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Commended.--W. Housemau, Tadcaster (black).

Highly commended.-T. Marris, Ulceby.
Three years old Hunting Gelding.–Prize £5, W. Muzeen

Commended.--T. H. Chambers, Staxton.
South Holme, Slingsby (by Fugleman).
Highly commended.-W. Brand, Salton (Gaylad); com-

SHORT WOOL. mended, G. Holmes.

Five hogg fleeces, the prize of £5 to Lord Wenlock. Three years old Hunting Filly.--Prize £5, J. Cattle, Bar

FLAX. tou-le-Sireet, Malton (by Post Tempore). Commended. --Sir G. Wombwell (Bertha).

JUDGE : H, Tennant, Tockwitb. Three years old Coaching Gelding.-£5, J. Everatt, Hat- Best green flax, not less than 20st. £5, J. Hodgson, East field, Doncaster (brown),

Lilling Highly commended.--T. Ellerby, Whitwell (bay); com

IMPLEMENTS. mended, J. Rooke, jun., Merton Priory.

JUDGES: J. Druce, Eynsham, Witney. Three years old Coaching Filly.- Prize £5, R. Forth Fry.

T. P. Outhwaite, Goldsbro', Knaresborough. ton, Slingsby (bay).

T. Scott, Broom Close, Boroughbridge.
Three years old Hackney Gelding or Filly.--Prize £5, R.
Gill, Kelteld, York.

Mowing machines, the prize of £10 to W.Cranston ( Wood's),

King William-street, London Bridge. Commended.-R. Scolefield, Sandhall, Howden. 'Three Years old Gelding for agricultural purposes.- Prize

Highly commended, Messrs. Samuelson and Co., York.

Commended, Watson, of Gembling (Burgess and Key), L5, H. Darley, Aldby Park (chesnut). Toree years old Filly for agricultural purposes.-- Prize £5

Kearsley, of Ripon, and the Busby Implement Company, of

Newton-le-Willows, Bedale. S. Thompson, Skipwith, Selby (black).

Combined thrashing and dressing machines, the prize of Commended.-T. C. Johnson, Chevet (black).

$15, E. Humphries, Pershore. Two years old Hunting Gelding or Filly.-Prize £3, J.

Commended, Messrs. E. R. and F. Turner, Ipswich.
Cattle, Barion-le-street (by Canute).
Commended.-W. B, Cox, Pickering, and J. Harrison, £15, E. Humphries, Persbore.

Thrashing machines, siugle blast, not to finish, the prize of Braudsburton, Beverley.

Commended, Messrs. E. R. and F. Turner, Ipswich. Two years old Coaching Gelding or Filly.—Prize £3, J.

Winnowing, dressing, and screening machines, the prize of Long, Skipwith, Selby. Commended. --Messrs. W. Kirby and son, Linton, We

£5, Messrs. Hollis and Son, Witney.

Blowers for grain, the prize of 13, Sawney, Beverley. therby. Two years old Agricultural Gelding.–Prize £3, T, Turner,

Pulpers, the prize of £3, Messrs. Samuelson and Co., York, Armthorpe, Doncaster (brown),

Grinding mills tor farming purposes, the prize of £5, Messrs.

Ashby and Co., Stamford.
Two years old Agricultural Filly.Prize £3, T. Turner,
Armthorpe (black).

Two-horse portable horse power for the minor machinery of Yearling Hunting Gelding or Filly.- Prize £3, L. F.

a farm, the prize of £5, J. Weighell, Pickering. Peckett, Carlton, Thirek.

Highly commended, Messrs. Richmond and Chandler, Sal

ford, Manchester, and Measrs. Woods and Cocksedge. StowYearling Coaching Gelding or Filly.--Prize £3, T. Mans

market. field, Thirkleby Bridge, Thirsk.

Commended, Messrs. E. R. and F. Turner, Ipswich. ('ommended.-W. Angas, Neswick. Yearling Gelding or Filly for agricultural purposes.- Prize

Drills for general purposes adapted for applying artificial £3, S. Thompson, Skipworth, Selby (black).

manures with the seed, the prize of £5, J. Coultas, jun., SpitPair of llorses for agricultural purposes, worked during the legate,

Grantham, season.-First prize £10, J. Teunant, Barlow, Selby (Jet and

Commended, Messrs. Coultas and Son, Spittlegate, Gran

Itham.
Dr. Trip-blacks).
Second £5, W. Angas, Neswick, Driffield (blacks).

