« EelmineJätka »
B. Wainman, Leeds, silver medal or £2; second to ditto, Churn, R. Tinkler, Penrith, silver medal. Haymaker, T, silver medal or $1.
W. Ashby, Stamford, silver medal. Horse hay rake, E.
Page, silver medal. Liquid manure cart, Richmond and IMPLEMENTS.
Chandler, silver medal. Reaping machine, 1st M'Cormick (American) silver medal and £15; 2nd Picksley, Sims, and Co., Leigh, silver medal and £5; C. Gardener, Lindsay, and Co., Stirling. Mowing MEDALS: Whitehead, Preston, tile machine and table. machine, 1st J. Helmn, Hutton (Woods), silver medal; and Clarke, Preston, a miscellaneous assortment of macbine. 2nd J. Blundell, Crooke Hall, Chorley (M'Cormick's), silver made draining tiles. Page and Co. Bedford, a combined medal and £5. Thrashing machine, W. S. Underbill, New- horse hoe, moulding plough, and scuffler; a new patent port, Salop, silver medal and £10. Winnowing machine, horizontal brick, draining and sewer pipe, and tile meJ. Richardson, Carlisle, silver medal. Swing plough, chine, in one die, cutting off apparatus complete; whippleThomas Lazenby, Leyland, silver medal. Wheel plough, trees. Bradshaw, Blackburn, an assortment of terra cotta T. Lazenby, silver medal Pair-horse grubber, Picksley, ornamental vases, flower stand, statuary, &c. : double Sims, and Co., silver medal. Corn drill, Picksley, Sims, cavity pots for vines, and double propagating pots. Brockand Co, silver medal. Digging machine, T. Lazenby, sil. shaw, Market Drayton, a No. 1 patent elevator, and a No. ver medal. Pair of heavy harrows, E. Page and Co., 2 ditto. Howorth, Farnworth, patent revolving ArchimeBedford, silver medal. Pair of light harrows, E. Page and dean-screw ventilators. Barton and Son, Carlisle, basket Co, silver medal. Horse hoe on ridge, T. Lazenby, silver cars, Carlisle dog car, Victoria car, Boothman, Gisburn, meilal. Turnip drill on ridge-withheld for want of merit. patent beehive, honey-extracting machine, and wax-refining One-horse cart, Lee and Jackson, Paddiham, silver medal. apparatus. O'Connell, Bury, a mechanical contrivance for Corn crushers for feeding purposes, Richmond and Chan. supplying nourishment to calves. Sampson Moore, West dler, Salford, silver medal. Pulper, Johnson and Whitta- Derby, hen coop. Marshall and Sons, Gainsborough, cir. ker, Leigh, silver medal; H. C. Picksley, Sims, and Co. cular sawing bench. Highly commended: John Ains. Oiliake bruiser, Johoson' and Whittaker. Cutting ma- cough, Preston, circular saw bench, portable farm boiler, chine, T. and F. Radcliffe, Manchester, silver medal. cheese press, pair of patent blocks and chain, stable pillar Turnip cutter, Johnson and Whittaker, silver medal. I and rails, manger, rack, pig trough, garden chains.
LEOMINSTER AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION.
THE ANNUAL SHOW AND DINNER.
