatine Catechism differ on question lx.; “ The perfect satisfaction and holiness of Christ are so imputed and given to me, even as if I had neither committed any sin myself, nor did any corruption inhere in me. Yea, as if I myself had accomplished that obedience, which Christ accomplished for me." [11.]

Note (11.)


Concerning Paul's judgment in the matter

of Justification.

1.- Six controversies concerning justification. Il. Cave's

opinion of Paul's judgment. III. Which may be very well discerned from the errors he undertook to confute. IV. The errors of the Gentiles concerning justification. V. The errors of the Jews. VI. Of the Judaizing Christe ians. VII. All which Paul refutes at once, in his Epistle to the Romans. VIII. Teaching, that a man is jus tified, not by his own righteousness, but by God's. IX. Which is from faith to faith. X. Necessary to Jews as well as Gentiles; since all are under condemnarion. XI. It does not consist in observing the precepts of the gospel, but in the redemption which is in Christ: all boasting of well-doing being excluded. XII. The errors of the Judaizers gave occasion to write the Epistle to the Galatians. XIII, Which the Apostle so refutes even from the beginning, that he may prove that believers are justified by the observation of no law whatsoever; but only by faith in Christ. XIV. And thus both Epistles recal men from all presumption on their own righteousness, to the righteousness of Christ alane.

And thus we find ourselves gradually CHAP.


1. Six


. brought forward to the doctrine of justification, concerning which I see these things chiefly controverted, 1. Whether Paul, controverwhen disputing concerning justification, han- berning

cerning jusdles this controversy almost only, whether sal- tification. vation is obtained by the observation of the Mosaic laws, either alone and by themselves, as the Jews contended, or by them when joined

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