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the smaller the ear.

the multitudinous ears with which it will signalize this The first field, No. 8, contains 68 acres. What was the preboon of liberation will be richer in contents. From what vious crop? Beans, manured with 32 one-horse loads of dung I have seen, I am led to yield implicit assent to that part to the acre. How seeded, and when : Drilled (with common of Mr. Hallett's creed

which affirms ear-development to drillenps) with seven bushels of Nursery wheat, on the 7th of be dependent on root-development. The truth is nowhere October ; the "selection of '60.” better shown than in No. 12, which was sown with half-a.

Field No. 3 contains 18 acres, sown with the selection of peck to the acre, compared with No. 7. The former was 1861, at the rate of i peck to the acre. How and when on poorer soil than No. 7, and without manure ; while No. sown Drilled 10 inches apart (with turnip cups), on the 7th 7 had manure, and was sown with eight times the seed. September. What previous treatment? In 1860 the whole This thinly.seeded bit was the best covered with the best piece was wheat, trefoil mown and carried for hay last year, ears throughout the whole slope, and invariably the plots then simply plouglued and cultivated ; no manure. I should seeded with one peck presented a more promising appear estimate the crop to yield from 7 to 8 qrs. an acre. The ance than those seeded with a bushel. The more the seed parent ear of this selection contained 114 grains. Most of

the ears I gathered coutained 90 ; but the ears were fewer on Of course, the quantity of seed depends upon the time of the ground than they should have been, owing to the weeds planting. To carry out this system with success, the seed with which the crop had to contend. should be in by September, if possible in Angust. If the Field No. 12 contains 74 acres. How seeded ? On the grain is to tiller out over a space of twelve or eighteen inches, 5th October, with 8 bushels of Nursery Pedigree, drilled it must have time allowed for this purpose, and time during 10 inches apart. Previous management: After beans and the genial autumn months. Some disciples of this system roots, manured. This piece bore the visible character of the have carefully planted out their peck in November and De- last selection, but having been much thinned by wire-worms cember, and found themselves disgusted in spring --not with the weeds have received the greater licence to grow. As a their own want of common sense, but with the * Pedigree” whole it is the most striking crop on this “ off farm," and, wbeat for failing to occupy the ground.

taking the size of the ears into account, and the conformity of The facility with which I was able, after a little close atten- the whole crop to this highest type, no one could estimate tion, to single out the various families, somewhat astonished the yield much, if anything, below 9 qrs. an acre. and made me a convert to the system before I was aware of it. Not that there is the slightest tendency anywhere observable not a coarse quality 'the result?

But, it may be asked, how with respect to quality ? Is

This, I reply, is the towards a departure frora the special fixity of type now assumption, but not the fact. When a waturally coarse thoroughly established for this "nursery" variety, but that every additional selection is distinguished by additional ened; but it an ear of fine quality is sowa, ita virtue does

ear is sown, its gross tendency is developed and strengthvigour. Thus the progeny of the favourite of 1861 in the not become degraded, but is rather educed and establish. garden is superior in tillering power and granular contents of ed. Mr. Hallett's selections commenced, as was natural, ear to all that have gone before it; and when it comes to be

monstrous ears ; but, as experience showed him planted in the field, it will retain that power, and not go be that this led to the production of an inferior kind of grain, yond it. If you are coming upon a field of 1859. selection, he saw the necessity of changing his plan, and breeding from Mr. Hallett will tell you at once that you will look in vain for

a wheat of a naturally fine quality, like the nursery." an ear with more than fourteen sets. These families have thus their known productive value, and, by being true to them, pro- whert, upon soil quite different to that at Brighton, and

There then, again, we have 32 acres of this Pedigree duce in the field a beautifully equalized appearance.