Coru, turnip, and small seed drills, the prize of £5, Messrs. Highly commended.-J. Simpson, Thormanby (Prince and

Coultae and Son, Spittlegate, Grantham. Farmer-blacks).

Commended, Messrs. Hollis and Son, Witney.

Two ridge drills for turnip and mangold seed, the prize of Hackney Gelding or Mare not less than four and not ex. ceeding six years old.— Prize £5, C. Swarbreck, Thirsk (ches | £3, J. Barker, Dunuington, York.

Two ridge drills for turnip and mangold seed and artificial ). Highly commended.-G. Holmes (for grey); co m ended

manure, the prize of £3, J. Coultas, jun., Spittlegate, G. Holmes (for brown).

Grantham. Hunter, Gelding, or Mare, four years old.-Prize £10, J.

Drills for water and liquid manure, the prize of £3, Messrs. Hall, Scarborough (bay gelding, by Clumsy).

R. and J. Reeves, Bratton, Westbury.

Artificial manure distributors, the prize of £3, Messrs. R. Highly commended.-J. B. Booth (Beechwood); commended, W. H. Clarke, Howden; J. Fendall, Northallerton ;

and J. Reeves, Bratton, Westbury. T. L. Bickers, Tadcaster; G. R. Hebron, Broughton; and R.

Horse rakes for corn, the prize of £3, Messrs. Ashby and

Co., Stamford.
Botterill, Garton.
Hunter, Gelding, or Mare, six years old and upwards.-

Horse rakes for bay, the prize of £3, the Busby Implement First prive £10, W. C. Atkinson, Barrowby Hail, Leeds Company, Newton-le-Willows, Bedale. (brown, by Rowland).

Two-horse waggons, the prize of £3, Messrs, A. and E. Second £5, Col. G. Campbell, Harrowgate (Squirrel).

Crosskill, Beverley. Highly commended.-C.'s. Maynard, Harewood (Colleen

Siogle borse carts, the prize of £5, the Busby Implement Bawn).

Company, Newton-le-Willows, Bedale. Special Prize (by Lord Wenlock) for the best five years old

Silver Medals to Woods and Cockredge, Stowmarket, for Hunter, Mare, or Gelding, warranted sound, and to possess

two-horse power engine; Hanco:k, Tipton, for butter machine.

Highly commended.--Dove, York, for general assortment not less than three crosses of blood.- First prize £20, R. Botterill, Garton (Emerald Isle).

of implements; Messrs. Mitton, Perry, and Co., Lincoin, for Second £5, R. Botterill (Enchantress).

corn screen; Puckering and Co., Beverley, for market cart; Commended.-C. W. Jenner, Hurmanby, Filey.

Rider and Co., Leeds, for cheap iron fencing; Marton and Extra Stock. --Silver Medal to G. Leeman, York, for a pony;

Co., Leeds, for iron fencing. and to W. Styan, Newton-on-Ouse, for roadster mare Jessie.

Commended.-Dixon and Sons, Hull, for a collection of Highly commended.-W. H, Granit, Thornville, for mare

seeds ; Coleman and Sons, . Chelmsford, for potato digger ; pony Pergy; commended, Sir G. O. Wombwell, Bart., for

Bradford, London and Manchester, for a barrel churn; Pratt

Brothers, Ripon, for horse shoes; Pieksley and Sims, for bone pony Midnight. WOOL.

rasping mill; Tonge, druggist, York, for sheep dipping and JUDGE : T. G. Clayton, Stainley Hall, Riple

watering composition; Summerscales and Son, Keighley, for

washing machine. LONG WOOL.

The premiums for steam ploughs and steam cultivators Five hogg fleeces, the prize of £5 to T. C. and J. B. Booth, were withdrawn, but Mr. J. C. Morton, Streatley, Reading, Killerby.

was selected by the Society to give his report on the trialo.

It

should

say

Out of

THE ANNUAL MEETING

who told him he could grow 100 tons of swedes to the acre of the society was held on Wednesday, at the Guildhall, Mr. (laughter and cries of " No, no"). He was afraid he was H. 8. Thompson, M.P., presiding. Deputations were re

rather incredulous. His friend showed him some very fine ceived by the Council from towns in the North Riding, which turnips, and he found some that would weighi a stone. had invited the society to hold its next meeting there

was quite true that it was so. He (the Chairman) should South Stockton, Middlesbro', and Richmood. The Secre- say that on the average they would weigh eight or pine tary also stated that applications had been received from pounds; and he said at the time, “What as to the 100 tons Yarm, Redcar, Whitby, and Doncaster. Upon a division