The twenty-fifth annual meeting of this association took , value of £5 B, Mr. James Taylor, Stretford. For the second place on Thursday, Sept. 4, the show of stock being held in best in this class, £3 81., Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor. A sweep the Mount Pleasant Meadow, at the Bargate,
stakes of 3 sovs. each, with 20 sovi, added for the best buil,
cow, and offspring of the Hereford breed, open to all Eng. The Judges were—Mr. Samuel Urwick, Leintball ; Mr. land.-- First prize, Mr. Thomas Roberto, Irington ; second, R. Roberts, Burrington ; and Mr. James Farr, Wormsley Mr. Thomas Davies, Lady Meadow ; third, Mr. James Taylor,
For the best long-wool ram of any age, £3, Mr. John For the best bull of any age (the gift of the Right Hon. Pinches, Eardisland. For the best short wool ram of any age, Lord Bateman), a cup of the value of £5 58., Mr. Thomas £3, Mr. John Pinches, Eardisland. For the best pen of Roberts, Ivington. For the four best steers (the gift of J. King twenty long-wool ewes, £3, Mr. Charles Vevers, Irington. King, Esq., M.P.), a cup of the value of £5 58., Mr. Henry For the best pen of twenty short wool ewes, £3, Mr. Henry R. Evans, jun., Swanstone. For the four best heifers (the R. Evans, junior, Swanstone. For the ten best long-wool gift of Gathorne Hardy, Esq., M.P.), a cup of the value of yearling wethers, £3, Mr. Charles Vevers, Irington. For the £5 58., Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor. For the four best steers
ten best short wool yearling wethers, £3, Mr. Henry R. Evans, (the gift of the Hon. C. S. B. Hanbury Kincaid Lennox,
PIGS. MP.), a cup of the value of £5 58., Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor. For the four best heifers (the gift of W. 8. Saunders, For the best boar pig, £2, Mr. Thomas Bannister, Draper's Esg.), a cup of the value of £5 os., Mr. George Pitt, Chad Lane, Leominster. nor. For the four best steers (the gift of the Right Hon.
HORSES. Lord Rodney), a cup of the value of £5 58., Mr. Edward
For the beat nag mare and her foal, £3, Mr. John Burlton, Russell, senior, Kingsland. For the best bull (the gift of Luntley. For the best yearling nag colt or filly, £3, Mr. Wil. Lord M. Graham, M.P.), a cup of the value of £5 58., Mr. liam Vevers, Bartestree Court. For the best cart mare and Philip Torner, The Leen, Pembridge ; second, £2 28., Mr: foal, £3, Mr. George Bedford, Hatfield. For the best yearling Charles Vevers, The Park, Ivington. For the best fat cow and heifer (the gift of John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq.), a cup don Court. For the best nag gelding or mare, under five
cart colt or filly, £3, The Right Hon. Lord Bateman, Sbobof the value of £5 58., Mr. Philip Turner, The Leen, Pem- years old, £5, Right Hon. Lord Bateman. bridge. For the best pair of steers (the gift of Humphrey Mildmay, E.q., M.P.), a cup of the value of £5 58., Me.
EXTRA STOCK. George Bedford, Hatfield. For the best lot of breeding cows, or heifers io call, or having bad calves within six months pre- Mr. Henry Edwards, Broadward, 4 bullockı, £l ; Mr. ceding the day of show, and baving been in the possession of George Pitt, Chadnor, 4 heifero, £2; Mr. Joby Thomas, the exbibitor at least ten months previously, in proportion to Cholstrey, 6 breeding cowi, £l; Mr. Edward Hughes, Ledo the quantity of land he occupies, as follows: The occupier of dicott, nag horse, £l. 100 acres, two beasts ; ditto, 200 acres, four beasts ; ditto IMPLEMENTS.-For the best and most useful collection of 800 acres, sis beasts (the gift of the Society), a cup of the agricultural implemento, Mr. Thos. Preece, Leominster, £2.
MANCHESTER AND LIVERPOOL prize £4, to Sir G. R. Philips, Bart. ; second £3, to Rev. C. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.
W. Holbech, Faroborough. Heifers, for breeding purposes,
under 21 months old : first prize £4, to W. Hewer, SevenMEETING AT WARRINGTON, SEPT. 9.
bampton; second £3, to R. Taylor, Kingham. EXTRA STOCK.-Highly commended: Rev. Č. W. Holbech, Fara
borough, for Shorthorn heifer. Commended: J. Pettipher, Open to the United Kingdom. For the best boll above Sıbford Ferris, for fat ox. two and not more than four years old, the prize of £10, to H. Ambler, Watkinson Hall , Halifax (Gamester). For
HORSES. above one and not more than two years old, £8, to H.