which yet produces precisely the same results. This meAs I was making my way to a farm at a considerable dis- thod of wheat culture should no longer be dealt with as tance from Brighton, in the parish of Linfield, for the purp?se theoretical. There can be nothing theoretical in that of further inspecting the results of this system, I was called system which can produce excellecce with certainty and aside to view a field of Talavera wheat on the farm of a neigh- constancy. In the field it has now proved itself to be bour. The seed was supplied by a celebrated seedsman as highly practical, and the anxiliary steam force, which is something pre-eminently true. Yet, on walking in the crop,

now labouring to pulverize and deepen the staple, has we gathered in a short time thirteen varieties of wheat, and, arrived just in time to prepare the way for its general adop. curious to say, found a plant produced by a stray grain of the tion. The early preparation of the seed-bed is as essential to “ Pedigree throwing up

that could wot fail Mr. Hallett's system as its deep cultivation and aëration ; at ouce to be remarked as exceptional, even though and neither of these operations is possible without the aid of forming part of a really splendid crop.

the steam driven plough or scarifier. There are a few other The land at Linfield, though good, is not what is called matters which may be touched upon on a future occasion, wheat-land. Mr, Hallett entered upon it recently, and found together with the experiments being made in the garden, it in a shockingly foul and impoverished state. The crops are on the present occasion I only wished to give actual stateall more or less foul; they evidently stand in need of more ments of fact concerning the practicability of this mode of hoeing and manure.

wheat culture over extensive areas of land.

F.R.S.

from

ears

A DAY AT THE

ORWELL WORKS, IPSWICH.

On August 21, a large number of gentlemen from foreiga Having duly gone the rounds, and all assembled in the countries, who are now in England, were invited by the space inside the entrance gates, firm of Ransomes and Sims to pay a visit to Ipswich, and Mr. Allen RANSOME addressed them as follows :-Geninspect their manufactory. The invitations given were ac- tlemen from many lands, I have had the greatest pleasure cepied by a large number of the gentlemen, and a special and the greatest satisfaction of giving you an opportunity train lefi London on Thursday, bringing down nearly 200 of seeing the men employed at this establishment and the foreigners, under the conduct of Mr. John Head, who has work they have to perform ; allow me to take this opportufor some years represented the firm of Ransomes and Sims nity of introducing them collectively to you. In the course in various parts of Europe. The " inner man" having of two or three minutes they will leave for their dinnerbeen refreshed, the business or the pleasure, whichever it a most important and a most pleasant part of the routine may be called, for both instruction and amusement were of the day, scarcely less pleasant than pay day when it combined, of the day commenced; the party was divided comes round (laughter). Allow me just to introduce them into different companies, and under the leadership of Mr. to you, that they may take the opportunity of seeing so Allen Ransome, Mr. R. C Ransome, Mr. J. Head, and Mr. large a number of their great friends through whom they George Biddell went round the Works, of which our rea provide for the wants of their families. ders have at one time or another read a description ; The bell then rang, and the workmen swarmed ont of the various shops, and Mr. Ransome then performed the cere. inventor. The principle of Fowler's plough is now wellmony of introducing them to their foreign visitors by known; the engine and windlass are fixed at one side of the saying: I have taken the liberty of detaining you for a very field, and the anchor, which is self-moving, opposite, and befew minutes from your dinner, to give you the chance of tween them the plough is drawn by means of a wire rope. experiencing the pleasure of being introduced to these The ploughing was going on in the same field with the other gentlemen from the various nations of the continent of operations, the corn having been cut by the reaping machine, Europe. They are the gentlemen who have contributed and carried to be thrashed at another part of the field, and the 80 largely to the success of these great works, and who land was then ploughed up by the steam and horse.ploughs. have been so largely the instrument in providing us with The steam thrasbing machines were next the objects of work, which has tended to provide you with labour, and attention, those present being an A 1 and a Bl; who by their liberal contributions to art in all its forms and the visitors took a deep interest in everything they saw amongst us, have brought into this firm the money which especially in the steam machinery, and a remark was made has enabled you to support your families, and which has how evenly and with how little vibration Ransomes' steamenabled us to keep you together, and to give them a hearty eagines always work. and a good welcome (cheers). I am quite sure you will not grudge the five minutes I have ordered the gates to be hours, and by the time everything

had been seen, all were

The inspection of all these implements occupied several closed in order to testify to these gentlemen how they are valued by English workmen,

and as they have seen you at ready to adjourn to the building where Messrs. Ransomes had work as English workmen, I should like to hear you cheer, provided dinner. On reaching this spot, it was found that and give three hearty English cheers to welcome the the foreignars were to see some good specimens of the horses foreign gentlemen here.