per acre?" His friend said it was very easy to make out there were fifteen votes for South Stockton, and only seven

that there were 22,000 plants to the acre, and if they only for Middlesbro', and the meeting next year will therefore be weighed seven pounds, that made seventy tons to the acre; at the former place. The Earl of Zetland was appointed pre

and if they could only get an average of ten pounds, that sident for the ensuing year ; Sir George Wombwell, Bart.,

was 100 tons to the acre. It seemed very easy, in that and Mr. H. S. Thompson were chosen vice-presidents, in the

way. He asked his friend when he had got 100 tons per room of Lord Bolton and Earl Cathcart ; and the following

acre if he would be kind enough to let him know. llis noblemen and gentlemen were added to the Council, in the friend afterwards said it was not that year, the fly had been place of those retiring by rule, viz., Lord Bolton, Earl Cath

so bad ; another year he said the wire-worm had been decart, Hon. G. Lascelles, Mr. P. Saltmarshe, Mr. G. Swann stroying them; and a third year he said owing to the con(York), Mr. J. Sugden (Keighley), Mr. R. J. Bentley (Fin

founded seedsman they could not come up well. His friend ningley Park), Mr. J.W. Childers (Cantley), Mr. T. P. Outh

lived to a good old age, and without growing his 100 tons, waite, Mr. J. B. Faviell (Stockeld Park), and the Hon. W. E.

or 50. He could not see they were able to grow more to Duncombe, M.P. Mr. T. E. Parrington was elected steward, did then. Had they done nothing? So far from that, he

the acre on highly-farmed land in a good season than they vice Mr. B, Nicholson, who retires.

it had been proved by facts that there had been no period since the beginning of the world in which such

real gradual agricultural improvements had been realized THE DINNER

as within the last quarter of a century. They had not inTook place on Wednesday afternoon, at the De Grey indeed. Good stock was much more diffused than it was,

creased the maximum, but they had the average very much Rooms, covers being laid for 200. Mr. H. S, THOMPSON,

and it was much more rare to see bad stock. How had M.P. (the president of the Association), occupied the chair, these very great improvements been effected ? Very much supported by the Lord Mayor of York, Earl Cathcart, Lord by the change efected in our means of cultivation, and Herries, the Hon.

W. E. Duncombe, M.P., Colonel Smyth, greatly to the improved intelligence of the farmers. During M.P., Mr. B. T. Woodd, M.P., Mr. W. Morrison, M.P., Mr. J, D. Dent, M.P., Lord Wenlock, Lord Bolton, Mr. W.J.S.

the period to which he had alluded the whole machinery of

their farms had been changed. When they first framed Morritt, M.P., Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart., M.P., Mr. J. Greenwood, M.P., and the City Sheriff.

their prizes for this society, they were anxious to make

them such as would promote agricultural improvement. In the course of the evening the CHAIRMAN gave What did they offer for the different classes of things? * Success to the Yorkshire Agricultural Society,". This He was surprised to find that they offered £124 for stock, Society had now been established since 1837.

It was

£80 for written reports, about £60 or $70 for misin this month in 1837, when the Society first met in cellaneous things, and for implements £30, York for the purpose of organizing a Yorkshire Agri- £600 they offered in prizes, £30 were offered for implecultural Society. Since that time, of the Council, which con- ments. That showed the appreciation of the comparative sisted of twenty-eight members, sixteen had died, and there importance of stock and implements. This year they had were twelve remaining, and out of these twelve eight were offered £250 for implements, and the increase in the still on the Council, thus showing that the earlier promoters number exhibited had far exceeded the proportion of and supporters of this society bad continued to give their sup- £250 to £30. They had seen the rise of steam machinery port so long as health and strength would allow them. The altogether. The first steam thrashing machine ever exSociety had existed for twenty-five years—a quarter of a cen- hibited was at Hull, in 184). It was the fourth show they tary-and it would be interesting briefly to review their pro- held, and many people on that occasion were very careful ceedings, and see wbat, in that time, they had really accom- how they went near that machine, as they thought it was plished. Before saying what they had accomplished, be might | dangerous to be in the hands of farmers. There was a say a few words on what they had not accomplished. They great number of smoky engines now in their show yard, were young and enthusiastic as farmers wben they formed and the wish was now to get near them whilst at work. that society. In the course of that time they had endeavoured Steam thrashing machines, he was happy to say, were to promote agricultural improvement in every form, but one now more common than hørse thrashing machines. Look of the things they had not been able to do, they expected at the steam plough. Many present, no doubt, had an they should have been able to do, was to raise the standard opportunity of seeing the steam plough at work within of produce either in the way of stock or crops. He had been the last few days. What was its position at the present a constant attender at the meetings of this Society and others,

