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During the last few years the people have been gra- meal or other meal with the bark of certain trees, but dually awakening to the advantages of a rational system this custom is much less pursued now, and is, in fact, of agriculture, and have in many places, by reclaiming becoming every day a greater rarity. marshy ground and by applying a system of drainage northerly spot where field-cultivated oats are found is to their cultivated land, produced good results, which on Dyrao Island, Finmark, lat. 69° 3'. are becoming every year more and more apparent. The cultivation of flax in Norway is probably as old Although of late years the forests have been as the cultivation of corn : at all events it dates as far reduced, yet they still occupy a considerable proportion back as the pagan times before the year 1000. Flax is of the surface of the country. They consist chiefly of also to be met with up to the polar circle at least, and Scotch fir and Norwegian spruce fir. In some places perhaps even further north, but in small quantities. of the south, small woods of oak and beech are to be the cultivation of flax, owing to various causes, is atfound, and, in the north especially, beech woods are tended to less and less every year. By degrees, as common; but these two sorts of trees are the only ones country people began to manage their households in a which appear in Norway in such quantities as to be said more natural manner, it was found that it was unproto constitute a wood. From the above remarks, it will fitable to cultivate the flax plant, probably because readily be seen that the tillable land in the whole of much cheaper stuffs could be obtained from cotton. On Norway cannot be extensive; and yet, on taking into the whole, as a general rule, those plants which are consideration the superficial area of the country, one cultivated for their uses in the arts and manufactures cannot but be surprised to learn that this tillablo land do not occupy any significant place in Norwegian agridoes not exceed 1,060 square miles. Consequently, culture, except perhaps in the vicinity of towns, where even in the most favourable years, Norway has still to ground is valuable, and where there are greater faciliimport a great quantity of corn. What proportion of ties for obtaining the requisite quantity of manure. this area is arable land, and what pasture land, it is But as long as Norway has to import a considerable impossible to state even approximately.

quantity of bread corn, it would, as a rule, be improper As Norway covers thirteen degrees of latitude, it is to grow other plants than those which are absolutely very evident that there must be large room for changes necessary to the sustenance of animal life, and at the of climate in a country of such extent. There are, same time essential in re-invigorating the soil. however, other circumstances connected with this which Hemp is occasionally cultivated as far north as 67 must be taken into consideration. Proximity to the deg., but scarcely any plant occapies a smaller space sea prevents extremes of heat and cold all along the than this in Norwegian agriculture, owing in a great extensive seaboard. On penetrating, however, for a measure to the causes just alluded to under flax. very few miles into the interior, a most striking differ- Yellow lucerne stands all changes of temperature, ence may be remarked. Different sorts of summer and and has provod itself to be a useful and valuable agriwinter wheat are cultivated, principally allied to the cultural plant. Rye-grass grows wild, or is found as common wheat. Near the little town of Bodoe, lat. a naturalized straggler at various places in the south. 67° 17', there is an agricultural school, probably the It thrives on the western coast, but in the eastern dismost northern in the world. In 1860, an experiment tricts, where the cold is far more severe, it has not was made there with growing summer wheat; it been found to answer. Timothy grass grows wild in ripened in 120 days from the time of sowing! Accord-low land up to about 69; lat.: it is very generally culing to official reports, wheat has not hitherto been cul- tivated. The common tare is also grown as far north tivated in fields further north than lat, 64° 40'.