Brood mares for breeding hunters: a silver cup, value £5 Ambler (Windsor Augustus). Bull call £4, to T. Atherton 58., to W. Hurlston, Ditchford ; commended, W. Denchfield, of Chapel House, Speke, Liverpool. The Society's Dis- Banbury. Cart mares, with colts : first prize £5, to H. G. trict: To the tenant farmer for the best ball of any breed, Coldicoit, Lower Heyford; second £3, to W. Hurlston, above two and not more than four years old £10, to James Ditchford; commended, W. Wyatt, Marston, St. LawDickinson, of Balcony Farm, Upholland, Wigan (Duke of Cart stallions, the property of tedant farmers, being Wetherby). Open to the United Kingdom: For the best members of one of the societies : a silver cup, value £5, to cow or heifer of any breed, in milk or in calf £6, to Lady W. Root, Chipping Warden. EXTRA STOCK: Highly comPigot, of Branches Park, Newmarket (Pride of Southwike). mended, Rer. C. W. Holbech, Farnborough, for pony. For the best two-year-old heifer of any breed £6, to Solomon Ashton, of Manor Farm, Timperley, near Altrinchem,
SHEEP. (Fanny Fern). For the best yearling heifer of any breed, Southdown rams, of any age : prize of £3, Colonel North, $4, to Lady Pigot (Rosedale). Competition confined to M.P., Wroxton Abbey. Oxfordshire Down shearling rams : the Society's District: To the tenant farmer for the best first prize £4, to J. Druce, Eosbam ; second £2. to Z. W. pair of two-year old heifers of any breed £6, to Thomas Stilgoe, Adderbury Groundo. Oxfordshire Down rams, abuve Forrest, of Spurstow Hall, Tarporley. To the tenant far- 2 years old : first prize £4, to J. Druce ; second £2, to W. mer for the best pair of one-year-old heifers of any breed Hemming, Coldicott. Best Oxfordabire Down ram : prize £6, to T. Forrest.
£3 33., to J, Druce, Eusham. Down rams of any age or The show of horses was not numerous; but for the prizes breed, except Southdown or Oxfordshire Down: prize of £8, offered for draught horses, stallions, thorough-breds, and E. Lythall, Radford, Shropshire Down. Long-woolled shearhunters there was some competition.
ling rams: first prize £4, to W. Eagles, Cropredy; second There were 93 sheep and 64 pigs entered for the various £2, to w. Eagles. Long-woolled ram, above 2 years old : prizes, the whole of which were open to general competi,
first prize £4, to J. H. Langaton, M.P.; second £2, to J. tion. A larger number of animals than usual were marked Gillett, Minster Lovell, Cotswold. Pens of 5 breeding Oxby the judges as "commended" and "highly commended.”
fordshire Down ewes, having bred lambs: first prize £3, to The competition for cheese and butter was very close, as
Z. W. Suilgoe, Adderbury Grounds; second £2, to W. Hemmight readily be supposed
in the case of a show which in ming. Pens of 5 breeding Down ewes, of any breed, except cludes Cheshire in the sphere of its competition. Some
Oxfordshire Downs: prize of £3, to Colonel North, M.P. splendid cheeses were shown, but in some instances the
Best peus of 5 Oxfordshire Down shearling wethers : prize of verdict of the connoisseurs was that they wanted age. The
£3, Z. W. Stilgoe. following were amongst the successful competitors :
- To the person who shall exhibit the best sample Boars, not less than 15 months old : prize of £3, to Sir G: of cheese made on the exhibitor's farm, the cheeses to be R. Philips, Bart.; commended, Rev. Heury G. Baily, Swin. four in number, and not less than 30ibs, weight each, £8 don. Boars, not more than 15 months old : prize of £2, to (open to the United Kingdom), to William Whitlow, J. Druce ; commended, Rev. C. W. Holbech, Farnborough. Lymm, near Warrington. BUTTER.-To the exhibitor Sows, above 15 months and not more than 3 years and 3 (being also the producer) of the best sample of butter, not months old : prize of £2, to w. Herer, Sevenhampton, less than 5lb. weight, made up in half-pounds, £3, to John Sows, not exceeding 15 months old : prize of £2, to Rev. H. Rigby, of Lower Whitley, Northwich.