and pigs for which Suffolk is celebrated. Mr. Wolton, of The men gave such cheers as proved that if they have stal- Newbourne, had sent a two-year-old entire cart colt wart arms they have no less healthy and powerful lungs, and Ruler”) and the mare and foal which obtained prizes at the visitors responded by giving three cheers for the work- the Battersea and Bury shows this year, the mare having also men.

taken premiums at Ipswich and Framlingham. Mr. E. Gleed, The next part of the programme of the day's pro

Hoo Hall, had sent a four-year-old gelding which took the ceedings was the trial of a number of implements and prize at Bury, the mare and foal which were the prize animals machinery at the farm belonging to firm

at the Norfolk Society's meeting at East Dereban, one of the Westerfield, The experimeota were tried on a wheat geldings which formed the prize-team at Bury, and the animal field, and the first to which attention was directed was the

which took the prize as the best three-yearold cart gelding at patent self-raking Victorian reaper. The crop was in far from Bary. Mr. G. Tomline's two-year-old filly, to which the A good state for the trial of the machine: it was a piece of prize was awarded at Bury and Battersea, was there; and thin white wheat, which had been a good deal broken dowa;

Mr. Wolton, of Kesgrave, seut a year-old cart colt, and the the straw, too, seemed rotten. The consequence was that the year-old filly which took the prize at Bury. A fine nag machine did not at first perform its work very neatly ; later stallion, belonging to Mr. G, Mason, juo., Ipswich, was also in the day, however, the machine seemed to get into better showo. The pigs were represeuted by several belonging to trim,

Mr. Stearn, of Brandeston-one ten montbs old, two four The famous ploughs of the firm stood next in order, and the months, two three mouths, and two seven weeks old. There first of these was the plough manufactured by Messrs. Ran

was also & sow and pigs belongiog to Mr. Ransome, and of somes and Sims especially for Russia. It turns a furrow Mr. Stearu's stock. Mr. Stearn showed his ingenious model Dearly double in width to that of the ordinary English of a piggery. Two of Mr. Sextoa's Cotswold rams were also ploughs, and is used on the fertile land in Russia, where it is

on the ground; and, in trath, there was a display of a small not necessary to expose the soil very much to the atmosphere. agricultural show, in quantity and quality--including maThis plough' was drawn by two horses, and the fine animals chinery and animals-something that we might have to go a received the praises of the foreigo gentlemen-in fact, Suffolk loug way ere we found them exceiled. horses at work seemed to create as much interest as the The dinner was laid in a wooden building erected for the ploughs they drew. Another plough at work was the Scotch, purpose, the exterior of which was decorated with the Angs of Which sets the furrows edgeways, the object being to leave a the following nations:-Englaud, France, Spain, Russia, doaber of small trenches, as it were, into which the seed is Prussia, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Brazils, thrown broadcast and then covered with the barrow, The Sardinia, Austria, Greece, the states of Italy, Rome, and Duo prho worked this plough showed that he was a skilled Japan. On the table was placed some bread made from wheat hand, by the mathematical correctness with which the furrows cut that day. The chair was takeu by Mr. Robert Ransome, Tere turned.

the senior member of the firm; and besides the foreign visitors The most attractive implement was, however, the steam- there were present most of the gentlemen of the neighbourplough (one of Fowler's), in the manufacture of which Rav. hood whose names are celebrated in connection with agriculpomes and Sims have been engaged in conjunction with the 'tural affairs.-From the Ipswich Journal.