at least as the polar circle. According to the last census (1855), wheat composed The potato was imported into Norway from Great 1.4 per cent. of the whole corn produce of the country. Britain, about the middle of the last century. It can Of lale years, this grain has been more extensively cul- be grown at rather a greater altitude than barley, and tivated. The common, or furrowed, barley is that at many places in Finmark where the latter will not most generally cultivated in Norway; it grows as far ripen. The potato disease, which is so generally prenorth as Finmark, under the 70th parallel of latitude, valent, has not appeared above the 64th parallel of and is found at a greater altitude than any of the other latitude. The field pea most generally cultivated in cereals. Under certain circumstances, barley will ripen Norway is the Pisum arvense. In average summers at the same altitude as that at which the Norway spruce it will ripen as far north as 64 deg., and it has been culfr will flourish ; but the yield is uncertain, and cannot tivated and ripened up to 67 deg. 17 min. Varieties of be calculated upon. Of late years, other species and the yellow pea are now and then cultivated, and within varieties of barley have been cultivated with success in the last few years the field cultivation of the blue many places. Barley, a few years ago, composed one- Prussian pea in the southern districts up to 60 deg. 40. fourth of the corn produce of the country. Rye con- min. at least, has proved to be extremely profitable. stitutes nearly 5 per cent. of the produce, and is culti-Pumpkins have been grown out of doors, near Thronvated both as summer and winter corn, the latter, how dbjem, weighing 40lbs., and sced ripens up to 64 deg. ever, being most general. The most northerly latitude 5 min. The hop grows wild in low lands, up to the in which it will grow seems to be about 69° 34'. polar circle, but is cultivated only to a very small ex

Oats are the most generally cultivated grain in tent. Of late, however, an increasing interest has been Norway, composing nearly 56 per cent. of the cereal evinced in its cultivation. produce. It is, however, being gradually superseded Great importance attaches to the numerous plants by the more valuable sorts of grain. Although given of the natural order of Phaseolus, as constituting food to horses, the greatest quantity is employed for human for man and beast. Many sorts of kidney beans, chiefly food, partly in a kind of unfermented bread, and partly of the dwarf varieties, will ripen in average summers as porridge eaten with milk. A mixture of barley and as far north as Throndhjem, lat. 63 deg. 25 min., as oats is also much cultivated, under the name of " mixed indeed will several of the running varieties, which corn.” It is ground together, and used in the country generally require a longer time. Near Christiana districts for bread and porridge. Formerly, in years about 100 species and varieties of kidney beans have of scarcity in Norway, it was not unusual to mix oat- 'ripened.

AGRICULTURAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION.

The anniversary festival of this Institutiou took place on lieve there are few who would deny that this society is & Weduesday evening, May 28, at the London Tavern, when about blessing to the country. I am aware that there are some 150 gentlemen were present. The chair was taken by the Presi- -I hope there are but very few—who believe that the sodent of the Institution, His Grace the Duke of Richmond, ciety is not so necessary (they will not say it is altogether and among those present were : Col. A. N. Hood, Alderman unnecessary) as its most ardent admirers suppose. Mechi, Mr. C. Wren Hoskyns, Mr. J, Baldwin, Mr. W. F. would ask any who hold that opinion whether they are not Hobbs, Mr. John Clayden, Mr. A. H. Hall, Mr. W. M. Blunt, convinced by the arguments which I have endeavoured to Mr. Geo. Measome, Mr. R. Garrett, Mr. Thos. Scott, Mr. place before you, as to the vicissitudes of the seasons, and J. Collins, Mr. James Howard, Mr. A. H. Johnson, Mr. those sudden reverses which may at once plunge the Lee, Mr. H. Bazin, Mr. J. H. Taunton, Mr. H. Pound, Mr. farmer from comparative affluence into abject poverty. If J, Druce, Mr. S. Sidney, &c.

the consideration of these things be not sufficient to satisfy After the usual loyal and national toasts,

any one that this institution is necessary, I would, then, The CHAIRMAN said : Gentlemen, I now beg your atten. ask him to read the report with which you have all been tion for a very short time while I endeavour, in the best man- furnished; to read the list of no less than sixty applicants ner that I can, to offer to your notice what may be emphatically for the June election this year; and not only to read the called the toast of the evening. The toast which I have to names of those sixty persons who come and appeal to us for propose is “ Prosperity to the Agricultural Benevolent Insti- the benefits of this charity, but also the details of each case tution" (cheers); an institution founded for a purpose which is of distress, as they are placed in the cards which are laid specified in the rules as follows—“That the object of the in-before us: and if he be not then convinced, his heart must stitution be to provide pensions to bonú fide farmers, their be harder than the hardest stone (cheers). I am glad, widows, and unmarried orphan daughters ; and to maintain however, to think that the number of subscribers to this and educate the orphan children of farmers.” Now I should institution entirely puts an end to the idea that many are almost think it would be sufficient for me simply to have read averse to its objects ("Hear, hear," and cheers). The into you the role which thus briefly states the object of the institution was, as I have before intimated, founded in 1860, stitution, to ensure its meeting at your hands with that re- and since that time it has had upwards of two thousand ception which such an institution at all times demands. subscribers. We have 2,000l. in Consols, and 3,0001. in the Speaking as I do to practical farmers, men who have passed a Three per Cents., making together a funded property of great portion of their lives in the pursuit of agriculture, it no less than 5,0001.; and we have subscribers from no less would seem almost presumptuous in me, as it would be unne

