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the multitudinous ears with which it will signalize this boon of liberation will be richer in contents. From what I have seen, I am led to yield implicit assent to that part of Mr. Hallett's creed which affirms ear-development to be dependent on root-development. The truth is nowhere better shown than in No. 12, which was sown with half-apeck to the acre, compared with No. 7. The former was on poorer soil than No. 7, and without manure; while No. 7 had manure, and was sown with eight times the seed. This thinly-seeded bit was the best covered with the best ears throughout the whole slope, and invariably the plots seeded with one peck presented a more promising appear ance than those seeded with a bushel. The more the seed
the smaller the ear.
Of course, the quantity of seed depends upon the time of planting. To carry out this system with success, the seed should be in by September, if possible in August. If the grain is to tiller out over a space of twelve or eighteen inches, it must have time allowed for this purpose, and time during the genial autumn months. Some disciples of this system have carefully planted out their peck in November and December, and found themselves disgusted in spring-not with their own want of common sense, but with the "Pedigree" wheat for failing to occupy the ground.
The facility with which I was able, after a little close atten-
which yet produces precisely the same results. This me-
The first field, No. 8, contains 6 acres. What was the previous crop? Beans, manured with 32 one-horse loads of dung to the acre. How seeded, and when? Drilled (with common drillcups) with seven bushels of Nursery wheat, on the 7th of October; the "selection of '60."
Field No. 3 contains 18 acres, sown with the selection of 1861, at the rate of 1 peck to the acre. How and when sown? Drilled 10 inches apart (with turnip cups), on the 7th September. What previous treatment? In 1860 the whole piece was wheat, trefoil mown and carried for hay last year, then simply ploughed and cultivated; no manure. I should estimate the crop to yield from 7 to 8 qrs. an acre. The parent ear of this selection contained 114 grains. Most of the ears I gathered contained 90; but the ears were fewer on the ground than they should have been, owing to the weeds with which the crop had to contend.
Field No. 12 contains 7 acres. How seeded? On the 5th October, with 8 bushels of Nursery Pedigree, drilled 10 inches apart. Previous management? After beans and roots, manured. This piece bore the visible character of the last selection, but having been much thinned by wire-worms the weeds have received the greater licence to grow. As a whole it is the most striking crop on this "off farm," and, taking the size of the ears into account, and the conformity of the whole crop to this highest type, no one could estimate the yield much, if anything, below 9 qrs. an acre.
The land at Linfield, though good, is not what is called wheat-land. Mr. Hallett entered upon it recently, and found it in a shockingly foul and impoverished state. The crops are all more or less foul; they evidently staud in need of more hoeing and manure,
As I was making my way to a farm at a considerable distance from Brighton, in the parish of Linfield, for the purpose of further inspecting the results of this system, I was called aside to view a field of Talavera wheat on the farm of a neigh-system bour. The seed was supplied by a celebrated seedsman as something pre-eminently true, Yet, on walking in the crop, we gathered in a short time thirteen varieties of wheat, and, curious to say, found a plant produced by a stray grain of the "Pedigree throwing up ears that could not fail once to be remarked as exceptional, even though forming part of a really splendid crop.
But, it may be asked, how with respect to quality? Is not a coarse quality the result? This, I reply, is the assumption, but not the fact. When a naturally coarse ear is sown, its gross tendency is developed and strengthened; but if an ear of fine quality is sown, its virtue does not become degraded, but is rather educed and established. Mr. Hallett's selections commenced, as was natural, from monstrous ears; but, as experience showed him that this led to the production of an inferior kind of grain, he saw the necessity of changing his plan, and breeding from a wheat of a naturally fine quality, like the "nursery.”
On August 21, a large number of gentlemen from foreign countries, who are now in England, were invited by the firm of Ransomes and Sims to pay a visit to Ipswich, and inspect their manufactory. The invitations given were accepted by a large number of the gentlemen, and a special train left London on Thursday, bringing down nearly 200 foreigners, under the conduct of Mr. John Head, who has for some years represented the firm of Ransomes and Sims in various parts of Europe. The "inner man" having been refreshed, the business or the pleasure, whichever it may be called, for both instruction and amusement were combined, of the day commenced; the party was divided into different companies, and under the leadership of Mr. Allen Ransome, Mr. R. C Ransome, Mr. J. Head, and Mr. George Biddell went round the Works, of which our readers have at one time or another read a description;
A DAY AT THE ORWELL
Having duly gone the rounds, and all assembled in the space inside the entrance gates,
Mr. ALLEN RANSOME addressed them as follows:-Gentlemen from many lands, I have had the greatest pleasure and the greatest satisfaction of giving you an opportunity of seeing the men employed at this establishment and the work they have to perform; allow me to take this opportunity of introducing them collectively to you. In the course of two or three minutes they will leave for their dinnera most important and a most pleasant part of the routine of the day, scarcely less pleasant than pay day when it comes round (laughter). Allow me just to introduce them to you, that they may take the opportunity of seeing so large a number of their great friends through whom they provide for the wants of their families.
