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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, ETC.

Andrews, Irene Osgood. Minimum Wage Legislation. Lyon.

Albany, 1915. Australia. Official Year Book for the Commonwealth of Aus

tralia. 1901-1912. Australia. Official Year Book for the Commonwealth of Aus

tralia. 1913 Brandeis, Louis, and Josephine Goldmark. Appendix to Brief

Filed on Behalf of Respondents in Stettler vs. O'Hara. Su

preme Court of Oregon. October Term, 1913. Brown, Rome. G. The Minimum Wage. Butler, Elizabeth B. Women and the Trades. The Pittsburg

Survey. Russell Sage Foundation Publication. N. Y. 1909. Chicago. Social Evil in Chicago. Report of Vice Commission.

1911. Clark, Victor S. The Labor Movement in Australasia. H. Holt

and Company. N. Y. 1906. Commons, John R. Proposed Minimum Wage Law for Wis

consin. Wisconsin Consumers' League, Madison. 1911. Connecticut. Report of Special Commission to Investigate the

Conditions of Wage Earning Women and Minors in the

State of Connecticut. 1913. Federation of Labor. Official Report of the Executive Com

mittee to the 33d Annual Convention. 1913. Freund, Ernest. The Police Power. Callaghan & Company.

Chicago. 1904. Hayes, Carlton. British Social Politics. Ginn & Company.

N. Y. 1913. Howell, George. Handy-book of Labor Laws. Macmillan.

London. 1895. Hutchins, B. L., and A. Harrison. A History of Factory Legis

lation. P. S. King & Son. Westminster. 1903. Kansas City. Report on Wage Earning Women in Kansas City.

Board of Public Welfare of Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1913. Lloyd, Henry D. Newest England. Doubleday, Page & Com

pany. N. Y. 1900. Massachusetts. Report of the Commission on Minimum Wage

Boards. Boston. 1912. Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy. C. C.

Little and J. Brown. Boston. National Civic Federation. Sixteenth annual meeting, Washing

ton, D. C., January 17, 1916. Report by A. J. Porter.

New Zealand. Department of Labor. Annual Report. 1909. Oregon. Report of Social Survey Committee of the Consumer's

League of Oregon. 1913. Reely, Mary K. Selected Articles on Minimum Wage. The

H. W. Wilson Company, White Plains, N. Y. 1916. Reeves, William Pember. State Experiments in Australia and

New Zealand. Vol. II. Grant Richards, London. 1902. Rogers, Thorold. Work and Wages. G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y.

1884. Rowntree, B. S. Poverty-A Study of Town Life. Macmillan

& Company. London. 1901. Snowden, Philip. The Living Wage. Hodder & Stoughton.

London. 1913 United States. Bureau of Labor. Bulletin 57. Labor Conditions

in Australia. Victor S. Clark. United States. Bureau of Labor. Bulletin 49. Labor Conditions

in New Zealand. Victor S. Clark. United States. Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Whole

Number 167. United States. Senate Document No. 645, 61st Congress. Sec

ond session, 1911._Federal Report on Conditions of Women and Child Wage-Earners in the United States Government

Printing Office. Washington. 1911. Victoria. Chief Inspector of Factories. Annual Reports, 1909,

1910, 1913. Washington. Industrial Welfare Commission. Report, 1914.

Olympia. 1914. Wise, B. R. Commonwealth of Australia. Little Brown & Company.

Boston. 1909.
Wilson, Woodrow, Inaugural Address, March 4, 1913.

MAGAZINE ARTICLES.

American Economic Review. March 1912. Legal Minimum

Wage in the United States. A. N. Holcombe. American Labor Legislation Review. Theory of the Minimum

Wage. H. R. Seager. February, 1913. American Political Science Review. February, 1914. Individual

and the State. Westel Woodbury Willoughby. American Political Science Review. February 1914. Philosophy

of Labor legislation. William F. Willoughby. Journal of Political economy. University of Chicago. Press.

December, 1912. Economic Theory of a Legal Minimum

Wage. Sidney Webb. Literary Digest. March 22, 1912. Outlook. October 26, 1901. Survey. February 6, 1915. Where Life Is More than Meat.

M. B. Hammond. Survey. 29: 659; 30: 736; 31:50 February, 1915. Survey, February 6, 1915. State and the Minimum Wage in

England. John A. Hobson.

LAWS CITED

39 &

Factory legislation:

5 Eliz. cap. 4. 43. Eliz. cap. 3. Will III. 8 & 9, cap. 30. 59 Geo. III. cap. 66. An Act for the Regulation of Cotton

Mills and Factories. 7 & 8 Vict. cap. 15. An Act to Amend the Laws relating to

Labor in Factories. 34 & 35 Vict. ch. 31. 1871. Trade Unions Act. 38 & 39 Vict. ch. 86. 1875. Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act.