than 49 connties in Great Britain. All this shows, I say, cessary, to dilate at any great length on the necessity which that the benefits of this society are thoroughly felt, though exists for such an institution as this, and to express my sur- perhaps not to the extent that they ought to be felt (Hear, prise that we should have lived so long in a country so

hear). Gentlemen, I will not detain you further, but will eminently agricultural as Great Britain, without having wit- now leave in your hands the toast which I have to pro. nessed the establishment of an institution for the assistance pose. I am sure you will agree with me in thinking that of farmers in distress until the year 1860 (Hear, bear). And the maxim that we ought not to live only for ourselves, is it is, I think, a matter of astonishment, that even when this

a good maxim; and if we digest that maxim thoroughly, institution was founded, it was mainly owing to the exertions and act upon it, we shall all heartily and completely of a gentleman who, however zealous he may be in the cause concur in the toast which I have now the honour to give, of agriculture, will, I believe, agree with me that the earlier of “ Prosperity to this Institution" (loud cheers). portion of his life was not devoted to that pursuit. It is, I The toast was drank with great cordiality, and the Sesay, a matter of some astonishment that we, whose lives and cretary, Mr. Charles Shaw, afterwards read a list of subwhose fathers' and grandfathers' lives have been spent in agri scriptions, amounting altogether to £2,665. culture, should be indebted to one who is connected with the Col. Hoop said he was delighted to hear from the lips pursuits of commerce for the establisbment of this institution. of the Secretary such a noble list of subscriptions. He I need hardly remind you of the many vicissitudes which at- had risen to propose a toast which could not fail to prove tend that branch of science, for science it has now become. I acceptable to all present. It was not the toast of the eveneed hardly tell you that losses may occur so suddenly ning, but it was next to that in interest, and he was sure that the best-managed farm may to-morrow be the

it would be received with heartiness and good will ; it was least productive (Hear, hear). Seasons of upparalleled se

no less than the health of his Grace the Duke of Richverity may come when we are least fitted to encounter prised, to see the toast received in that manner.

mond. (Great cheering). He was glad, though not sur. them; a variety of circumstances may happen, over which we

It was have no control. You may have the best-managed farms, certainly a source of great satisfaction to them to see his you may buy the most expensive implements, you may

Grace presiding on that occasion over such an assembly, have the most highly-bred cart-horses, you may have

thus following in the footsteps of his venerable and revered ploughs that will go by steam, and I don't know what be father, who, as they all knew, was one of the best friends sides; and yet all these appliances will not avail you at all

of the agricultural interest in the kingdom. He was happy times and all seasons. Therefore, I say, such an insti- to say that his Grace was following in his father's footsteps tution as this is a blessing to the whole agricultural

in every respect, and he had the greatest satisfaction and community of the country (cheers). And when I mention pleasure in proposing the health of their Chairman and

President. the agricultural community of the country, I cannot forget that it is, and has been at all times, one of the most re- The toast was drunk with three-times-three. spectable classes in this great empire: it has always been The CHAIRMAN said : I can assure you, gentlemen, that one of the firmest and strongest links in that chain of I am uttering no mere formal words when I tell you that I society of which this country presents so remarkable a feel deeply grateful to you for the manner in which you specimen. I would put it to any gentleman in the room, have received the toast