G. Baily, Swindon ; highly commended, W. Hewer. In addition to the above there were premiums offered for seeds and roots. Amongst the exhibitors of implements
IMPLEMENTS. were Heyworth, Liverpool; Hornsby, Grantham ; Picksley JUDGE 8.-J. Greaves, Elsfield, Oxon. and Sims; Richmond and Chandler ; Greening and Co.;
J, Williams, Northcourt, Abingdon. Johnson and Whittaker ; and Cornes, Nantwich.
Braggins, Banbury, for gates, 10s.; Kirby and Barrows, Banbury, for Howard's steam cultivatiog apparatus and engines, £5; Nalder and Nalder, Wantage, for thrashing machine and Robey's steam engine, £2; Gardner, Banbury, for
collection of implements, £4; Allgood, Banbury, for col. OXFORDSHIRE AND BANBURY AGRI- lection of implements, £3; Mason, Prior's Marston, for borse CULTURAL SHOW.
hoe, 108.; Gilbert, Shippon, Abingdon, for drills, £l.
FEEDING OF HORSES.—The good appearance of a
team of horses affords a fair criterion of the character of the W. Shaw, Far Coton, Northampton.
master, and also of the man in charge. In vain will the CHAMPION PRIZE.- For the best horned animal in the owner allow good food in sufficient quantity, unless the yard : a silver cup, value 5 gs., J. H. Langston, M.P. Bulls, horses are fed at proper intervals. All good horse-keepers Dot less than 2 years and 3 months old : first prize £7, to H. are early risers, by which two essential ends are gained. Hall, Sesswell's Barton ; second £3, to G. Garne, Churchill viz., the time between the last evening and the first morn. Heath. Bulls, not more than 2 years and 3 months old ; ing feed is not too long, and ample time is allowed for feedfirst prize £5, to J. H. Langston, M.P.; second £3, to R. ing and digestion to go on before the horses are put to Hever, Sandhill Shrivenham. Bulls, under 15 months old : work in the morning. Moreover, another common, bad, a silver cap, value £5 58., to J. H. Langston, M.P. Balls, custom, viz., that of giving superfluous quantities of bay not moro tban 2 years old, the property of tenant farmers, overnight, should be avoided. All the bay placed before being members of one of the societies : a silver cup, horses, in other respects well fed, should be eaten up within value £5 5s., to R. Hewer, Sandhill, Shrivenbam. Cows of two or three hours of its being given, 80 that they have any age, io milk : prize of £6, to Sir G. R. Philips, Bart., several hours to rest, digest, and prepare for the morning Weston House. Heifers, under 8 years old, in call: first ! feed.-Mr. Gamgee, Sen., in the Edinburgh Vet. Review.
STRAW AND GRASSES.
Some notices have lately appeared on the subject of ruminant animals; many are puny in habit and diminustraw as food, with a reference to grasses in relation. tive in growth, and are soon choked by stronger plants ; The cool climate and genial soils of Scotland and the others are sby in vegetation, and the seed is scanty, and North of England produce straws that contain much the plants do not appear in vigour for some time after sap, arising from the late maturity of the grains. the seed is sown ; while others appear quickly, and deOver the whole of Sco:land oat straws constitute almost cay gradually after enduring for a time, and often disthe whole food of cattle and horses into March, when appear altogether, or yield a very scanty produce. Im hay is used for the working animals. Wheat straws modern husbandry, grasses are used for three perposes: support the work-horses till the spring, when hay and for hay, is a crop of one year; for pastures of several pea straws are introduced ; the straws being relatively years, in alternation with grain and green crops; and superior to the hay, owing to the climate favouring the for making permanent pastures, in imitation of old meaformer, and not the latter article of produce. The dows. For the first purpose, which is chiefly followed milch cows and work-horses get no other provender till on the best lands, the plant is most useful which grows March; the young cattle are wholly maintained with readily and produces the largest number of stems, like straws, and the fattening bullocks are reared into prime grain crops, without growing to a height with a small beef with turnips in cribs and straws in racks. In all number and yielding a coarse produce. For the second these processes the greater part of the straws goes for purpose, of lying two or more years in pasture after the litter, and bence for manure.