40 Vict. ch. 22. 1876. Trade Unions Act. 314 Wm. IV. cap. 103. An Act to Regulate the Labor of

Children and Young Persons in the Mills and Factories of

the United Kingdom. 8 & 9 Vict. cap. 29. An Act to Limit the Hours of Labor of

Young Persons and Females in Factories. 30 & 31 Vict. cap. 103. The Factory Acts Extension Act. 30 & 31 Vict. cap. 146. The Workshop Regulation Act. 41 & 42 Vict. cap. 16. An Act to Consolidate and Amend

the Law Relating to Factories and Workshops. 6 Edw. VII. ch. 58, Dec. 21, 1906. 9 Edw. VII. ch. 7. Sept. 20, 1909.

9 Geo. III cap. 83. The Minimum Wage Laws: New Zealand: The Industrial Concilation and Arbitration Act,

1894-1901. Victoria; Special Boards Act, 1896. Great Britain : Trade Boards Act, 1909.

Coal Mines (Minimum Wage) Act, 1912.
Arkansas : C 291, Laws 1915.
California : C. 324, Laws 1913.
Colorado: C. 110, Laws 1913.
Kansas: C 275, Laws 1915.
Massachusetts: C. 706, Laws 1912: Am’d C's. 33, 673, Laws

1913.
Minnesota: C. 547, Laws 1913.
Nebraska: C. 211, Laws 1913.
Oregon: C. 62, Laws 1913.
Utah: C. 63, Laws 1913.
Washington : C. 174, Laws 1913.
Wisconsin: C. 712, Laws 1913.

1 B. L. Hutchins and A. Harrison, A History of Factory Legislation Appendix G.

CASES CITED.

I.

Barbier v. Connolly, 113 U. S., 31.
Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky, 11 Pet., 257.
Blue v. Beach, 155 Ind., 121.
Cincinnati v. Conners, 1 Ohio St., 77-83.
Chicago Co. v. Iowa, 94 U. S., 163.
Chicago B. O. Quincy R. R. Co. v. McGuire, 219 U. S., 549.
Dunlop v. U. S., 173 U. S., 65.
Dowling v. Lancashire Co., 31 L. R. A., 112.
Frisbie v. U. S., 157 U. S., 165.
Gas Light Co. v. Light Co., 115 U. S., 650.
Holden v. Hardy, 169 U. S., 397.
Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 25 Sup. Ct. Rep. 358.
Kansas v. Colorado, 185 U. S., 125.
Louisville Co. v. Garret, 34 Sup. Čt. Rep., 48.
Missouri v. Illinois, 180 U. S., 208.
Mormon Church v. The United States, 136 U. S.,
Mugler v. Kansas, 123 U. S., 223.
Muller v. Oregon, 208 U. S., 412.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wh., 415.
McAunich v. R. R. Co., 20.Ia., 343.
McLean v.

Arkansas, 211 U. S. 547.
Moers v. Reading, 21 Pa., 202.
Minneapolis Co. v. Railroad Commission, 116 N. W., 905.
Noble State Bank v. Haskell, 219 U. S., 104.
Otis v. Parker, 187 U. S., 606.
State v. Corvallis Co., 59 Oregon, 450.
State v. C. M. & St. Paul Ry Co., 38 Minn., 295.
State v. Muller, 48 Oregon, 252.
Stone v. Mississippi, 101 U. S., 816.
Slaughter House Cases, 16 Wall., 36 and 111 U. S., 746.
Stettler v. O'Hara, Supreme Court of Oregon, March 17, 1914.
Union Co. v. Landing Co., I11 U. S., 751.
Union Co. v. United States, 27 Sup. Ct. Rep., 367.
United States v. Fisher, 2 Cr., 358.
Watkins v. Holman, 16 Pet., 60.

CHAPTER I.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC
REGULATION OF THE RATE OF WAGES

"Law will be forced to adapt itself to new conditions of society, and particularly to new relations between employers and employees as they arise." In other words, law is a progressive science and adaptable to changing conditions. This is the intelligent principle of expediency and humanity underlying all our labor legislation, enacted in the mutual interest of the employer and the employed, and of society as the ultimate benefactor. The expression of the principle as a legal dictum is a comparatively recent development, but its practical influence can be traced back more than a century in the history of the English speaking peoples, to the year 1802 when the English Parliament passed the first of a series of Factory Acts, which have grown to embrace a large field of remedial legislation in the interest of labor. One of the latest, and perhaps the most controverted, extensions of the principle of the Factory Acts has been the establishment by law of a living wage for certain classes of employees, or for the employees in certain trades and industries. A great deal of legal and historical fiction has been cited by those who oppose the establishment by law of a minimum wage, in their effort to maintain their proposition that legal regulation of the rate of wages is an unwarranted and an unprecedented extension of governmental activity. The many legal and economic objections to legislative interference with the payment of wages will be considered later and in their proper places; it is necessary, first of all, to dispel, if possible, the popular notion that minimum wage legislation is a radical modern experiment without historical precedent. A brief survey of the history of labor legislation in England, Australasia, and the United States—the only coun

1 Slaughter House cases, 16 Wallace, 27.

2 "In 1802 there was enacted the first of the long list of industrial and social measures, which in principle are the same as the demand for the Living Wage, p. 13. . :: The Living Wage is the inevitable outcome, and the natural complement, of the industrial and social legislation of the last hundred years." p. 24, Philip Snowdon, "The Living Wage."

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