He should say the problem of the successful and he must give it as his unhesitating opinion that they had effectual cultivation of the land was solved. They could not raised their standard of perfection in the best animals or effectually cultivate the land by steam machinery. As best crops beyond what they could do twenty-five years ago. to the question of economy, he thought the cost of the He did not wish to be misunderstood. He would say un- most economic application of that power to this purpose hesitatingly that the prize animals shown by Earl Spencer, the was making rapid progress. Year by year the expense of Booths, Mr. Bates, and others, were as good animals as were it, the wear and tear, and other expenses attending the shown now by Mr. Booth, Mr. Fawkes, and others. He application of steam power was being reduced, and in a thought the prize animals were quite as good then as they

years it appeared likely that steam ploughs would were now. Well, then, in reference to the crops. It was be as common as steam thrashing machines. He did very common to grow five quarters an acre, and it was not not say that steam ploughing was now in such a position unusual to grow six, and what more could be done at this day? as to render it advisable for farmers to introduce it upon If more was grown by any one, he hoped they would come their farms. Land, however, could effectually be ploughed and ask him to see it. He believed they had not raised their | by steam, und in a few years he thought it could economistandard at all, either in cattle or crops, beyond those days, cally as well as effectually be cultivated by steam. He felt but tbey expected to do a great deal in that way. They had it was only fair to ask who were the men who had brought

little smattering of agricultural chemistry, and they the question to its present position. Steam ploughs did thought they knew if the land was too rich down went not make themselves, and they ought not to turn their backs the crop and injured the quality and quantity, and that they on the men who had fought the battles, and brought the would be able to find out what to administer to grow large question to its present position. The two men who had erops to the acre. What had they done to increase the pro- borne the bront of the battle were Messrs. Fowler and duce per acre in roots on the best farms and in the best Smith. In proposing the toasts, he should beg leave to ask seasons? He had a great friend he often used to go to see, the company to drink their liealths, and he would now say

moment ?

few

publicly that he thought they were exceedingly indebted to carried ont at Pickering, and he was convinced it would be a them. After referring to their perseverence, the Chairman boon if the horses could be seen walked round here. He had to said he was happy to tell them that the manufacturers of propose “ The health of the council and officers of the society," Mr. Fowler's plough had, since the 1st of January, sent who had proved that day that they were equal to their work, out forty-five complete sets oí engines and apparatus, the and had succeeded in making that meeting a success. He great majority of which were in the hands of Englishmen. coupled with the toast the names of Iord Bolton and Mr. He would next allude to the importance of covering farm- Hannam. yards. He had tried it himself, and having found its great value, he had made one for a tenant at his express request.

Lord BOLTON, on the part of the council, responded ; and The greatly improved value of the manure was such that Mr. Hannam, alluding to the show of horses in the field, whoever tried it would never be without it in future, and said the idea had been given to him a week or two ago, by he felt perfectly satisfied it would improve the means of Mr. Dent, and it had been his full endeavour to attempt fertilizing the land fully twenty-five per cent.

The cost

to carry it out, but it had been prevented, from his was scarcely appreciable when they were making farm- having been unable, from a press of other matters, to give it steads, but if they had it to do entirely new it would cost his personal superiotendence. A regulation had, however, about 5s. per square yard. His toast was “Success to the been made by which it would be carried out on Friday, when Yorkshire Agricultural Society.” They had achieved, he the horses would be shown in the judges' ring (applaure). thought, a considerable measure of success, and he thought

Col. SMYTH, M.P., said he had the honour to propose, a set of Englishmen never had a good cause in hand they “ The Healths of the Local Committee," of which the did not make answer. The cause they had in hand was Lord Mayor was the Chairman. He (Col. Smyth) was happy one which was worthy the attention and the exertions of

to see that the implements came there in such large numEnglishmen, for it was no less than that of providing food bers, and though he saw the show at Battersea, he would and employment for the whole nation.