first year's crop has been cut for hay, the above menIn the southern counties of England, which in the tioned quality is required, along with a creeping stolopresent case will comprehend the larger half of the king- niferous habit, and a nature that is both perennial and dom, the early maturity of the grain crops hastens the persistent. For the purpose of permanent meadows, growth of the plants; and the aridity of the climate the quickly-productive quality is not so very essential, reduces the culms into sapless reeds of earthy fibre, that though nevertheless very valuable; the persistent are wholly innutritious and useless as food. No work. perennial quality is most absolutely necessary, with an ing animals can be supported on the straws, nor even ample produce of seeds to be annually shed, and a very young cattle reared with the sapless and dried reeds of strong productive power from the roots and the stalks : a benty nature. If the straws are cut into chaff and a nutritive quality is also required, and a fair produce steamed, the original quality is not improved by the of juicy succulent leaves, in order to afford a grateful impregnation of water, which soon evaporates. In such herbage to the animals that live and fatten on the vercases the use of straw is almost wholly confined to the dure of nature. littering of animals, for which purpose it should be cut The following grass plants, six in number, constitute into short lengths by the power of the thrashing ma- those that are useful to the farmer : chinery, which will ensure the convenient mixture with the soil, to which the dung is applied in a fresh condi
2. Meadow fescue. tion. The quality of the beef on Scotch cattle is much
3. Cocksfoot. reduced when the animal is fattened in South Britain,
4. Catstail. and on any food that can be given; if attempted to be done with turnips and straws, as in Scotland, the wide
5. Dogstail. difference will be very apparent in the quality of both
6. Hoxtail. articles—the turnips and the straws, that are produced For the purpose of yielding, a crop of hay in one year. under different climates.
along with red clover, the ray-grass is altogether unAllusion bas been made to the very excellent book equalled by any plant that is yet known, for it senda ap on grasses, entitled “Hortus Gramineus Woburnensis," a number of culms of moderate height, like a grain that was compiled by the labours of Mr. Sinclair and crop, and thereby forms the necessary quantity of proSir Humphrey Davy. However true and undeniable duce; whilst most other grasses, when encouraged by the statements may be in the botanical and chemical cultivation, send up to a height a smaller number of departments, the fact is certain that the work has not culms, which become coarse, and therebly lessen bottt afforded one single practical fact for adoption, and that the quantity and quality of the crop that is produced. no agricultural advantage has been derived, nor will be A most evident and undeniable superiority consists in procured from the laborious production. Spaces of its growing readily on the greatest variety of soils—in ground two feet square, placed under one influence of its perfecting an abundance of sound and healthy seeds, soil and climate, were not capable of establishing any prac- which is gathered with a comparative ease, and in this tical result; the experiments were too confined, and not seed being always of a certain growth. The plant rises sufficiently often repeated—the variations of soil and early in the spring, and is much relished by all kinds of climate were not in attendance, that are so very essen. grazing animals. For the purpose of yielding a crop of tially required in the practice of agriculture. The state- hay, and then remaining two or three years in pasture, ments are not only at variance, but in direct opposition the ray-grass has not found any superior; the readiness to the most enlightened practice and the established ex- of its growth secures a crop of hay, and, when mixed perience on the subject.