. I will also take the first public where would the boasted greatness of this country be, if opportunity which has presented itself to thank you, as I you were--I admit that it is impossible; but, for the sake do most sincerely, for the high honour which you have of argument, I ask you to imagine it for a moment—to conferred upon me in electing me the President of this blot out the agricultural race from the empire ? Why, it institution. I assure you, gentlemen, I feel this the more would sink into nothingness (Hear, hear). What should deeply as being considered by you worthy to fill the place we do without those who till the soil, who fertilize our of one whom I can never think of without the deepest lands, and who produce, for the feeding of the people, that feelings of affection and reverence. Col. Hood has spoken without which society could not exist ? (cheers.) I be of me as treading in the footsteps of my father. All I can

say is, that it will be my earnest endeavour to do so. was so ably accomplished, that there had been no com(Cheers). When asked to preside over this institution I plaint scarcely even on the part of those who had the misgladly consented to accept so honourable a post, having been fortune to be so much restricted. They would, he hoped, born and bred a farmer. I say this because it is the actual all feel, on visiting the Exhibition, that the agricultural detruth. From my earliest childhood I was taught to look partment was really the crime de la créme, and evinced the up to, and to associate with, the farmers of this country. wonderful mechanical and constructive powers that had I have been tanght to think of them as one of the great been developed by the Royal Agricultural Society. He mainstays of the constitution, and as such I believe I shall thought he was not asserting too much in saying that mealways regard them. The practical part of the business of chanical progress in agricultural implements had gone

hand farmning has, too, received my best attention. I have in- in hand with the progress of that great Society (cheers.) herited such a flock of Southdown sheep as I may defy No one who attended the first meeting of the Society at the world to beat, and no pains shall be wanting on my Oxford, and who had also attended any of the recent meet. part to keep them up to that standard, which I believe ings, could come to any other conclusion than that the They have attained not only in this country, but in greatest talent, energy, science, and skill bad been devoted, foreign countries. (Cheers). For I am proud to say that and successfully devoted, to the improvement of agriculI have a foreign connection as well as an English one. Let tural implements through the medium of the Royal Agrime add, that I feel with regard to the exhibitions of cultural Society (cheers.) The enormous advance made animals which have taken place both in this country and was illustrated not only in the development of steamon the continent, that if they have been useful in no other ploughs, but in the whole range of agricultural mapoint of view, they have at all events been useful in bring-chinery. ing together the farmers of this country and the farmers Mr. Blurton, of Field Hall, Uttoxeter, proposed “ Arts, of foreign countries. We have thus had an interchange of manufactures, and commerce;" coupled with the name of ideas, an interchange of sentiments, an interchange of Alderman Mechi. feelings, and we have had also, what is equally valuable, an Mr. ALDERMAN Mechi, in returning thanks for “ Trade, interchange of stock and of the money that is paid for it. Commerce, and Manufactures," said tbat those interests had (Laughter). I said that from my birth I have been asso- done their duty to the British people. By enormous investciated with the agricultural interest of this country. This ments in improved machinery, and by a ready availment of association afforded me the means of filling a position of mechanical and scientific talent, they bad enormously and which I was justly proud, that of representing a consti- tastefully cheapened the clothing of the people, and could entuency purely agricultural for a period of twenty years ; velope the world in calico ; but no such result had yet been and I can assure you that I look back with feelings of the obtained in agriculture, for butter, cheese, and meat were greatest pleasure to so honourable a connection with so nearly doubled in price during the last 100 years. This was honourable a constituency; (Cheers). I might be carried yngrateful, when by the application of town sewage and other away by my feelings to address you at too great length. I improvements we could feed ourselves independently of foreigą cannot but recollect the eloquence of my right honour- imports, which he knew practically could be done by capital and able friend who filled the chair last year, and feel how intelligence, and no doubt would be some day accomplished. feeble must be any attempts of my own; but though I can- Mr. HALL HALL proposed "Col. Hood and the Executive not vie with him in eloquence, I will not yield to him in Council." energy and zeal for the welfare of this institution; (cheers) Colonel Hoop in acknowledging the compliment said, nor will I yield to him in sympathy for the distresses of the seed of prosperity had now been so well sown, that he those whose welfare we are assembled to promote. felt sure it would spring up, and the institution receive (Cheers). I thank you most sincerely for the honour that gererai support to which it was so clearly entitled at which I have received, and I beg to drink all your healths. the bands of agriculturists. It had already been recognised Mr. Alderman Mechi proposed “The Agricultural Socie

as one of the most valuable charitable institutions in the ties of England, Ireland, and Scotland.” He said these 80- kingdom. It was founded on a basis which could not cieties had done great good for British agriculture. They had easily be shaken. The agriculturists of England knew rubbed off the sharp and uncomfortable angularities of self

that however industrious a farmer might be, still he might esteem and local prejudice; men from isolated districts who by misfortune, through extensive losses arising from discame to them believing in the superiority of their stock or

eases among his cattle and sheep, or through failures of management, slunk home abashed, and determined to improve,

his crops owing to adverse seasons, be reduced from the It was a misfortune rather than a fault that agriculture had

most flourishi condition to a state of actual poverty. not improved more rapidly. Eighty years ago these societies