say

that their show was a better one in many respects, and Lord WENLOCK proposed “ The health of the President especially in horses. Though on these occasions political of the Society.” He did so with pleasure, because of that subjects were forbidden, he would just make a passing gentleman's practical knowledge and skill as a farmer, and allusion to the abolition of the bop duty. They were not because he had for twenty-five years assisted in conducting hop growers in York, but they could sympathize with those to its present pitch of success the Yorksbire Agricultural who did grow. He hoped that the repeal of this aúty Society. They had heard that day that he wrote the first would in a short time be followed by the repeal of the duty letter in favour of that society; and they might therefore on malt. Many people would tell them that every tas of call him its founder. The success which had attended the this description was paid by the consumer, but there was society showed how thoroughly well he had understood the never a greater fallacy than the supposition that the tex subject of agriculture, and how thoroughly well he had paid by the consumer did not also fall upon the producer. worked was evidenced by the increasing number of entries. With regard to the toast before them he said he had to They all there like himself owed their position to the pros- thank the Lord Mayor, Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. Foster, and a perity of agriculture in England. There could be no doubt number of others for their hard work, and he hoped that that he (Lord Wenlock) was entirely dependent on it, for many years would not elapse before they had another meethe owed to it everything he enjoyed in this life. And a ing there, when he hoped that the horses shown would be very happy position he found himself in-delighting as he put through some jumping. did to see it prosper more and more. There was nothing Mr, DUNCOMBE gave

The Successful Exhibitors," for so pleasant to the landlord as to see the tenant farmer whom Mr. Borton briefly responded. saving money. No person was worthy the name of a landlord who did not look 'upon the prosperity of the tenant as

Mr. J. D. DENT, M.P., in proposing " The Health of the of much more importance than his own. Therefore it was

Judges," remarked upon the success of the show, and the that he said that every landlord rejoiced in the prosperity of

new feature which had been alluded to of better showing off his tenant. And the practical knowledge which their pre. woolled sheep, which were the only failing classes, it would

the horses. He then suggested that for Cotswold and shortsident had brought to bear had been to show how tenant

be better not to offer prizes, as they were not indigenous farmers could prosper by a better knowledge of stock and farming. Without referring to the president's private

to this part of the country. With the toast he coupled the virtues, he would merely add, tha though Mr. Thompson

name of Mr. Stratton, who, in responding, said that twenty had been connected with the society for 25 years, this was

years ago he had the curiosity to come and witness the the first occasion on which he had held the office of presi doings of that society, and the magnificent shorthorns he dent, and he therefore asked them to drink his health for

then saw had greatly stimulated him in what he himself

had been able to accomplish. the reasons he had mentioned, and for his efforts to promote the success of the present show.

Earl Cathcart said that their worthy president in his reThe CHAIRMAN briefly responded.

view of the results of that society had left untouched one

matter which had his (Earl Cathcart's) hearty sympathy-he Mr. W. 8. MORRITT, M.P., said it was his duty to meant the progress of the agricultural labourer. There was propose to them one of the most important, if not the most never a time when the agricultural labourer enjoyed such a important toast of the evening, representing, as it did, a body state of prosperity as now. Everything to the labourer was of no less thau forty or fifty gentlemen. Now, they were now cheap, and whilst they rejoiced in such a state of prosthere to promote agriculture in all its branches--to promote perity might they not picture to themselves the once happy the improvement of implements of all sorts, and to improve homes of honest industry in Lancashire ? Could they sit and the breed of horses-and in promoting these objects he thought are sumptuously without thinking of the position of thouit was incumbent on every gentleman who came there to be sands of excellent hard working men suffering from the pangs an exhibitor if he possibly could. He should not let a false of unsatisfied hunger. Let each of them, he said, be up that modesty prevent bim from exhibiting because he thought he they might have the opportunity of relieving tbeir brethren had not an animal good enough; but he should bring what he in Lancashire. The chairman had referred to the good which had and exhibit it. And he therefore proposed that those bad been done to the farmer by the establishment of railways; gentlenen who formed the council of the society should, every but surely that sentiment might also be applied to the farm one of them, be exhibitors. He believed that the officers of labourer. It had been said that the engine of Stephenson that society had carried out the minulia (the arrangements) was the cultivator of the minds of all, and it surely must then in a manner which was most satisfactory to every person pre- bave improved the minds of the labourers, With regard to seut. One thing, however, had struck him--that the ground statutes, a good deal bad, without due consideration, been said which he had been round that afternoon, if the society went and done by good meaning men. They might, he thought, on increasing, would be too small for it. Since he had been be improved, but they could not be done away with. And there, a person bad mentioned to him a fact which would be reverting to the subject of railways, he would add that they popular on balf-crown days, that the horses should be led out had done more for these statute fairs than could be well and shown as at Battersea. The secretary, however, had said imagined, in taking servants away by four or five o'clock in that the ground would not admit of that. He had seen the the afternoon, in place of leaving them from their home for a idea (which was a very wise conception of Mr. Parrington's) | whole night. He congratulated the society upon having establisbed prizes for improvements in agricultural cottages. | kindly words and a fair hearing. He concluded by proposing Designs had thus been obtained, many of which bad been “The Labouring Classes." carried out. Whenever they wished to make the people de- Mr. W. MORRISON, M.P., then gave “The Ladies ;" after cent, he argued that they should give them decent which, on the suggestion of the Chairman, three cheers were dwellings, and they should besides this, give the la- given for Messrs. Fowler and Smith, the inventors of steam bourer their sympathy, not merely in pecuniary gifts, but in | ploughs.