with some few earlier and later plants, it affords an: The greater part of the plants that are called “true abundance of her bage in its proper place. For strictly
are wholly useless for agricultural purposes ; permanent purposes, the readiness of growth bas to this the natural qualities and habits, joined with the effects day procured for it a bigh position, as the certainty of of soil and climate, reduce the number of useful plants its growth produces an herbage till other plants arise to to a very small amount, when compared with the large take its place; and even in the best meadows in Britain number that exists. Some plants are coarse, and it is found to maintain its ground. The aftermath is wholly innutritious, and are refused by all kinds of rather small, and some single plant may, be found supe
rior to ray-grass in one or more property ; but there is Chemistry is wholly unable from analysis to ascertain no plant known to us on which the farmer can depend the value of any article as food for an organized body, so much for a crop of hay, and experience has not found for, whatever qualities it may have outside the organism, many, if any, that are more valuable for pastares or they are wholly changed on entering the inside, by conpermanent purposes. When sown with red clover for tact with other bodies of dissimilar properties, and by a crop of bay in one year, three pecks, or one bushel, merging into one vital unity. Whatever properties may are sown on an acre ; for a pasture of two or three appear to the chemist, a widely different condition is years, half a bushel' is reckoned sufficient; and for found in the practical purposes of the farmer. Chemipermanent purposes, one peck is generally used. The cal combinations are quantitative and definite : physioloseeds weigh from 18 to 38ībs. per bushel, and the price gical laws are qualitative and indefinite; and this most varies from 2d. to 4d. per lb. Thirty to forty bushels essential difference will ever keep separate the two of ripened seed are reckoned a fair crop from an acre of principles of action. If this separation were duly reground. The statement in the “Hortus Gramineus garded, much less opposition to nature would be enterWoburnensis," that some grasses are superior to ray, tained on the subject, and a more rational course grass as 9 and 13 to 1, is wholly inadmissible, and must adopted. be reversed in the case of agricultural use, whatever the value may be in the hands of the chemist.
THE SICKLE AND THE SCYTHE. The meadow-fescue grass comes next to ray-grass in sending up a number of level stems, and in likeness to &
BY J. J. L'EAST. grain crop ; but it fails in readiness of growth on a SICKLE.-Another harvest-time is here, variety of soils, and in produce of herbage. The seed
And yet no call for me: is abundant, and easily manufactured ; and the foliage
A useless thing, oh dear! oh dear! is much relished by cattle. The plant is very valuable,
I'm dying of ennui! and stands next to ray-grass for hay of one year, when
Years back, of import great was I,
But now-how very strange ! 6lbs. of seed are sown on an acre, and to remain in pas
Alone and rusty, here I lie, ture for two or three years. For strictly permanent
Oh! what has caused this change? purposes, 2lbs. are used. The seeds weigh about 14lbs. per busbel, and cost 6d. to 9d. per lb.
SCYTHE.-Why, friend, as clear as noontide ray
To any one 't must be, Cocksfoot grass grows in few plants of a tall height,
That ev'ry dog enjoys his day; which are coarse, and ineligible for hay; but for pas
And you've had yours, you see. ture the herbage comes early, and affords a good bite
And now you find an alter'd case from the tufted roots in the spring, and by close stock.
(And properly, friend, too); ing the ground, to keep down the coarse stems. The
For who'd "a barvest” stoop to face, seeds are about 40,000 in an ounce, weigh about 121bs.
With such a tool as you? per busbel, and the price varies from 6d. to 9d. per lb.
SICKLE.-Sir, tho’in favour you, of late, One-fourth of a bushel or 3 to 6lbs. are sown on an
All must admit, have grown; acre for pastures and permanent meadows.
Still you have not much room to prate, Catstail grass thrives on damp lands and under
For it is quite well known moist climates, where the produce is very considerable.