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SIR, -As the variola ovila, or small-pox in sheep, has, adjoining my land by night. Most of these sheep again made its appearance in this country, and has shown soon died, and some of them were buried close to my itself in a virulent form amongst a flock in Wilts, 1 feel fence, but not until the disease had spread throughout it is very necessary that we should do all in our power considered necessary, by stopping up the gateways from

the neighbourhood. I took every precaution which I to prevent the spreading of so malignant a disease. I the roads with furze or bush faggots, and by keeping therefore hesitate not in calliog public attention to the my sheep as far as possible from the infected field whensubject through the agricultural press.

ever the wind came from that direction. However, I In 1847 this disease was first brought into England did not escape, but, amongst others, lost my best ram, by the importation of Merino sheep from Denmark and although he had never travelled on the road nor been Holland, some of which were purchased in the Smith- near the diseased lot. I therefore concluded that the field market for grazing purposes ; the disease soon disease was infectious, as well as contagious. The spread into different counties, causing great alarm and starling, as is well known, is in the habit of sitting on serious loss. A case occurred in this parish, where a the backs of sheep, and thus, in the opinion of many lot of sheep having been purchased in an adjoining observers, carries contagious disease from one flock to county, were sold to a farmer at 2s. 63. each, turned another. As an additional precaution shepherds armed into the parish roads by day, and placed in a field themselves with guns to keep off the visitation of these

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birds. Some flockmasters in Suffolk adopted this Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that course in 1848.

in case any sheep or lambs infected with or labouring under At that time Mr. Stanley Carr, of Germany, wrote a

the said disorder, or any disorder of the like nature, be ex. very able letter on the subject to the Royal Agricultural posed or offered for sale, or be brought or attempted to be Society of England, which may be found in the 8th brought for the purpose of being so exposed or offered for volume of the Journal; and Professor Simonds also ren

sale, in any market, fair, or other open or public place where dered great service; as he spent much time in numer

other animals are commonly exposed for sale, then and in

any such case, it shall be lawful for any clerk or inspector or ous experiments, and then published a practical treatise other officer of suck fair or market, or for any constable or on the subject, which ought to be read by every flock policeman, or for any other person authorized by the mayor, master and grazier. It can be obtained of Ridgway, or by any two justices of the peace having jurisdiction in the in Piccadilly.

place, or for any person authorized or appointed by her MaIn 1848 the subject was thought of so much import- jesty in Council, to seize the same, and to report such seisure ance, that Parliament passed an Act (11 & 12 Vic., to the mayor or any justice of the peace having jurisdiction in cap. 105) to prohibit the importation of sheep, cattle, the place; and it shall be lawful for such mayor or justice &c., for the purpose of preventing the introduction of either to restore the same, or to cause the same, together with contagious or infectious disorders. At the same time, which he may judge likely to have been infected thereby, to

any pens, hurdles, troughs, litter, hay, straw, or other articles an Act was passed (11 & 12 Vic., cap. 107) to prevent be forthwith destroyed or otherwise disposed of in such manthe spreading of contagious and infectious disorders in

ner as he shall deem proper, or as may be directed in manner this country. The two first clauses of the Act are the herein-after provided ; and any person bringing or attempting most important. The first refers to diseased animals to bring any sheep, lambs, oxen, bulls, cowa, calves, or other exposed or offered for sale in any fair or market, which horned cattle, into any such market, fair, or open or public may be seized and destroyed by any inspector or other place as aforesaid, knowing such sheep, lambs, or cattle to be officer appointed by the mayor or by any two justices infected with or labouring under either of such disorders as of the peace, with a penalty not exceeding £20. The se

aforesaid, shall, upon conviction thereof, forfeit and pay for cond clause refers to sheep or lambs turned out, kept, or

each and every such offence a sum not exceeding twenty depastured in or upon any forest, chase, wood, moor,

pounds. marsh, heath, common, waste land, open field, roadside,

II. And be it enacted, that if any person turn out, keep, &c. If labouring under any contagious or infectious under the said disorder in or upon any forest, chase, wood,

or depasture any sheep or lambs infected with or labouring disorder, the owner shall be subject to a penalty not

moor, marsh, hentb, common, waste land, open field, road side, exceeding £20. The third clause refers to the sale of or other undivided or uninclosed land, such person shall, on meat unfit for human food. There are altogether 22 | conviction thereof, forfeit and pay any sum not exceeding clauses, but none which require special notice here, ex- twenty pounds. cept clause 7, which inflicts a penalty of £5 or two months' imprisonment upon any person who wilfully SHEEP SALE AT ELSTON.-On August 13th, the sale obstructs any officer in carrying out the purposes of the by Messrs. Ewer and Winstanley of the flock of improved Act. In 1853 this Act was extended and further conti- Hampshire Downs, the property of the late Mr. John Shittler, nued by 16 & 17 Vic., cap. 62, with the addition of a took place at Elston. This flock consisted of 2,000 ewes, clause referring to glandered horses, making the owners

