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§ 1. The first Oration against Philip:

pronounced in the Archonship of Aristodemus, in the first year of the Hundred and Sevenih Olympiad, and the ninth of Philip's reign.

INTRODUCTION. WE

E have seen Philip opposed in his

design of passing into Greece, through Thermpoylæ ; and obliged to retire. The danger they had thus escaped deeply affected the Athenians. So daring an attempt, which was, in effect, declaring his purposes, filled them with astonishment: and the view of a power, which every day received new accesiions, drove them even to despair. Yet their aversion to public business was still predominant. They forgot that Philip might renew his attempt; and thought they had provided lufficiently for their security, by posting a body of troops at the entrance of Attica, under the command of Menelaus, a foreigner. They then proceeded to convene an aliembly of the people, in order to consider what measures were to be taken to check the progress of Philip. On which occasion Demosthenes, for the first time, appeared against that prince; and displayed thote abilities, which proved the greatest obstacle to his

designs. At Athens, the whole power and ma

nagement of attairs were placed in the people. It was their prerogative

to receive appeals from the courts of justice, to abrogate and enact laws, to make what alterations in the state they judged convenient ; in short, all matters, public or private, foreign or domestic, civil, military, or religious,

were determined by them. Whenever there was occasion to deli

berate, the people ailembled early in the morning, 1ometimes in the forum or public place, sometimes in a place called Pnyx, but most frequently in the theatre of Bacchus. A few days before each aitembly there was a Προγραμμα οι: Placart fixed on the ftatues of fomc illustrious men erected in the city, to give notice of the subject to be debuted. As they refused admittance into the allembly to all persons who had not attained the neceilary age, so they obliged all others to attend. The Lexiarchs stretched out a cord dyed with scarlet, and by it puthed the people towards the place of meeting. Such as received the ftain were fined; the more diligent had a finall pecuniary reward. There Lexiarchs were the keepers of the register, in which were inrolled the names of such citizens as had a right of voting. And all had this right who were of age, and not excluded by a personal fault. Undutiful children,cowards, brutal debauchees, prodigals, debtors to the public, were all excluded. Until the time of Cecrops,

women had a right of suffrage, which RI 3

they

they 'vere said to have lost, on account still continued, out of respect to the of their partiality to Minerva, in her reasonable and decent purpose for dispute with Neptune, about giving a which the law was originally enacted. name to the city.

When a speaker has delivered his In ordinary cases, all matters were first sentiments, he generally called on an

deliberated in the senate of five hun- officer, appointed for that purpose, to drell, composed of fifty fenators chofen read his motion, and propound it in out of each of the ten tribes. Each form. He then fat down, or resumed tribe had its turn of prefiding, and his discourse, and enforced his mothe fifty fenators in office were called tion by additional arguments: and Prytanes. And, according to the num- sometimes the speech was introduced ber of the tribes, the Attic year was by his motion thus propounded. When divided into ten parts, the four first all the speakers had ended, the people containing thirty-six, the other thirty- gave their opinion, by stretching out five days; in order to make the Lu- their hands to him whole proposal nar year complete, which, according pleased them molt. And Xenophon to their calculation, contained one reports, that, night having come on hundred and fifty-four days. During when the people were engaged in an each of these divisions, ten of the fifty important debate, they were obliged Prytanes governed for a week, and to defer their determination till next were called Proedri: and, of these, day, for fear of confusion, when their he who in the course of the week hands were to be raised. presided for one day, was called the Porrexerunt manus, faith Cicero (pro Epiitate : three of the Proedri being Flacco) & Psephisma natum est. And, excluded from this office.

to constitute this Piephisma or decree, The Prytanes allembled the people: the fix thousand citizens at least were re

Proedri declare the occafion; and the quired. When it was drawn up, the Epiliatæ demand their voices. This name of its author, or that person was the case in the ordinary aliem, whole opinion has prevailed, was preblies: the extraordinary were con- fixed: whence, in speaking of it, they vened as well by the generals as the call it his decree. The date of it Prytanes; and sometimes the people contained the name of the Archon, met of their own accord, without that of the day and month, and that waiting the formalities.

