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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE,

SEPTEMBER, 1862.

PLATE I.

A DORSET HORNED RAM.

THE PROPERTY OF MR. THOMAS DANGER, OF HUNSTILE, BRIDGEWATER,

AND A FIRST PRIZE SHEEP AT MEETINGS OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL AND OF

THE BATH AND WEST OF ENGLAND SOCIETIES.

This ram is a very famous one of his breed, al- | the land he occupies Mr. Danger has tried several though he has never been exhibited but on three other kinds, but has found none to answer so well occasions. At the meeting of the Bath and West as the Dorset Horns. They are very prolific and of England Society at Dorchester in 1860, he took hardy, giving less trouble to the shepherd during the second prize in the shearling class of Somerset the lambing season than any other, while they drop and Dorset Horns, when the whole entry was their lambs earlier, and, where care has been taken commended. At the Truro Show of the same to improve their fattening properties, graze quite Society in 1861, he took the first prize in the all-aged as well as Leicesters or Downs. The mutton is class, where he beat Mr. Bond's ram, to which the of a fine quality, and in the market fetches the judges had given the preference in the year pre very best price per pound. One peculiarity is the vious. And, at the Battersea meeting of the Royal extraordinary quantity of rough fat they carry, Agricultural Society this summer, he again took and on this acount the butchers are always anxious the first premium as the best horned ram of any to have them. There is another kind of Dorset age. Out of seventy prizes offered by the Bath sheep, large and coarse, and, although valuable in and West of England Society for this breed, dur- many respects, not so suitable for fattening puring a period of eleven years, Mr. Danger has won poses. thirty-three, twenty-seven of which were first The Dorset Horns have always been an attracprizes, and at the Royal Agricultural Society's tive feature in the West Country shows, and there Show this year his sheep carried off all the first is no breed that has developed more successfully and all the second prizes, amounting to £75 out under the encouragement of the Bath and West of £90, offered for this description of sheep. On of England Society.

PLATE II.

CALL'ER OU; A THOROUGH-BRED FILLY,

THE PROPERTY OF MR. W. L'ANSON, OF SPRING COTTAGE, MALTON. Caller Ou, or Caller Oui, as some write of her, dented in the history of so young a stallion. On was bred by her present owner Mr. W. l'Anson, i the decease of Lord Londesborough, to whom the in 1858, and is by Stockwell out of Haricot, by horse had passed from Lord Exeter, Stockwell was Mango or Lanercost, ber dam Queen Mary, by sold to Mr. Naylor, for 4,500 guineas. His stock Gladiator-by Plenipotentiary out of Myrrha, by first appeared in 1858, and he is the sire of DraWhalebone.

pery, Emily, Thunderbolt, Vesta, Stockade, ComStockwell, bred by Mr. Thellusson in 1849, is forter, Little Nat, May Queen, Loiterer, Asteroid, by the Baron out,of Pocahontas, by Glencoe. He Audrey, Caller Ou, Doncaster, The Drake, Jahimself won the Leger in Lord Exeter's colours, cintha, Lady Ripon, Norman, Prologue, St. Albans, and is already the sire of two Leger winners in Suburban, and some younger things, bis stock two years following of St. Albans in 1860, and having been running famously from the first. of Caller Ou in 1861, a fact altogether unprece- Haricot, also bred by Mr. I'Anson in 1847, was OLD SERIES.]

o

ITOL, LII.-No. 8.

the first foal of Queen Mary, the dam of the fa: mealy or more rusty-brown in colour, with wonmous Blink Bonny. Haricot, herself a very good derful depth of girth, and fine shoulders as her runner, is credited in the Stud Book with Canty chief points. Her thighs are also good, while Boy, Cramond, and Caller Ou. Her first foal in otherwise she is a short common-looking mare, 1855, to Longbow, died when a foal, and after and never was there a truer word written, than producing the Leger winner Mr. l'Anson sold the when characterising her as “hacky" in appearance. mare, curiously enough, to Colonel Towneley, who, Indeed, what with her swish tail and her mean however, has had but little luck with her so far, as quarters, her plainish head, and her quick vulgar she was barren both in 1859 and 1860, but threw walk, we remember being especially impressed with a filly to Orlando this spring.

her, or rather against her. Her renowned aunt Caller Ou is an odd, old-fashioned filly, stand. Blink Bonny had much the same back style about ing fifteen hands three inches high. She is a bad 'her.