SHEEP AND SHEPHERDING.

When discussing in a former paper how the fluids "Aukes in the liver to get fat" is tenfold more objectionof the body are influenced by unwholesome food in able when examined from a physiological point of view. illustration of rot, the consideration of two topics—the Whether we take the practice of Bakewell, in illustraone, the fatty period of this malady experienced when tion of our subject, or that of the Arabs of the Nile of the sheep are first put upon such food; and the other, the present day, or both, the sheep, before it is put upon the restoration of flocks to health when put upon sound her- unwholesome grass, is admitted to be healthy; but the bage-were both postponed to a future occasion. The day it begins to eat abundantly of such food, the fatty former of these two topics we shall now proceed to period of the disease commences, the same in this country examine, after having taken a general survey of both, to as in Egypt. For a time, although heavy and dull, the show their relation.

animal eats heartily, and rapidly increases in weight. ByIn order to show the collateral relation, so to speak, and-by, however, as the digestive functions gradually give the two examples bear to one another, and how they har- way, a growing prostration of strength is manifested, monize with what was said in the previous article above nerves, muscles, and fluids losing their normal tonicity. referred to, we have in the first place to observe that the But whenever such symptoms begin to manifest them. fatty period of the disease exemplifies the first departure selves, the daily waste upon the body increases more rafrom a healthy state of blood, lymph, and other fluids, to pidly, or at an accelerated rate, while the consumption of that of an abnomal type, such as was shown to be pro- food, on the contrary, decreases : consequently, the animal duced by unwholesome, washy herbage; and, in the second then begins to lose weight. Bakewell records his expeplace, we have to show that a return to health is neither rience at this critical period, by informing his readers how more nor less than the reverse of the former- the gradual | he watched it with great anxiety, and sent his rotten sheep restoration of the fluids to their normal condition, with the to the shambles the moment it began to fail in making natural performance of their respective functions in the progress in weight, or to fall off in its feed. The Arabs do animal economy. There is thus, it will be seen, a very the very same thing, but, unfortunately, have less reason wide difference between the two divisions into which the to boast of their success; for they annually lose large remainder of the subject thus divides itself. But, although numbers of their sheep. this is manifest, yet in both cases chemical results har- We have here a very plain question in hygiene, the unmonize with their chemical causes-the bad quality of food wholesome character of the food accounting satisfactorily, on the one hand agreeing with the bad health of a rotten chemically as well as physiologically, for the peculiar nasheep, and the naturally highly-condimental food of the ture of the disease. In the previous article (No. VIII.) it sheep of the Arab in the desert, on the other hand, with was shown that the washy food supplied the extra quan. its normal state of tonicity of nerve, muscle, and fuids, tity of water to the system; that it also contained an excess so essentially necessary for its active mountain habits, and of fat-forming element; but that it was deficient of those the finely-flavoured and easily-digested meat which it albuminous, colouring, and condimental properties that yields for our tables.

give strength, colour, and tonicity to blood, nerve, and The accounts found in agricultural works of the fatty muscle. Those elementary substances of which the food period of rot are very meagre and unsatisfactory; while | is thus deficient, account satisfactorily for those substances the conduct of Mr. Bakewell and other farmers, who have of which the fluids and the flesh are deficient; while those followed the practice of rotting their sheep purposely to substances wbich the food contains in excess, account for promote the accumulation of flesh and fat more rapidly, is those substances which the fluids and the flesh, including highly discreditable to them in a professional sense. The the adipose tissue, contain in excess; and they not only do so soundness of the former of these conclusions is too mani. as to quantity, but also as to quality, the principal increase fest to require any exposition. The latter is almost equally of weight consisting of the excess of water that pervades so, for the mutton of sheep thus fed is so unwholesome as the flesh and crude fatty matter of rotten mutton. The to be wholly unfit for human food. In principle the prac juice of healthy, well-fed mutton is not only rich in colour, tice, if not criminal, is in direct contravention of the spirit but sufficiently viscous in consistency to adhere to the of all those statutes recently enacted by the Legislature fibrous texture of the meat when cut up. But in cutting relative to sanitary improvement in the dietetic economy up the flesh of a rotten sheep, the water follows the of the people. Even those who take the most favourable knife. The adipose membrane and its contents are of an view of Bakewell's objectionable practice, admit that the equally unhealthy and abnormal character. That there is quality of the mutton thus fed is very inferior both as to a very great diversity in the quality of such meat, is not colour and flavour, the lean and fat being soft, yellow, and surprising; and the fact is easily accounted for, from the flabby.