of the tribe then presiding. The buThe ai embly was opened by a sacrifice; finess being over, the Prytanes dif

and the place was sprinkled with the mifled the allembly. blood of the vi&tim. Then an im- The reader who chuses to be more miprecation was pronounced, conceived nutely informed in the customs, and in these terms: “May the gods pur- manner of procedure in the public “ lue that man to destruction, with allemblies of Athens, may consult the “ all his race, who ihall act, speak, Archælogia of Archbithop Potter, Si“or contrive, any thing against this gonins or the Concionatrices of Arif, “ ftate!" This ceremony being fi- tophanes. nithed, the Proedri declared the occasion of the allembly, and reported HAD we been convened, Athenians ! the opinion of the senate. If any on some new subject of (!ebate, I had waitdoubt arole, an herald, by commillion ed, until moít of the usual persons had defrom the Epiftatæ, with a loud voice, clared their opinions. If I had approved invited any citizen, first of those above of any thing proposed by them, I thould the age of fitty, to tpeak his opinion : have continued filent: If not, I had then and then the rest according to iheir attempted to speak my sentiments. But ages. This right of prece ence had since thote very points on which these speakbeen granted by a law of Solon, and ers have oftentimes been heard already are, the order of speaking determined in- at this time, to be considered; though I tirely by the ditterence of years. In have arifen first, I prefume I may expect the time of Den litenes, this law was

your pardon ; for if they on former ocnot in förre. It said to have been cafions had advised the neceilary measures, repe: leis about fifty years before the ye would not have found it needful to condate of this oration. Yet the cultom sult at present.

· First then, Athenians! these our affairs sentiments, he overturns whole countries ; must not be thought desperate; no, though he holds all people in subjection : fome, as their fituation seems intirely deplorable. by the right of conqueit; others, under For the most thocking circumstance of all the title of allies and confederates : for our past conduct is really the most favour- all are willing to confederate with those able to our future expectations. And whom they lee prepared and resolved to what is this? That our own total indo- exert themfelves as they ought. lence hath been the cause of all our pre- And if you (my countrymen!) will now sent difficulties. For were we thus dif- at length be perfuaded to entertain the like treised, in spite of every vigorous effort sentiments; if each of you, renouncing all which the honour of our state demanded, evasions, will be ready to approve himself there were then no hope of a recovery: an useful citizen, to the utmost that his

In the next place reflect (you who have station and abilities demand; if the rich been informed by others, and you who can will be ready to contribute, and the young Fourielves remember) how great a power to take the field; in one word, if you will the Lacedemonians not long since pof- be yourselves, and banith those vain hopes feiled; and with what resolution, with what which every single person entertains, that dignity you disdained to act unworthy of while to many others are engaged in pubthe state, but maintained the war against lic business, his service will not be rethem for the rights of Greece. Why do I quired; you then (if Heaven so pleales) mention these things? That ye may know, mall regain your dominions, recal those that ye may fee, Athenians! that if duly opportunities your supineness hath negvigilant, ye cannot have any thing to fear; lećied, and chastise the intolence of this that if once remiss, not any thing can hap- man. For you are not to imagine, that pen agreeable to your desires : witness the like a god, he is to enjoy his present then powerful arms of Lacedemon, which greatness for ever fixed and unchangeable. a juft attention to your interests enabled No, Athenians! there are, who hate him, you to vanquish : and this man's late in- who fear him, who envy him, even among Tolent attempt, which our infenfibility to those seemingly the most attached to his all our great concerns hath made the cause cause. There are paflions corimon to manof this confusion.

kind: nor must we think that his friends If there be a man in this assembly who only are exempted from them. It is true thinks that we must find a formidable they lie concealed at present, as our indoenemy in Philip, while he views, on one lence deprives them of all resource. But hand, the numerous armies which attend let us shake off this indolence! for you him; and, on the other, the weakness of see how we are situated; you see the outthe state thus despoiled of its dominions; rageous arrogance of this man, who does he thinks julily. Yet let him reflect on not leave it to your choice whether you this. there was a time, Athenians! when ihall act, or remain quiet ; but braves you we poileiled Pydna, and Potidæa, and Me- with his menaces; and talks (as we are thone, and all that country round: when informed) in a strain of the highest exmany of those states now subjected to him travagance: and is not able to rest satisfied were free and independent; and more in- with his present acquisitions, but is ever in clined to our alliance than to his. Had pursuit of further conquests; and while we then Philip reasoned in the same manner, lit down, inactive and irresolute, incloses How shall I dare to attack the Atheni- us on all sides with his toils.

ans, whose garrisons command my ter- When, therefore, O my countrymen ! “ ritory, while I am destitute of all af- when will you exert your vigour ? When “ listance !" He would not have engaged roused by some event? When forced by in those enterprizes which are now crown- some neceflity ? What then are we to ed with success; nor could he have raised think of our present condition ? To freehimself to this pitch of greatness. No, men, the disgrace attending on misconduct Athenians ! he knew this well; that all is, in my opinion, the most urgent necefthese places are but prizes, laid between fity. Or, lay, is it your fole ambition to the combatants, and ready for the con- wander through the public places, each enqueror: that the dominions of the absent quiring of the other, “What new advices ?" devolve naturally to those who are in the Can any thing be more new, than that a field; the porteflions of the supine to the man of Macedon fhould conquer the Atheactive and intrepid. Animated by these nians, and give law to Greece ? " is Philip

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“ dead ?

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