THE SOILS ADAPTED FOR IRRIGATION WITH IMPURE WATER.

BY CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON, ESQ., F.R.S.

deodorization

The necessity for providing for the sewage of our the fluid strong. In those of Mr. W. Dickenson on densely populated places is at present a question of the Middlesex clays, the liquid was a mixture composed national importance. The difficulty of accomplishing of two parts of the urine of the horse and one part this has become more considerable, as sanitary efforts water, this being applied by a water-cart to Italian have so beneficially increased. Sewers are now con- rye grass (Journal Royal Agricultural Society, vol. structed, or forming in most towns, far more copious vi., p. 576.) In the trials of Mr. Alderman Mechi on supplies of good water are secured. The bulk of the the stiff clays of Thurstable Hundred, the artificially town sewage by this larger supply of water and the prepared liquid manure annually applied was by the removal of cesspools is very largely increased. The hose, and at the rate of only say 200,000 gallons or adjacent stream or the sea-bathing is hence rendered about 800 tons per acre. For grass land this would more impure, other outfalls have to be sought for, or be but a very inadequate supply to produce the maximeans for deodorizing the sewage obtained.

mum advantage, and such an amount would consume This has led, almost as a natural consequence, to our the sewage of a town far too slowly for such extensive taking another leaf out of the great book of nature.

purposes. It is, in fact, pretty well There we find that the vegetable world well and proved by the result of the irrigation at Edinburgh, rapidly deodorizes the excreta of animals. What is and by the trials of the Royal Commissioners at Rugby, noxious to the one great class of organized beings is that at least from 6,000 to 9,000 tons of sewage per the food of the vegetable world; each class in fact, annum are needed to produce the greatest amount of absorbs what the other rejects, whether as excreta or produce in irrigated grass. Now, this is equal to an from th sir leaves or lungs. From Nature's book, then, artificial rain-fall of from 60 to 90 inches per annum, we have, very slowly it is true, taken the hint. Scot

an amount which, even if it was clear water, would land set the first example at Edinburgh, in successfully be very slowly drained from a clay soil, and the diffi, using the town sewage in the irrigation of grass land. culty is considerably increased when we have to em. Nottinghamshire, after a long interval followed the ex.

ploy impure water surcharged with mechanically susample at Mansfield; Croydon has recently succeeded pended matters, and this remark not only applies to in the same way in the Valley of the Wandle; two or

town sewage, but to the matters contained in the liquid three of the towns on our southern coast are preparing manure of the homestead. Professor Voelcker some to follow the example. It is, therefore, of considerable time since carefully sxamined these farm-yard liquids importance that we should clearly understand the kind (ibid, vol. xix., p. 522). of soil the best adapted for being irrigated with these “He analyzed six specimens of liquid manure. They impure waters, since some lands are very little suited all had a dark colour and disagreeable smell. for the purpose.

We must indeed always remember what is a very useful fact to remember, their specific that in the use of foul waters in irrigation the two gravity corresponded with the amount of solid matters equally essential objects to be obtained are-1, the which each kind contained. So that this affords a purifying of those streams of sewage, and 2, the in- very easy way of ascertaining the value of decomposing creased productiveness of the grass land to which they liquid inanure, since to a certain extent the specific are directed.

gravity of these liquids may serve as an indication of Now, the light porous soils combine these two pro- their relative fertilizing power. The solid contents, in perties in the greatest degree, and the heavy retentive grains, of the liquids examined by the Professor, and lands to the smaller extent. In almost all successful their specific gravity, will be found in the following trials with liquid manure on clay lands the bulk of tablo, viz., that from Hquid absorbed by the soil was small, the quality of

1

And

Solid Specific where we have heavy land, you would find, in very

contents. gravity. Westonbirt

rainy weather, the ditches almost as black as liquid 418

1.006 Badminton

601

1 007

manure, showing that heavy rains wash off the dropCollege Farm, 1858 111

1.0014

pings of dairy cows from the land, and that the maTiptree, clear liquid 29

1.0006 nure does not pass through the soil. I believe that a Tiptree, with sediment, 95

1.001 very small quantity of soil, six inches of clay soil, perThese specimens contained of phosphoric acid and fectly deodorises and decomposes a very heavy dressing nitrogen, in different states, equal to ammonia, the of manure, provided the soil and manure are well following amounts, given in grains per gallon :

mixed together; therefore, as a practical test, I would Phos. acid. Nitrogen.

say that all soils from which the manure runs coloured Westonbirt

2.7

114

into the drain or conduit are in an improper cultivaBadminton

9.5

22

tion to receive liquid manure, for in such a condition Cirencester, 1857

2.3

26

many clay soils are at present, and will remain so for Ditto, 1858

4.8

37 Tiptree, the clear ,,.. 2.3

many years to come. Ditto, the muddy.