differences in the quality of the food consumed, as well as If the account given of the nature or diagnosis of this from retarded calorification (there being less fat-forming stage of the disease is far from satisfactory, its cause, or matter consumed in this process during rot than in health, attribution to fluke in the liver, is tenfold more so. The so that the difference goes to increase the weight of the uneducated and unphilosophical mind, it is true, is fond of carcase), and from the period or stages of the disease at the marvellous. But, although such an apology may be which different animals are slaughtered. And to these pleaded in behalf of our unsophisticated ancestors, it can. must be added also constitutional differences. Again, the not be fairly received in justification of the liver-fluke progress of the disease is more rapid in warm summers doctrines of our modern veterinarians; for the chemical than in cold-in Egypt than in England; and this also changes which we see exemplified in the extra quantity will affect the quality of the meat, as during the obese and deteriorated quality of the mutton can only be ac. period a waste of muscular tissue takes place. In all these counted for by chemical causes capable of producing them. cases, the raw materials and the weather sufficiently acAnd this is more than the potent wand of the alchymist of count for the quality of the manufactured article. the olden time could attribute to flukes in the liver or in With regard to the rationale of the fat-forming process, any other part of the body; and, besides the chemical that is a physiological question as well as a chemical one, question at issue, we shall soon find that the doctrine of which must be solved by natural data consistent with the

animal economy. There can be nothing mysterious or whose vitality in warm rotting weather is often very much magical about the matter; for Nature cannot manufacture depressed, and the consequent small quantity of the fatfat without the elements of fat, any more than can bread forming material taken into the system that is thereby conbe made without flour. We have seen that she has an sumed in the work of keeping up the temperature of the abundance of the raw materials, that these are of an in.body, thus leaving more than the normal proportion of it ferior quality, and that the fat produced is also of a very to be used up in the increase of carcase weight. Then inferior kind; and when we come to discuss, in another follows the long catalogue of elementary substances, of article, the second head of the general subject, we shall which the food is deticient, but which is daily required as find that, when Nature receives an abundant supply of raw the natural stimuli of all the organs of the body-so that materials, of a superior quality, she then produces a su. when we begin to examine these individually, not a single perior quality of rich "blooming fat," as the Metropolitan organ of the whole living fabric is found to be supplied butchers call it. There is nothing unreasonable in all with its natural stimulus ; hence the manner they graduthis, but the contrary. As to the deposition of fat in the ally cease to perform their respective functions healthily, system, that is the peculiar function of the adipose even when not affected by any other cause from within or organs; and whenever there is an extra stimulus applied, from without, as formerly noticed. there is, as a matter of course, an extra secretion or depo. Of the various organs of the body thus deprived of part of sition of fat. But of this more afterwards.

their natural stimuli, it will only be necessary for us to notice Under certain diseased conditions of the adipose system, three-viz., the liver, the adipose organs, and those organs however—as polysarcia, or obesity-there is an unnatural that supply the flesh with the juice tbet forms so large an disposition to deposit extra quantities of inferior fat, some. element in the increase of the carcase weight of a rotten times very unequally, in the adipose tissue. Not unfre- sheep. quently it is found in parts of the body where it should The blood, as it flows into the capillaries of the liver from not be deposited, as in the lymphatics; and as the the intestines, supplies the bile-secreting apparatus with the diagnosis of the fatty period of rot bears a close resem. elements of the bile. As was formerly shown, this secreting blance to that of obesity in the human body in several apparatus consists of innumerable tubular cell-vessels, each of respects, the question naturally arises, Do the two-the which is an organ for the elaboration and secretion of bile. fatty period of rot in sheep, and obesity in man-belong Each of these organs has, when in health, the power of selectto the same class of diseases?