Let them look at (the recent inundations arising from an would bave been comparatively useless, for there were no

irruption of the sea on a vast fertile tract of country, and hard roads, or stage coaches, and Arthur Young cursed the

then ask themselves whether it were not possible that some ruts 4 feet deep. Many towns had no post, and others only

of those who a few weeks ago were in a state of great prosgot letters once or twice a week. A single letter cost from perity, and looking forward to an abundant harvest, would 3d. to 20. 20., and the enclosure of two extra pieces of paper compelled to seek the aid of that institution? Such events

be reduced from a state of affluence to one of want, and raised the postage to 28. 30. or 6s, 6d. Now, mighty steam and Hill's penny post, and the cheap press, had brought agri- showed the need of an institution like that; and on the culture into social intercourse. He had much pleasure in part of the Executive he could assure the assembly that connecting with this toast the health of Mr. Chandos Wren they would do their best to promote its welfare. He was Houkyns, the talented author of " Talpa," whose amusing and

sure that very great benefit would result from the existence instructive "Chronicles of a Clay Farm" had depicted vividly and adequate support of an institution having so excellent and pungently the difficulties and prejudices one had to en

and so necessary an object. counter io improving such soils.

Mr. G. F. HARRISON proposed " The Stewards," in con

nection with the name of Mr. John Shackell. Mr. WREN HOSKINS said, no one could doubt that

Mr. SHACKELL, in returning thanks for himself and his those societies had conferred immense benefit on agri colleagues, expressed his deep conviction that the instituculturists, more particularly by bringing about a union

tion would prove one of the most extensively useful instituof many for the accomplishment of one common ob- tions in the country. ject. Their operations had conduced in a great degree to the vast improvement which had taken place of late years

Mr. WREN HOskyns proposed "The Secretary," Mr.

Charles Shaw. He said, before he had the pleasure of in farming implements. One of the principal departments of the Interational Exhibition was filled with farming meeting Mr. Shaw in the board room of that institution, he

saw the testimonials sent by him as one of the candidates implements, which formed one of the most interesting features of that great collection. While applications were

for the secretaryship of the Royal Agricultural Society, and, made to the Royal Commissioners for 200,000 square feet, proved so useful to this institution, and had performed his

after reading them, he could not feel surprised that he had the space granted was only 17,000. He would leave them

secretarial duties in so admirable a manner. to judge of the task of allotting that reduced space to the various claimants. It was the old story of putting a quart

The toast having met with a cordial response, into a pint bottle. He believed, however, that this task Mr. C. Shaw said he wished to express his grateful sense of the bonour which had been conferred upon him. To having been duly honoured, the assembly afterwards disthose who held such an office as his own there could be no persed. better recompence than such a recognition of their zeal. The dinner was of an excellent character, and worthy of He had endeavoured to do his utmost for the Society, and the reputation of the London Tavern.

The musical if his feeble efforts had, in their opinion, contributed in the arrangements were also very satisfactory, being under the slightest degree to the brilliant results realized that eve- direction of Mr. George Perren, who was supported by Miss ning, he was amply rewarded (cheers).