The bell then rang, and the workmen swarmed out of the
various shops, and Mr. Ransome then performed the cere-inventor. The principle of Fowler's plough is now wellmony of introducing them to their foreign visitors by known; the engine and windlass are fixed at one side of the saying: I have taken the liberty of detaining you for a very field, and the anchor, which is self-moving, opposite, and befew minutes from your dinner, to give you the chance of tween them the plough is drawn by means of a wire rope. experiencing the pleasure of being introduced to these The ploughing was going on in the same field with the other gentlemen from the various nations of the continent of operations, the corn having been cut by the reaping machine, Europe. They are the gentlemen who have contributed and carried to be thrashed at another part of the field, and the so largely to the success of these great works, and who land was then ploughed up by the steam and horse-ploughs. have been so largely the instrument in providing us with The steam thrashing machines were next the objects of work, which has tended to provide you with labour, and attention, those present being an A 1 and a B 1; who by their liberal contributions to art in all its forms and the visitors took a deep interest in everything they saw amongst us, have brought into this firm the money which especially in the steam machinery, and a remark was made has enabled you to support your families, and which has how evenly and with how little vibration Ransomes' steamenabled us to keep you together, and to give them a hearty engines always work. and a good welcome (cheers). I am quite sure you will not grudge the five minutes I have ordered the gates to be closed in order to testify to these gentlemen how they are valued by English workmen, and as they have seen you at work as English workmen, I should like to hear you cheer, and give three hearty English cheers to welcome the foreign gentlemen here.
The men gave such cheers as proved that if they have stalwart arms they have no less healthy and powerful lungs, and the visitors responded by giving three cheers for the work
The next part of the programme of the day's proceedings was the trial of a number of implements and machinery at the farm belonging to the firm at Westerfield, The experiments were tried on a wheat field, and the first to which attention was directed was the patent self-raking Victorian reaper. The crop was in far from a good state for the trial of the machine: it was a piece of thin white wheat, which had been a good deal broken down; the straw, too, seemed rotten. The consequence was that the machine did not at first perform its work very neatly; later in the day, however, the machine seemed to get into better
The famous ploughs of the firm stood next in order, and the first of these was the plough manufactured by Messrs. Ransomes and Sims especially for Russia. It turns a furrow nearly double in width to that of the ordinary English ploughs, and is used on the fertile land in Russia, where it is not necessary to expose the soil very much to the atmosphere. This plough was drawn by two horses, and the fine animals received the praises of the foreign gentlemen-in fact, Suffolk horses at work seemed to create as much interest as the ploughs they drew. Another plough at work was the Scotch, which sets the furrows edgeways, the object being to leave a number of small trenches, as it were, into which the seed is thrown broadcast and then covered with the harrow. The man who worked this plough showed that he was a skilled hand, by the mathematical correctness with which the furrows were turned. The most attractive implement was, however, the steamplough (one of Fowler's), in the manufacture of which Rapsomes and Sims have been engaged in conjunction with the
hours, and by the time everything had been seen, all were The inspection of all these implements occupied several ready to adjourn to the building where Messrs. Ransomes had provided dinner. On reaching this spot, it was found that the foreigners were to see some good specimens of the horses and pigs for which Suffolk is celebrated, Mr. Wolton, of Newbourne, had sent a two-year-old entire cart colt ("Ruler") and the mare and foal which obtained prizes at the Battersea and Bury shows this year, the mare having also taken premiums at Ipswich and Framlingham. Mr. E. Gleed, Hoo Hall, had sent a four-year-old gelding which took the prize at Bury, the mare and foal which were the prize animals at the Norfolk Society's meeting at East Dereham, one of the geldings which formed the prize-team at Bury, and the animal which took the prize as the best three-year-old cart gelding at Bury. Mr. G. Tomline's two-year-old filly, to which the prize was awarded at Bury and Battersea, was there; and Mr. Wolton, of Kesgrave, sent a year-old cart colt, and the year-old filly which took the prize at Bury. A fine nag stallion, belonging to Mr. G. Mason, jun., Ipswich, was also shown. The pigs were represented by several belonging to Mr. Stearn, of Brandeston-one ten months old, two four months, two three months, and two seven weeks old. There was also a sow and pigs belonging to Mr. Ransome, and of Mr. Stearn's stock. Mr. Stearn showed his ingenious model of a piggery. Two of Mr. Sexton's Cotswold rams were also on the ground; and, in truth, there was a display of a small agricultural show, in quantity and quality-including machinery and animals-something that we might have to go a long way ere we found them excelled.