chilver lambs, and ramı. Mr. Shittler spared no expense in subject to like penalties and regulations as for sheep or

obtaining blood from the most renowned docks in this councattle. In 1858 the last amended Act, by the 21 &

try, and a large portion of bis life was devoted to the acquir. 22 Vic., cap. 62, was continued, and remains in force ing of a class of sheep combining quality and size with supe

rior growth of wool. Up to the time of his death Mr. until the 1st of August, 1863.

Shittler was a most successful breeder of rams, and his annual When the bill of 1848, cap. 107, first came before the

sales of stock in Dorset were always conducted with great House of Commons, the first clause was considered suf

success. On all occasions he obtained for his sheep prices ficient for the purpose. Sir John Tyrell, who was then equal to the best ram breeders in this country. Under these member for Essex, and other county members, took circumstances his merits as a flockmaster were so generally much interest in the subject, and with some of them I had recognized that a large gathering was the result. Elston is interviews, as well as with Mr. Labouchere, who, I be- situated on Salisbury Plain, being about twelve miles from lieve, had charge of the bill. I expressed to them my

Salisbury, ten from Devizes, and ten from Warminster. opinion that the first clause did not go far enough ; the During the morning the roads across the otherwise dreary second clause was consequently added, and the bill thus

plain were covered with vehicles, and the day being fine a very amended passed through Parliament. The additional

large meeting of the agriculturists and flockmasters of Wilts, clause is now generally admitted to be the most impor-Shortly after twelve o'clock the

Hants, Dorset, and the neighbouring counties took place.

visitors tant part of the act.

partook of a substantial luncheon, in a tent In 1847 and 1848 I devoted some time to this subject, the ground immediately in front of the farm house. and my object in writing now is to call the attention of The sale was then proceeded with. The chilver lambs were magistrates in the rural districts and in market towns to sold in lots of 20. The highest price was 455. per head, and the act 11 and 12 Vic. cap. 107, so that they may be the lowest 288. The two-tooth rams were sold singly, the fully prepared, if necessary, to carry out the intention highest price being 18} guineas per head, and the lowest 3 of the Legislature, as well as to assist the agriculturists guineas. Two four-tooth rams were sold at 14} guineas each, in preventing the spreading of so contagious and infec

a six-tooth ram realized 16 guineas, another 8 guineas, and a tious a disorder, and so great a calamity on the com.

third 71 guineas. The ewes were sold in lots of 20 each; the

highest price for two-tooth was 60s. per head, and the lowest munity at large. I remain, dear sir, yours faithfully,

40s. The highest price of the four-tooth was 66s. per head, Boxted Lodge, Aug. 16. WM. FISHER HOBBs.

and the lowest 41s. The highest price for the six-tooth was

62. per head, and the lowest 42s. The highest price obtained The following are the two important clauses referred to in for the full-mouthed ewes was 50s. per head, and the lowest Mr. Fisher Hobbs's letter :

40s, The sale, which included 139 lots, and which comWhereas a contagious or infectious disorder, known or de- menced about half-past one-oclock, was brought to a close, to scribed as the sheep pox or Variola ovina, now prevails the satisfaction of all present, at about six o'clock. Among among the sbeep in some parts of the United Kingdom, and the principal purchasers were Mr. W. B. Canning, Mr. S. it is necessary to take measure to prevent such disorder from Saunders, Mr. Fred. Sidford, Mr. Silas Taunton, Mr. Newton, spreading : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most Ex. Dogdean; Mr. Russell, Duckworth ; Mr. G. Burge, Mr. cellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Simpkins, Mr. J. D. Allen, Mr. Stamford, Mr. Ingram, Mr. Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present | Redmond, &c., &c.

numerous

on

THE STOCK SHOW OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY,

IN BATTERSEA PARK,

By ROBERT SMITH, a Member of the Council of the R. A.S.