Ransford, Miss Poole, Mr. Lewis Thomas, and Mr. J. L. The CHAIRMAN then gave "The Ladies," and tbis toast | Hatton, Mr, Higgs officiated as toastmaster,

THE HORSE 0. STEAM FOR HEAVY TRAFFIC. There is hardly a week, or even day, passes over in the although things are not reversed, that does not mend the British capital that a team of some ten to twenty horses is matter when examined practically and professionally from an not to be seen wending its way in serpentine fashion through engineering point of view, but the contrary. The difference the overcrowded streets in hauling some heavy goods, as a lies in our attachment to old things, the interest we may have boiler or the like, to or from a railway station, manufactory, in opholding them, and the light in which we are thus led to &c. The sprawling and spluttering of so many horses at the look upon the steam horae as a rival. In other words, the crossings and sharp bends of streets, the poor brutes being engineering view of the question of Steam v. the Horse is obliged to pull against each other, the leading or front teams easily disposed of, more especially in reference to the convey: having to be whipped unmercifully, as if purposely to haul the ance of heavy goods; but it is otherwise with the political after or back teams off their feet, affords" an instructive illus- view of the Horse versus Steam, for here difficulties multiply tration of how the public mind becomes case-hardened to as we approach them. And the greatest of all are those that systems of things the most barbarous and inconsonant to the are invisible-imaginary bugbears, that can neither be seen scientific

progress of the present day thșt can well be ima- oor handled, but which, nevertheless, start up before the steam. gined. Even a coal-waggon---or what is tenfold worse, a horse in motley array at every corner and crossing, alike in traction-engine itself-being hauled by four horses tracing the peaceful retirement of the province as in the overcrowded each other as geese fly, is an anomaly to the present period of thoroughfare of the city. our engineering history that may well put a thinking public to Every picture has two sides, and so has every political shame; and yet how numerous are conveyances of this kind question, that of Steam-power versus Horses in our streets and in every metropolitan thoroughfare! Had they (horses) to be on common roads not excepted. The coal merchant, convey. yolked and started de novo in our streets for the first time, ance contractor, &c., &c., have an interest" in their respecparliament, the bar, and the general public would be up against tive studs and establishments. In the metropolis and all our them as puisances intolerable. And besides all this, the So- large towns there is now an immense amount of capital invested ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals would have just in this department of onr industrial enterprise ; and those who reason to conclude that the owners and the drivers of such would speak disrespectfully of such establishments as Pickford teams were the legitimate subjects of their special regard. and Co., &c., is as blind to the social welfare of the public at But the cruelty thus practised daily upon horses, the obstruc- the present time as they are to the general progress of things tion the system occasions to street traffic, and the enormously when prospectively viewed. We can from the present day extravagant expenses it entails upon the manufacturing and even look back retrospectively upon the old mail-coach with commercial resources of the country, have gradually grown in an air of something like national pride, and compare the to existence ; and so peculiar are our habits of experience under winding, sonorous notes of the coachman's bugle-horn, as he such circumstances, that we neither see nor feel that aught is nears the “inn," with the piercing shrill monotony of a mailwrong in the matter.

train steam-whistle. But unconth and unmusical as the latter In this there is no doubt something to be admired, as old may be, we have becomedamiliar with it, and can now apprepractices not only command esteem, but support. In Eng. ciate its meaning, as we did the more symphonious and stirlaud, public and private rights are justly venerated. But while ring echoes of the mail-horn of early life, that made old and this is true, there is, nevertheless, no country in the world young jump to hear “wbat news had arrived from London." where the rights of progress are so highly respected as in Such is a practical exposition of events in the march of imBritain, or where the sticklers to antiquated habits are more provement, to which many once adverse opinions and interests unceremoniously left behind in the race, slowly to disappear have long since become reconciled; and the greatest adversary in the manufacturing and commercial bustle. And at the of common road locomotives may live to see the happy day present time the STEAM-HORSE is evidently on the top of the when the Steam-horse may blow his whistle in our streets and hill, looking down upon many an antiquated rival in the valley provincial lanes without offending the ear of the most musical below, whose long career is nearly at an end.