The dinner was laid in a wooden building erected for the purpose, the exterior of which was decorated with the flags of the following nations:-England, France, Spain, Russia, Prussia, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Brazils, Sardinia, Austria, Greece, the States of Italy, Rome, and Japan. On the table was placed some bread made from wheat cut that day. The chair was taken by Mr. Robert Ransome, the senior member of the firm; and besides the foreign visitors there were present most of the gentlemen of the neighbourhood whose names are celebrated in connection with agricultural affairs. From the Ipswich Journal.
SIR,-As the variola ovila, or small-pox in sheep, has, again made its appearance in this country, and has shown itself in a virulent form amongst a flock in Wilts, I feel it is very necessary that we should do all in our power to prevent the spreading of so malignant a disease. I therefore hesitate not in calling public attention to the subject through the agricultural press.
In 1847 this disease was first brought into England by the importation of Merino sheep from Denmark and Holland, some of which were purchased in the Smithfield market for grazing purposes; the disease soon spread into different counties, causing great alarm and serious loss. A case occurred in this parish, where a lot of sheep having been purchased in an adjoining county, were sold to a farmer at 2s. 6d. each, turned into the parish roads by day, and placed in a field
adjoining my land by night. Most of these sheep soon died, and some of them were buried close to my fence, but not until the disease had spread throughout the neighbourhood. I took every precaution which I considered necessary, by stopping up the gateways from the roads with furze or bush faggots, and by keeping my sheep as far as possible from the infected field whenever the wind came from that direction. However, I did not escape, but, amongst others, lost my best ram, although he had never travelled on the road nor been near the diseased lot. I therefore concluded that the disease was infectious, as well as contagious. The starling, as is well known, is in the habit of sitting on the backs of sheep, and thus, in the opinion of many observers, carries contagious disease from one flock to another. As an additional precaution shepherds armed themselves with guns to keep off the visitation of these
birds. Some flockmasters in Suffolk adopted this course in 1848.
At that time Mr. Stanley Carr, of Germany, wrote a very able letter on the subject to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, which may be found in the 8th volume of the Journal; and Professor Simonds also rendered great service; as he spent much time in numerous experiments, and then published a practical treatise on the subject, which ought to be read by every flockmaster and grazier. It can be obtained of Ridgway, in Piccadilly.
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that in case any sheep or lambs infected with or labouring under the said disorder, or any disorder of the like nature, be exposed or offered for sale, or be brought or attempted to be brought for the purpose of being so exposed or offered for sale, in any market, fair, or other open or public place where other animals are commonly exposed for sale, then and in any such case, it shall be lawful for any clerk or inspector or other officer of such fair or market, or for any constable or policeman, or for any other person authorized by the mayor, or by any two justices of the peace having jurisdiction in the place, or for any person authorized or appointed by her MaIn 1848 the subject was thought of so much import-jesty in Council, to seize the same, and to report such seizure ance, that Parliament passed an Act (11 & 12 Vic., to the mayor or any justice of the peace having jurisdiction in cap. 105) to prohibit the importation of sheep, cattle, the place; and it shall be lawful for such mayor or justice either to restore the same, or to cause the same, together with &c., for the purpose of preventing the introduction of contagious or infectious disorders. At the same time, any pens, hurdles, troughs, litter, hay, straw, or other articles an Act was passed (11 & 12 Vic., cap. 107) to prevent be forthwith destroyed or otherwise disposed of in such manwhich he may judge likely to have been infected thereby, to the spreading of contagious and infectious disorders in ner as he shall deem proper, or as may be directed in manner this country. The two first clauses of the Act are the herein-after provided; and any person bringing or attempting most important. The first refers to diseased animals to bring any sheep, lambs, oxen, bulls, cows, calves, or other exposed or offered for sale in any fair or market, which horned cattle, into any such market, fair, or open or public may be seized and destroyed by any inspector or other place as aforesaid, knowing such sheep, lambs, or cattle to be officer appointed by the mayor or by any two justices infected with or labouring under either of such disorders as of the peace, with a penalty not exceeding £20. The seaforesaid, shall, upon conviction thereof, forfeit and pay for cond clause refers to sheep or lambs turned out, kept, or each and every such offence a sum not exceeding twenty depastured in or upon any forest, chase, wood, moor, pounds. marsh, heath, common, waste land, open field, roadside, &c. If labouring under any contagious or infectious disorder, the owner shall be subject to a penalty not exceeding £20. The third clause refers to the sale of meat unfit for human food. There are altogether 22 clauses, but none which require special notice here, except clause 7, which inflicts a penalty of £5 or two months' imprisonment upon any person who wilfully obstructs any officer in carrying out the purposes of the Act. In 1853 this Act was extended and further continued by 16 & 17 Vic., cap. 62, with the addition of a clause referring to glandered horses, making the owners subject to like penalties and regulations as for sheep or cattle. In 1858 the last amended Act, by the 21 & 22 Vic., cap. 62, was continued, and remains in force until the 1st of August, 1863.