ing its food, the elements of the bile, from the blood, and of It is not, however, & question in nosology that we have elaborating these into bile as they pass through its structure, taken up the pen to discuss, but one in the dietetics and and also of discharging this raw bile into the small ducts, general management of our fiocks. When examined from where it undergoes further changes as it flows onwards to the the former point of view, there are, no doubt, a long list of gall-bladder. These elements form the natural stimulus of diseases that the unwholesome food in question may pro- the secreting organs. This stimulus is taken in at the one end duce, and actually do produce, according to predisposing of the organ and discharged at the other. The process is causes existing within the system, or to management and partly mechanical, partly chemical; but beyond this, very other causes from without, to which the sheep is exposed. little is yet known of its true character, "Doctors differ”; At the same time, when the food consumed is of such a and they are very much divided on this, and on the structural quality as to produce disease, as the fatty stage of rot ma- anatomy of these secreting organs. If the newly-absorbed nifestly is, the pathological question cannot altogether bechyle supplies the blood with an excess of the elements of avoided.

bile, it will naturally stimulate the secreting organs to make a In a work recently published by authority of the corresponding extra quantity of bile; and if deficient of stimuAmerican Chemical Institute, on " Positive Medical lus, vice versa. Some of our readers are probably experiAgents," it is laid down as an axiom in dietetics, that "No mentally acquainted with the soundness of both these concluorgan can perform its natural function healthily, for any sious, derangement of the liver being very general. length of time, when any part of its natural stimulus is During the fatty period of rot under investigation, the large withdrawn.” When examined in this light, the subject quantity of food consumed requires a corresponding increase of unwholesome food in question is in the highest degree in the supply of bile from the gall-bladder, along with the interesting; for during the first stage of rot this food in. pancreatic juices. To counterbalance this it supplies the blood creases the weight of the sheep more rapidly than does with a corresponding increase of chyle. This chyle, however, other foods of a superior quality; while, at the same time, is abnormal. It contains, for example, an excess of certain it is slowly but surely undermining the health of the whole elements of bile, but a deficiency of the others; so that alsystem. There is thus more than one anomaly in each of though the quantity of fresh bile made to feed the gall-bladder the two examples. In both cases-in health as in the dis- corresponds with what it discharges into the duodenum, yet the ease under consideration—the increase in weight, sup-quality is inferior ; ditto ditto as regards the parcreatic juice. posing the sheep full grown, consists in the filling up of This is the peculiar characteristic of the disease as regards the the flesh with juice and the adipose tissue with fat. But quantity and quality of the bile at the commencement or it must always be borne in mind that, besides this twofold during the fatty stage of it, and therefore it merits special atprocess of increase, there is a living organism to repair tention. Indeed medical writers are agreed that in and maintain, upon which there is a very heavy daily obesity the secretious are defective. For a time the waste; add to these the combustion of a large amount of injurious effects produced upon the duodenal digestion certain elements of the food in keeping up the heat of the

may be swall; but as the wedge thus entered grabody, or in the calorification of the system, and the reader dually increases in thickness, the sheep ultimately falls off will readily be able to form some conception of the depth its feed, the cbyle becomes not only deteriorated in quality, of complexity with which this part of the subject is sur- but deficient in quantity, less and less and worse and rounded.

worse bile being made by the liver, whether it is infested with It is no doubt this complication of circumstances, upon fluke or not. If there are no fluke in the liver, the disease many of which Physiology is only just now but beginning may assume what is usually termed water-rot. This is the to shed the first rays of light, that has kept the fatty stage more common type, but there are many others. The moment of rot, and even the disease in all its devastating entirety, Auke enter, and begin to irritate the mucous membrane that from first to last, so deeply wrapt up in obscurity, that in lines the biliary ducts, the mechanical and nervous action thus the darker ages gave rise to so many superstitious notions, raised will retard the secretion of bile, thereby increasing inand that has been instrumental in handing down so many digestion, and consequently the intensity of the morbid action fallacious opinions to the present generation.

experienced throughout the system. At first the extra disThe first thing that is likely to strike the eye of the charge of mucus, which trematode animalcules naturally induce chemist and physiologist, in the examination of such food from their ciliated action, would no doubt counteract this irriand its utilization in the animal economy, is the excess of tation and retardation of biliary secretion, especially as it is set water and fat-forming material that go to increase the up at a distance from the bile-secreting organs. But as fluke weight of the carcase, especially when the extra quantity increase in size, and interfere with the secreting organs, the latter of it that is daily consumed during the fatty period is would perform their functions less perfectly, or cease altogetaken into the calculation.

The second thing that conspi- ther. In point of fact they are generally partially obliterated, cuously invites attention is the dulness of the animal, or cease to exist, the coats of the duets becoming changed,

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