3.7

5

"You have in liquid manure a small quantity of From such data the farmer can readily estimate the solid matters, amounting to 70 or 80 grains in a galvalue of the solid matters contained in the liquid lon, and a large quantity of water. By applying a mapure in his possession; but then he should also limited quantity of the liquid, it penetrates a large take into account the value of the mere water of the body of the soil, incorporating a large body of soil liquid. This must be often of considerable importance

with a small quantity of real fertilizing matter; if -hus, when Mr. Mechi pumps only 200 tons per

we could extract that small quantity, and apply it as acre of liquid manure on to his land, he in fact sup

a top-dressing, so as to keep it entirely on the surface, plies his crops with an amount of rich moisture equal

we should manure that small portion of the soil, and in depth to a rainfall of two inches."

it would there produce an effect upon the crop; but And as regards the kind of soil to which these liquid being all washed into the soil, it produces no effect manures are best applied, the same distinguished

upless we use a large quantity. And for this reason, I chemist, to whose labours I have just alluded, when

am a strong advocate, I must plainly confess, on theogiving his evidence during the present year before a

retical grounds, for the application of large quantities Committee of the House of Commons, remarks :

of liquid manure. When we apply a large mass, say My experience, which is based on an extended ob- 7,000 or 8,000 tons, to a soil which is naturally porous servation of various parts of this country, as well as

and deep, we incorporale with a large body of soil a what I have seen in districts on the Continent, where considerable quantity of solid, real fertilizing matter. the liquid manuring system is very generally adopted by By using such large doses upon grass crops grown on farmers, is that liquid manure may be applied with poor soil, these solid manuring matters which are disgreat advantage on light porous soils, and all soils re

seminated through a large body of soil by capillary sembling more or less in character such land; but that

attraction are brought within reach of the roots of the on heavy clay land it cannot be applied with advantage, plant. The evaporation which takes place from the especially when the land is so cultivated as to produce

leaves of grass-crops is very considerable ; the in dry weather large cracks through which the liquid moisture from a considerable depth is drawn up, and manure necessarily will flow, as it follows the easiest

with it all the solid matters dissolved in it. Then we passage, and does not go through the stiff clay. With

see a marked effect upon vegetation, which will exmore or less disadvantage, liquid manure, especially plain in practical experience why quantities of 300 to when highly diluted, may be used on all soils which 400 tons an acre, even applied to grass, lead to no pracare not in an extremely highly cultivated mechanical tical result, whilst large quantities applied to the exstate of cultivation, a state of cultivation which is not

tent of 8,000 or 9,000 tons (and I am not sure that easily attained in many heavy soils. For this reason,

oven larger quantities may not be used with advantage) on heavy soils the application of liquid manure, even

produce a good result. That is a matter which is When much more concentrated than sewage, is at- clearly determined by experiment." tended with loss to the person who applies it.

Several of the remarks of Professor Voelcker have “When the qualities of the soil have been so much been confirmed by observations made on the extensive improved that you get a porous surface soil through sewage-irrigated meads at Beddington, which are which the manure filters, without going, as I believe situated about a mile and a-half from Croydon. is the case with some of Alderman Mechi's land, into The soil on which the sowage irrigation works are chinks through which it will of course flow off coloured, there so successfully carried on is of chiefly a light grathen it is a proper soil; but when heavy land is in such velly nature, resting on a substratum of porous gravel. a condition that it is stiff and cracks, it is then unfit The system pursued there has been well described durfor the application of liquid manure; it is extremely ing the present summer of 1862 by Mr. J. Fenton, the difficult to bring heavy soil altogether round so that it engineer and surveyor to the Croydon local board of loses its natural character. I have seen the manure health. It was under the direction of this gentleman run from the surface on heavy grass land; if you would that those irrigatod meadows have been laid out; and come into our neighbourhood, in Gloucestershire, I it was when giving his evidence before the Sewage Com

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