II. And be it enacted, that if any person turn out, keep, or depasture any sheep or lambs infected with or labouring under the said disorder in or upon any forest, chase, wood, moor, marsh, heath, common, waste land, open field, road side, or other undivided or uninclosed land, such person shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit and pay any sum not exceeding twenty pounds.
When the bill of 1848, cap. 107, first came before the House of Commons, the first clause was considered sufficient for the purpose. Sir John Tyrell, who was then member for Essex, and other county members, took much interest in the subject, and with some of them I had interviews, as well as with Mr. Labouchere, who, I believe, had charge of the bill. I expressed to them my opinion that the first clause did not go far enough; the second clause was consequently added, and the bill thus amended passed through Parliament. The additional clause is now generally admitted to be the most important part of the act.
In 1847 and 1848 I devoted some time to this subject, and my object in writing now is to call the attention of magistrates in the rural districts and in market towns to the act 11 and 12 Vic. cap. 107, so that they may be fully prepared, if necessary, to carry out the intention of the Legislature, as well as to assist the agriculturists in preventing the spreading of so contagious and infectious a disorder, and so great a calamity on the community at large. I remain, dear sir, yours faithfully,
Boxted Lodge, Aug. 16. WM. FISHER HOBBS.
The following are the two important clauses referred to in Mr. Fisher Hobbs's letter:
Whereas a contagious or infectious disorder, known or described as the sheep pox or Variola ovina, now prevails among the sheep in some parts of the United Kingdom, and it is necessary to take measure to prevent such disorder from spreading: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present
SHEEP SALE AT ELSTON.-On August 13th, the sale by Messrs. Ewer and Winstanley of the flock of improved Hampshire Downs, the property of the late Mr. John Shittler, took place at Elston. This flock consisted of 2,000 ewes, chilver lambs, and rams. Mr. Shittler spared no expense in obtaining blood from the most renowned flocks in this country, and a large portion of his life was devoted to the acquirrior growth of wool. Up to the time of his death Mr. ing of a class of sheep combining quality and size with supeShittler was a most successful breeder of rams, and his annual sales of stock in Dorset were always conducted with great success. On all occasions he obtained for his sheep prices equal to the best ram breeders in this country. Under these circumstances his merits as a flockmaster were so generally recognized that a large gathering was the result. Elston is situated on Salisbury Plain, being about twelve miles from Salisbury, ten from Devizes, and ten from Warminster. During the morning the roads across the otherwise dreary large meeting of the agriculturists and flockmasters of Wilts, plain were covered with vehicles, and the day being fine a very Hants, Dorset, and the neighbouring counties took place. Shortly after twelve o'clock the numerous visitors partook of a substantial luncheon, in a tent on the ground immediately in front of the farm-house. The sale was then proceeded with. The chilver lambs were sold in lots of 20. The highest price was 458. per head, and the lowest 288. The two-tooth rams were sold singly, the highest price being 13 guineas per head, and the lowest 3 guineas. Two four-tooth rams were sold at 144 guineas each, a six-tooth ram realized 16 guineas, another 8 guineas, and a third 7 guineas. The ewes were sold in lots of 20 each; the highest price for two-tooth was 60s. per head, and the lowest 40s. The highest price of the four-tooth was 66s. per head, and the lowest 41s. The highest price for the six-tooth was 628. per head, and the lowest 42s. The highest price obtained for the full-mouthed ewes was 50s. per head, and the lowest 40s. The sale, which included 139 lots, and which commenced about half-past one-oclock, was brought to a close, to the satisfaction of all present, at about six o'clock. Among the principal purchasers were Mr. W. B. Canning, Mr. S. Saunders, Mr. Fred. Sidford, Mr. Silas Taunton, Mr. Newton, Dogdean; Mr. Russell, Duckworth; Mr. G. Burge, Mr. Simpkins, Mr. J. D. Allen, Mr. Stamford, Mr. Ingram, Mr. Redmond, &c., &c.