The sheaves from you're not half so neat The stems are coarse, and the growth is not on a large
As when I used to do't; variety of soils; and the foliage is not very much
The stubbles too, tho' cut complete, relished by animals. But it is next to the ray-grass
The sportsman cannot suit. and meadow fescue for general use. Six pounds are SCYTHE.- Perhaps not, but you know, old boy, sown an acre for hay, and four for pastures and
More straw the farmer gets ; meadows. The seeds weigh about 44lbs. per busbel,
So handy when cold winds annoy and cost 6d. to 9d. per lb.
Their stock, and frost and wet. Dogstail grass produces a small quantity of herbage,
And tho' my sheaves are not "so neat
As those were made by you, and is not useful for hay. The foliage is sweet for ani
They better far admit the heat, mals, and the plant grows well on dry arid clays, in
And let the wind blow through. 4lbs. to an acre, and 2lbs. for permanent purposes. The seeds—28,000 in an ounce-weigh about 261bs.
Sickle.-May-be; but in the olden days per bushel, and cost 50s. per cwt.
The wheat was just as good ! Foxtail grass is shy in growth, and is chiefly on damp SCYTHE.-(Aside) How soon he bursts into a blaze ! strong lands. It is of no use for general purposes, but
He'd like to raise my blood. may be sown for permanency, in Albs. to an acre. The
—And ask the gleaners whether they seeds are very light, 76,000 in an ounce, and cost 1s. 6d.
Admire your sweeping reignto 25. 6d. per lb.
Just ask them, whether they will say (The smooth-stalked meadow grass produces a small
That they by you do gain ! bulk of herbage, and is not of ready growth ; and the SCYTHE.-Peace, peace, old friend you should not let rough-stalked meadow grass is confined to damp grounds.
Such angry passions rise ; But both plants may be used, in 2lbs. to an acre, for
'Tis not because your sun has set, permanent purposes.)
That you should me despise. These six plants constitute the most useful grasses ;
The gleaners may your doom regret,
But surely you mistake ;. but no one will nearly equal the ray-grass, if tried along
For 'tis not I who make them fretwith red clover, as that plant has been used for nearly
'Tis my attendant-Rake! 200 years. The above statement is made from natural
SICKLE.--Well, well! a bad defence, they say, principles, and drawn from a very long, extensive, and
Is better far than none; largely varied practice in enlightened agriculture in dif
But if you'd kept to oats and hay, ferent parts of the gdom. Every art is advanced by
My work had not been done. its own peculiar philosophy, and promoted by the en
Now on a shelf my head I lay lightened artists who have enjoyed and have properly
('Gainst which poor old Flail leans); used a long and intimate acquaintance with the working
And should I chance to have one day, of the details. No other person need pretend to it.
'Twill be to chop down beans !
ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY.
CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS A KNOWLEDGE OF THE INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF PLANTS.
By Dr. CHARLES A. CAMERON, M.R.I.A., F.C.S.L.,
Corresponding Member of the Agricultural Societies of New York, Belgium, &c.
EXPERIMENTS WITH SODIUM.
.. a trace
as one in seventy. I have analyzed potatoes which were Sodium compounds are found in large proportion in the grown at Skerries, in the county of Dublin, within a few ashes of members of the families Cruciferæ, Liliaceæ, and yards of the sea, and on a soil containing nearly two per Algæ. It occurs in greater or less proportion in most centum of soda and chloride of sodium, yet I found only & plants, but it is very doubtful whether or not it is essential mere trace of soda in the tubers, and a very small proporto any. Sprengel found 38 per centum of soda in the ashes tion of that substance in the tops. The centesimal comof bean seeds, Richon 19 per centum, and Levi nearly 12 position of the mineral part of the tubers is shown in the per centum. Daubeny could only find in the same sub- following table :stance 7 per centum of sodium, as chloride and oxide, in
38.18 one specimen, 2-25 per centum in another, and 1.45 per centum in a third. Way and Ogston found 13.81 per
3:17 centum in the straw of the bean, and 2:8 in the seeds; and,
Sesquioxide of iron
1.06 lastly, Boussingault, so remarkable for the accuracy of his
7.00 analyses, found no sodium in the seeds of French beans Phosphoric acid
10-27 (haricots), whilst Richardson obtained 21.20 per cent of Carbonic acid
18 30 Silicic acid
0:38 soda and chloride of sodium in the pods of the kidney bean.