The growing importance of English agriculture had cup," to be won by the same exhibitor three consecucentred in an unmistakable interest upon this gather. tive years. ing; and the attention of breeders and connoisseurs of The judging over, a general scrutiny ensued. Gossip stock, both British and foreign, had long been prepared ran high as to the whys and wherefores, as party met to discuss its merits. Rabbed and polished by the in. party on their anxious search. The disappointed to his tercourse arising from such a Meeting, every man of friend : “ We have yet enough to learn."

" Who were observation is enabled to compare his notes with the the judges ?" “ Did they ever breed a good one, or go great authorities of the day. Editorial reviews are from home before ?" Not 80 80 with the lucky one ; sought for with avidity ; leaders are discussed; chroni. he had a smile for all ; he knew his animals ; nothing cles of the week re-read; while we propose to com- like the old line of blood to secure the prize ; the judges plete these with an analysis running into six articles, are fond of good ones!". “The price is raised to thus classified : 1, Introductory matter, and compara- guineas !" Such is the effect of an award. Thus, on tive girths of the prize animals ; 2, Cattle ; 3, Sheep; the one hand joyous letters are written, messages de4, Horses; 5, Pigs ; 6, Foreign Stock, and summary: spatched, and sojourn lengthened ; but on the other

The holding of the Society's meeting in London was no hurry ensues, no telegram is used, for the exhibitor's a good idea, but many red-tape difficulties had to be stay is short in town. Such were the results arising from overcome before it could be realized. At length Bat. open judging that every master, man, and customer had tersea Park was found to be about the only site tbe alike their chance of studying the animals and the deSociety could have whereupon to display its products ; cisions of the judges. The visitors who had paid their yet the bleak position, and an out-of-the-way situation pound, the breeders who had reared the animals, the over the river, were held to be real objections. However, foreigners who had come to purchase, and the amateur fine weather and the steamboats added materially to whose curiosity had led him to the show were loth to the receipts of the meeting, but there was so much going leave the class, even when daylight disappeared. on in and about town, that many a greeting commenced Some 6,000 visitors entered the yard on Thursday. with the familiar query, Where shall we go to- Here again followed a severe review. The oft-told morrow ?-Battersea, International Exhibition, Dog story was repeated again and again, but there was an air Show, Farningham, Crystal Palace, or where ?" This of business about this day's show. The breeder, with his competition for the shillings went far to detract from " Herd Book ” and “ correct list" of laurels won, met the Battersea receipts ; while a country show is every- the purchaser from a distance upon even ground, whose thing to everybody-an object of some twelvemonth's mission lay with the class of animals best adapted to his anticipation.

country. This is important, inasmuch as every breeder The approach was pleasant, the entry well arranged, should endeavour to aid the works of nature by accepting and when once within the yard no difficulty occurred. ber dictates - hence England's district and county An interpreter's station told one that an international breeds. gathering was at hand, and the numerous stands of our First determine upon the class or sort of animal to be implement makers demonstrated the progress in their bred; then purchase the best of the sort, and procure art; until at length the eye was relieved by the attractive the right sort of herdsman to take charge of them ; but occupants of the live stock department.

in no instance depart from the sort, however tempting Even a casual stroll through the yard impressed us the many artificials may have made them ! with wonder, Breed after breed-cattle, sheep, and In establishing a berd, an eye should be had to come horses—in all 2,372 animals, drew forth our admi- mercial principles ; and the question asked, Shall we ration. Over 1,000 visitors, chiefly foreigners, paid produce male animals, beef, milk, or working oxen ? for admission to one yard or the other. Groups of also with the flock, Shall we produce rams, mutton, interested men and favoured animals were to be seen in wool, lamb, &c. ? or shall we blend the qualities by every aisle, for the public judging was in progress. crossing, to produce a suitable dash of each ? This is This will work on to better results, and suitable rings a money question, and must be done well, or not at all. will doubtlessly be arranged hereafter.