THE STOCK SHOW OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, IN BATTERSEA PARK.
By ROBERT SMITH, a Member of the Council of the R. A. S.
The growing importance of English agriculture had centred in an unmistakable interest upon this gathering; and the attention of breeders and connoisseurs of stock, both British and foreign, had long been prepared to discuss its merits. Rabbed and polished by the intercourse arising from such a Meeting, every man of observation is enabled to compare his notes with the great authorities of the day. Editorial reviews are sought for with avidity; leaders are discussed; chronicles of the week re-read; while we propose to complete these with an analysis running into six articles, thus classified: 1, Introductory matter, and comparative girths of the prize animals; 2, Cattle; 3, Sheep; 4, Horses; 5, Pigs; 6, Foreign Stock, and summary. The holding of the Society's meeting in London was a good idea, but many red-tape difficulties had to be overcome before it could be realized. At length Battersea Park was found to be about the only site the Society could have whereupon to display its products; yet the bleak position, and an out-of-the-way situation over the river, were held to be real objections. However, fine weather and the steamboats added materially to the receipts of the meeting, but there was so much going on in and about town, that many a greeting commenced with the familiar query, "Where shall we go tomorrow?-Battersea, International Exhibition, Dog Show, Farningham, Crystal Palace, or where?" competition for the shillings went far to detract from the Battersea receipts; while a country show is everything to everybody-an object of some twelvemonth's anticipation.
The work of about 80 judges was proceeding simultaneously. This, the most exciting feature in the show, was watched with intense interest. While the red or "first card up" denoted the A. 1. of the class, curiosity and anxiety grew even stronger as to No. 2 and No. 3. Many were the sporting offers, even amongst the herdsmen, previous to the subsequent "tug of war" for the medals; first-prize animals alone competing for the golden honours. If one sought a friend, he was sure to be found at or about his own country breed.
The gold medals were evidently given with a view to illustrate the qualities of some few of the leading animals as specimens of their several breeds. In continuation of the gold medal experiment it would be more interesting if the Society were to offer a 50 guineas challenge ..
cup," to be won by the same exhibitor three consecutive years.
The approach was pleasant, the entry well arranged, and when once within the yard no difficulty occurred. An interpreter's station told one that an international gathering was at hand, and the numerous stands of our implement makers demonstrated the progress in their art; until at length the eye was relieved by the attractive occupants of the live stock department.
First determine upon the class or sort of animal to be bred; then purchase the best of the sort, and procure the right sort of herdsman to take charge of them; but in no instance depart from the sort, however tempting the many artificials may have made them!
Even a casual stroll through the yard impressed us with wonder. Breed after breed-cattle, sheep, and In establishing a herd, an eye should be had to com horses-in all 2,372 animals, drew forth our admi-mercial principles; and the question asked, Shall we ration. Over 1,000 visitors, chiefly foreigners, paid produce male animals, beef, milk, or working oxen? for admission to one yard or the other. Groups of also with the flock, Shall we produce rams, mutton, interested men and favoured animals were to be seen in wool, lamb, &c.? or shall we blend the qualities by every aisle, for the public judging was in progress. crossing, to produce a suitable dash of each? This is This will work on to better results, and suitable rings a money question, and must be done well, or not at all. will doubtlessly be arranged hereafter.
The judging over, a general scrutiny ensued. Gossip ran high as to the whys and wherefores, as party met party on their anxious search. The disappointed to his friend: "We have yet enough to learn." "Who were the judges?" "Did they ever breed a good one, or go from home before ?" Not so so with the lucky one; he had a smile for all; he knew his animals; "nothing like the old line of blood to secure the prize; the judges are fond of good ones!" "The price is raised to guineas!" Such is the effect of an award. Thus, on the one hand joyous letters are written, messages despatched, and sojourn lengthened; but on the other no hurry ensues, no telegram is used, for the exhibitor's stay is short in town. Such were the results arising from open judging that every master, man, and customer had alike their chance of studying the animals and the decisions of the judges. The visitors who had paid their pound, the breeders who had reared the animals, the foreigners who had come to purchase, and the amateur whose curiosity had led him to the show were loth to leave the class, even when daylight disappeared.