and sensitive of our fellow-countrymen. During the currency of the International Exhibition, our It is not, however, from public and private companies who subject merits special consideration from more points of view have large capitals invested in horseflesh, or from the industhan one. The purely engineering question of Steam Power trial and money-making department of the public, that the versus Horse Power in the conveyance of all heavy goods in Steam-horse is meeting with any opposition, but from the our streets, and also in the provinces on common roads, is ten "spend-money class of society," as they have been termedto one against the latter. Indeed, so infinitely superior is the the thankless pensioners of the past, as they may not inaptly traction-engine in common road locomotion to the long string be designated—who live on the rents of their estates, landed of horses, pulling each other off their feet, that a comparison or otherwise, interest of capital, &c. Indeed the former, can hardly with any propriety be drawn between them. If we generally speaking, are anxious to gain the benefit of the sershould suppose things reversed-viz., that all the trafic in our vices of steam in the conveyance of goods, in the threshing of streets and on our common roads was performed by steam- corn, and the ploughing of land; and to meet the demand and that some amateur was to yoke a team of twenty horses which is thus arising, public and private companies are being to a waggon or truck in order to remove a steam-boiler from formed for the purpose of responding to it: but the latter apone side of the capital to the other, or a portable engine and pear to be so absorbed in the enjoyment of the good things in thrashing machine from one farm to another, the whole affair their possession, just as they are, as to lose sight, not only of would appear so ludicrous in the eyes of a thinking public as the rights and privileges of the pioneers of progress, but also to be unworthy of any credit outside the walls of a lunatic of themselves. asylum. But were such a novice to persist in his mad career, To come at once to the backbone of our subject. On the one what would Parliament and the Bar not do to prohibit the hand, this opposition, as advocated by the opponents of steam cruelty to animals, the obstruction to street traffic, public locomotion on common roads themselves, is neither more nor danger, and the tangible evidence which such insane conduct less than personal and public safety from shying horses or imwould afford of a man unfit to manage his own affairs ? But properly trained horses. On the other hand, this improper training of carriage and other horses on the part of the upper the owners of shying horses an exception to the common rule, classes is presenting the investment of capital in the manufac when the driving of such horses is attended with so much ture and working of traction-engines in the conveyance of public and private danger, in both town and country, and goods, in the thrashing of corn, ploughing of land, &c., thereby where it would be for the interest of such owners themselves subjecting our Boydells, Brays, Fowlers, and other pioneers of either to train their horses, or dispose of them, and purchase progress to heavy losses which they ought not to be called properly-trained ones to do their work ? Practicaliy speaking, upon to experience, while it is upholding an expensive and the schoolmaster is abroad in the matter under investigation ; antiquated system of things as much, if not more, to the loss and those of our readers who are keeping untrained horses of the opholders themselves as it is to the opposite party and avimals that shy at traction engines--need not be surprised the community at large. We have thus two sides of a public if they are honoured with a visit; for the opposite party-the question before us. Let us briefly examine both, with a view pioneers of progress-are of an inventive turn of 'mind, and to advance impartially the respective interests involved. will not allow the STEAM Horse to be baffled in the race of

With regard to improperly-trained horses, no little difficulty progress, however huge the obstacle thrown in the way may will be experienced to get many to bring home the question be, in the estimation of their opponents. to their own stables. Most people entertain golden opinions Under the other head little requires to be said ; and we of their own stud. This is only, perhaps, as it should be—at bave just as little space remaining for it. As“ it is the last least, so far as the question is one of private concern. But straw that breaks the back of the camel,” so in like manner the the moment a shying horse is put in harness, there is more opposition now being thrown before the wheel of the tractionthan a private interest involved for the safety of the public engine is increasing expenses and reducing profits ; conseis as much in danger as that of the owner or driver of the quently capital is not being invested in extending the triumphs animal. If highminded people have any right to endanger of steam in common road locomotion, steam ploughing, &c., as their own lives in driving about in our streets and lanes it otherwise would be were enterprise to receive its legitimate improperly-trained horses, they have no right to endanger the encouragement. Those who sustain the greatest loss by oblives of others, either in town or country, especially when a struction of this kind are obviously landowners and their tenfew shillings would train their teams, and thus obviate the ants, including both town and country; for as they would be calamity.