"Little boats must keep near sbore, The work of about 80 judges was proceeding simulta

The larger ones may venture more.” neously. This, the most exciting feature in the show, These remarks bring to our memory the works of a new was watched with intense interest. While the red or beginner : “Give me a pair of sharp shears, some “ first card up” denoted the A. 1. of the class, curiosity singing tools, and a sack of old beans, and I will show and anxiety grew even stronger as to No. 2 and No. 3. sheep with the best of you.” Another friend had done Many were the sporting offers, even amongst the herds- his best to win, but all was of no avail. Prize animals men, previous to the subsequent “ tug of war" for the bad been purchased, and a fortune spent in cooking medals; first-prize animals alone competing for the them up, when the very natural thought of changing golden honours. If one sought a friend, he was sure to his shepherd suggested itself. The new man came : he be found at or about his own country breed.

had been behind the scenes, ran off with the tools, and The gold medals were evidently given with a view to set to work anew. The result was a win. It may be illustrate the qualities of some few of the leading animals said, “What's in a shepherd” more than a name? as specimens of their several breeds. In continuation The foreign stock claimed a full share of patronage, of the gold medal experiment it would be more interest some as a matter of business, some for curiosity. The dising if the Society were to offer a " 50 guincas challenge parity of numbers, and feeding qualities, as compared

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with the English breeds, told against them, but they had about them that wbich many an English breeder has long since ceased to cultivate-milking properties. In our rambles curiosity led us to make inquiry upon these points. A French herdsman in broken English set forth the milking properties of his cattle, and vouched for the purity of his breed, exclaiming at the same time, “ But we be nothing: you do thin 80 great in England.”

The varied costume of these foreign herdsmen min. gling with that of the passers by, together with the oftrepeated ranz des vaches," the song of the Swiss mountaineers, eliciting many a comment and transfer of English coin, gave to this department a very pleasant and international character. The same may be said of the Scotch classes. The Highland shepherds with their plaid and kilt, the Duke of Athol's dairymaid in Scotch costume, also contributing to the picturesque character of the meeting.

The horses “on view' were the great features of the show. An Englishman lovos a horse. Thousands hurried at the hours of eleven and three to see them out. The box system was first-rate ; the ring admirable (for numbers) with the exception of its being of too large an extent for the eye to compass. Possibly a new arrangement may be made another year. In place of one ring and one set of boxes being centred in one place, groups of bores and rings may be resorted to thus : Group 1. Thoroughbreds, Hunters, and Carriage Horses. 2. Roadsters, Hacks, and Ponies. 3. Agricultural, Dray, and Suffolk Horses.

This vast display has been a seven-days' wonder on the field, and will be turned to for data in many a year to come. But of the past and the future what shall we say? first, that the country is much indebted to the talent of our early breeders, who, in the days of slow enterprise and small encouragement, propagated from animals that appear to possess peculiar qualities worthy of cultivation. These have been banded down to the present breeders. Most of the best herds and flocks were represented in the yard, and new varieties upon these have been added by a rising class of spirited agri. culturists, taking for their guide and motto the success that attended the establishment of the Bakewell Leicesters, the Ellman Southdowns, the Collins Shorthorns, the Quartley Devons. Such enterprise demands consideration. Let it be remembered that in the days of Bakewell, Ellman, Collins, and Quartley, but little, if any, artificial food was given to animals; hence the old familiar talk, " These will pay the most per acre for the food consumed.” Tell it not in these days of artificials !

The English system of production is changed. The rising class remark; “Give me the animal machine that will convert a given amount of food into the most money, whereby my general farm may become improved.” Show-animals are pampered specimens of the family herd or flock, but not to be depended upon like samples of seed or corn. The effect of artificials may be seen in root crops, when size, not quality, is produced. The same applies to the flavour of meat. Natural products represent quality ; artificials, quantity. We shall return to these points when reviewing the several breeds.

We now place on record the comparative girths and ages of the distinguished animals. The tape has been ridiculed by many an active mind : it does no barm, while it assists the inquirer over a difficulty, and gives data for home comparisons with the past and present winners. Measurements of this kind have two results, one points to form, the other to fat. These are conflicting evidences, but the eye of the observer places its own authority upon the points at issuefat and form. These returns are naturally voluminous, but they may be consulted with safety,

2nd

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