1.58 The analyses of the ashes of the pea, made by different chemists, exhibít a great variation in the amount of sodium.
82:00 According to Sprengel, soda constitutes 20 per centum of
Way analyzed the matter extracted from the soil by a the pods and an inappreciable amount of the straw. Bous solution of carbonic-acid gas in water, and found it to be singault found 2:50 per centum of soda in the pods, and rich in soda ; yet the plants grown upon the soil containing Hartwig 13 per centum of soda and chloride of sodium in
so much available soda, took but little of it up, their ashes, the straw. According to Erdmann, there is 1.50 per centum in some instances, yielding abundance of potash, but no in the straw and none in the pods. Rammelsberg found soda. According to Dickie, Voelcker, and others, the sea. 19-82 per centum in the straw, and none in the pods. pink (Armeria maritima), scurvy grass (Cochlearia officiRichardson obtained 19 per centum from the pods. Spinach nalis), and seaside plantain (Plantago maritima), contain and asparagas are very rich in soda. The ashes of the for- sodium when grown near the seashore, and potassium when mer yield, according to Richardson, 42-89 per centum of developed in mountainous situations, or cultivated in the soda and chloride of sodium, and that of the latter 47:15 per garden. The investigations to which I have referred, as centum. In no part of the horse-chesnut, at any stage of well as many others, which the limited period of time to its growth, could Wolff detect sodium ; and Staffel (the which the reading of this paper is restricted, prevents my author of the Jena prize essay—“Whether the quan. bringing under your notice, appear to show—1st: That soda tity of the inorganic constituents of the same plant and of is frequently either altogther absent from many important the same organ varies in the different periods of vege- plants, or exists in them to an insignificant amount. 2nd : tation”) who sought specially for sodium in the wood, the That, when it is abundant in plants, it accumulates, in most leaves, and other parts of the horse-chesnat and of the instances, in those parts which are not concerned in the walnut, failed to detect it in those trees. Of three speci- perpetuation of the species, and which are also of least immens of Armeria maritima, analyzed by Voelcker, the first portance as food for animals. 3rd: That it has not been contained 28:48 per centum of soda and chloride of sodium, proved that the replacement of soda in plants by potash has the second 18:44 of chloride of sodium, and the third nei. proved injurious to them. All the experiments which ther soda nor chloride of sodium. In several analyses of have been made to elucidate this subject render highly the potato, made by different chemists, the proportion of probable the supposition that sodium is not an essential soda is high, and in others very low. Waltz found 9 per element in vegetable bodies ; still, it must be admitted centum in the ashes of the tubers of early red potatoes; that it has not been conclusively proved that this substance and the mineral part of the haulms of " Axbridge kidneys," is a useless constituent of plants; neither, on the examined by Thomas, contained 16 per centum of soda. other hand, has it been satisfactorily shown that it performs In a complete analysis of the potato, recently published by any important function in the vegetal economy. As a conGrace Calvert, the presence of soda is not stated. J. W. tribution-I trust not altogether valueless-towards the soluHardy, of Virginia, has analyzed the potato, and the yam, tion of these questions I offer the results of some experimento, or sweet potato (Convolvulus balatas ). In the ashes of the performed by myself, and the details of which I shall now tabers of the former he found 0:5 per centum, and in those proceed to state. Spinach and asparagus, plants wbich of the tops 0.7 per centum of soda; the ashes of the naturally contain a large proportion of sodium compoundo, tuberous root of the yam yielded 0.8 per centum, and those were selected as the most suitable for the purpose of those of the tops 0:6 per centum of soda. In all of Hardy's ana experiments. The seeds of these plants were sown in soila, lyses the proportion of soda to potash was, on the average, and supplied with manures containing no sodium (as in the