the greatest gainera by the triumphs of steam in this branch We are perfectly aware of the difficulty of training some of industry, it consequently follows that they are the greatest horses not to shy at certain things. We have found it im- losers by upholding the present antiquated system of conveypracticable, for example, to train a horse to meet a dopkey ing beavy goods by horses that could be carried at a great pith safety, the animal having to be sold at a low price, for deal less money by steam, while the employment of the steam. farm work, without warranty as being fit for saddle, gig, or horse in carrying such goods would bave the stimulatiog carriage. But we never experienced any difficulty in getting effect of exteuding his usefulness at other heavy works, as the plenty of horses to purchase, that were easily trained not to ploughing and manuring of land, &c. Again, as to capital, shy at donkeys, steam, and everything else ; and this is the there cannot be a doubt but there is here a wide field for its practical view which an intelligent public ought to take, and are profitable investment that has beer, and is still, very much already beginning to take, of the question in reference to horses neglected by those to whom it belongs. And with regard to shying at steam. It is, in point of fact, becoming a matter the pioneers of progress-including inventors, implement, of necessity thus to do, owing to the manner every town and makers, &c.-theirs has always been an uphill work, and province is now beiug intersected with railways, many of them doubtless will continue so to be in all questions of mechanical crossing streets and highways on the same level. Under such progress where the landed interest are the chief parties intercircumstances, the first question at the purchase of a horse is, ested. This is much to be regretted, as the reverse ought to Does the animal shy at steam? And, whatever some owners be the rule; for instead of upholding ontiquated systems by and breeders of horses may think to the contrary, they may throwing obstacles before the wheel of progress, landowners in depend upon it that, with the progress of steam, this question town and country ought to be foremost in the race—the first will annually become more and more a sine quá non, until to clear their stables of shying horses, and thus encourage the shying horses will not find a purchaser, in the British capital use of traction engines.

ENGINEER. or any of our large towus, at much more than the value of their skips. And this, too, is only as it should be at the present time; for horses that cannot be trained not to shy at a traction engine or railway train ought neither to be reared nor HOW LONG SHOULD COWS GO DRY sold, nor allowed to be put in harness.

Messrs. Enrrors,-In answering this question, many The farmer must have a very isolated and narrow-minded would say three months, others would extend the time to view of the matter, who thinks that a sufficient number of four months, and others still would recommend five or six now-shying horses cannot be had, or who would justify the months, especially for young cows. (I read an article rerearing, selling, and running of sbying horses, merely because cently, where the writer gave it as his opinion, that three be bimself cannot train his horses not to shy! Such isolated and four years old should go dry five or six months.) Now notions, if they exist, are not those of the really practical and I can see ro good reason why cowo should go dry for three scientific man; and the time is not far distant when they will months even, if well kept. My rule has been, to dry them become ridiculous in the estimation of an intelligent public. off two months-or as near that time as possible-before

We have not yet, however, got rid of shying horses, either coming in. The drying off business is not a thing of choice in the public market or in private stables. This is more par- with the cows, but with myself; for I am almost always obticularly the case with the latter, there being many pet liged to milk them once a day, then half milk them, and favourites to be found there, that are confirmed shiera at then milk them every other day-in this way coar them to traction engines and railway trains. In the former the stop giving milk. I do not think that cows that are properly number will gradually become less; for who will purchase a fed, warmly stabled, and otherwise cared for as they should shying horse, when plenty of properly-trained animals can be be, to afford the greatest profit, need a longer time than this had, at a very little more money? The practical question at to recover from the draught made upon them during the issue is thus a plain one. But selling a abying horse out of a season. Neither will their progeny suffer from this treatprivate stable, and purchasing a shying horse in a public ment, Young cows particularly, should be milked up to this market, are two transactions between which there is a very time, or a littie closer, (not go dry five or six months) for wide and distinguishable difference; and this difference natu- the same reason that a child should be trained up in the rally suggests the interrogatory, How many private slables are way he should go." It has been my experience, that cows there in which shying horses are still kept? Who are they will hold out their milk to about such a time, before calving who keep improperly-trained, abying carriage and other --that depending very much upon the manner in which horses, in the British capital or any other town – horses, they were treated, in regard to drying off when young. either confirmed shiers, that cannot be trained, or animals They should, however, have good nutritious food during the that could easily be trained for a few shillings each ? Onght | latter part of the milking season. As I never trade watches, not the owners of such stables and horses to be publicly nor swap jack-knives, so I never buy cows for my own use. kaovn? This is the principle by which the bad is distin- I have the conceit that I can raise better cows than I can guished from the good, in all similar cases; and why make purchase. If one has a good cow, he don't want to sell her,

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