Some 6,000 visitors entered the yard on Thursday. The oft-told Here again followed a severe review. story was repeated again and again, but there was an air of business about this day's show. The breeder, with his "Herd Book" and "correct list" of laurels won, met the purchaser from a distance upon even ground, whose mission lay with the class of animals best adapted to his country. This is important, inasmuch as every breeder should endeavour to aid the works of nature by accepting her dictates-hence England's district and county breeds.
"Little boats must keep near shore, The larger ones may venture more." These remarks bring to our memory the works of a new beginner: "Give me a pair of sharp shears, some singing tools, and a sack of old beans, and I will show sheep with the best of you." Another friend had done his best to win, but all was of no avail. Prize animals had been purchased, and a fortune spent in cooking them up, when the very natural thought of changing his shepherd suggested itself. The new man came: he had been behind the scenes, ran off with the tools, and The result was a win. It may be set to work anew. said, "What's in a shepherd" more than a name? The foreign stock claimed a full share of patronage, some as a matter of business, some for curiosity. The disparity of numbers, and feeding qualities, as compared
with the English breeds, told against them, but they had about them that which many an English breeder has long since ceased to cultivate-milking properties. In our rambles curiosity led us to make inquiry upon these points. A French herdsman in broken English set forth the milking properties of his cattle, and vouched for the purity of his breed, exclaiming at the same time, "But we be nothing you do things so great in England."
The varied costume of these foreign herdsmen mingling with that of the passers by, together with the oftrepeated "ranz des vaches," the song of the Swiss mountaineers, eliciting many a comment and transfer of English coin, gave to this department a very pleasant and international character. The same may be said of the Scotch classes. The Highland shepherds with their plaid and kilt, the Duke of Athol's dairymaid in Scotch costume, also contributing to the picturesque character of the meeting.
The horses "C on view" were the great features of the show. An Englishman loves a horse. Thousands hurried at the hours of eleven and three to see them out. The box system was first-rate; the ring admirable (for numbers) with the exception of its being of too large an extent for the eye to compass. Possibly a new arrangement may be made another year. In place of one ring and one set of boxes being centred in one place, groups of boxes and rings may be resorted to thus: Group 1. Thoroughbreds, Hunters, and Carriage Horses. 2. Roadsters, Hacks, and Ponies. 3. Agricultural, Dray, and Suffolk Horses.
This vast display has been a seven-days' wonder on the field, and will be turned to for data in many a year to come. But of the past and the future what shall we say? First, that the country is much indebted to the talent of our early breeders, who, in the days of slow enterprise and small encouragement, propagated from animals that appear to possess peculiar qualities worthy of cultivation. These have been handed down to the present breeders. Most of the best herds and flocks were represented in the yard, and new varieties upon these have been added by a rising class of spirited agriculturists, taking for their guide and motto the success that attended the establishment of the Bakewell Leicesters, the Ellman Southdowns, the Collins Shorthorns, the Quartley Devons. Such enterprise demands consideration. Let it be remembered that in the days of Bakewell, Ellman, Collins, and Quartley, but little, if any, artificial food was given to animals; hence the old familiar talk, "These will pay the most per acre for the food consumed." Tell it not in these days of artificials!
The English system of production is changed. The rising class remark: "Give me the animal machine that will convert a given amount of food into the most money, whereby my general farm may become improved." Show-animals are pampered specimens of the family herd or flock, but not to be depended upon like samples of seed or corn. The effect of artificials may be seen in root crops, when size, not quality, is produced. The same applies to the flavour of meat. Natural products represent quality; artificials, quantity. We shall return to these points when reviewing the several breeds.
We now place on record the comparative girths and ages of the distinguished animals. The tape has been ridiculed by many an active mind: it does no harm, while it assists the inquirer over a difficulty, and gives data for home comparisons with the past and present winners. Measurements of this kind have two resultsone points to form, the other to fat. These are conflicting evidences, but the eye of the observer places its own authority upon the points at issue-fat and form. These returns are naturally voluminous, but they may be consulted with safety.