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THE AGRICULTURE OF SWEDEN.
SIR,– Having just concluded a two months' fishing | occupation of a very enterprising agriculturist at whose tour in the central provinces of Sweden, I extract from house I bad the honour of being most hospitably ensome memoranda, chiefly relating to matters piscatorial, tertained. The farm of Graffaaas, near Allingsos, coma few notes on the farming of the country, which per- prises 9,000 acres, of which 1,000 are arable, 500 pashaps may not be entirely without interest to some of ture, and 7,500 forest. The rent is £800 a year. your readers.
The soil varies from stiff clay to light loam, The district I refer to, and which extends from but is chiefly loam on a clay bottom. The fields are Gothenburg and Uddevalla on the west coast to Nor- large-froni 40 to 80 acres ; 400 acres are in oats, the koping and Stockholm on the east, consists of exten- land being at a high elevation ; 40 in wheat, 80 in rye, sive tracts of table land, rugged hills, chiefly of granite, a few acres in oats and vetches for horses, and 20 in but occasionally alternating with primitive limestone ; turnips and potatoes. The land reserved for pasture is vast pine forests, and lakes resembling in magnitude such as is not sufficiently good for arable, being for the inland seas.
There is soil here of every variety, from most part marshy or cumbered with rock or brush-wood. the stiff clays yielding heavy crops of wheat, beans, All the best of this pasture is mown yearly, without any peas, clover, and timothy, to the sandy and peaty soils return of manure, which is never applied to meadow. appropriated to the growth of rye, oats, barley, and land in Sweden. potatoes.
The forest portion of the farm is chiefly valuable as The farms in Sweden, strictly so called, are not affording small holdings for torpare, an inferior numerous, more than three-fourths of the kingdom grade of peasants, who render to the occupier of the being in the hands of peasant proprietors or free- farm, in lieu of rent, labour in proportion to the value holders, a kind of petty yeomanry holding from 5 to of their respective tenures.
Thus the holder of from 100 acres of arable land, the average being about 30. 20 to 30 acres works for the farmer, personally or by This independent class of men generally becomes wealthy substitute, every day during June, July, August, and by the same process which enriches so many of our September, and two days a week the rest of the year, pastoral farmers in the dales of Yorkshire and West- extra labour being paid for at half the usual rates, moreland—the keeping down of all outgoings on land, namely, balf a rix-dollar, or 7d. a day, for a man; oneor living and laying by of all incomings however small. third of a rix-dollar for a woman, and one-fourth, or Some, however, whilst retaining their peasant rank live 31d., for a boy; this scale being reduced in winter. In in comfortable style, keeping good steeds in the stable summer the men work from five in the morning till and good wine in the cellar, and perhaps represent their eight at night, after which they have often some miles class in the Royal Assembly, of which the House of to walk home. It is not unusual to see farms adver. Peasants is the largest if not the most influential tised to be let or sold as having the right of five, ten, branch.
or twelve thousand days labour in the year attached to In addition to his arable ground, the peasant has in- them. In the farm of Graffnaas 2,000 acres of forest. variably a tract of rough pasture land, generally moor, land are held by torpare or bonders; 300 in small mountain, or forest glade, where he pastures his cattle outlying patches of arable, the rest consisting of open in summer, cutting the best parts of it for bay. The glades, scrub, or marsh. The torpare on this farm, inholder of 20 acres of arable will thus keep six or eight cluding all sexes and ages, amount to about nine cows in addition to a pair of working bullocks and a hundred souls, of which about two hundred and fifty are horse, their sole subsistence in winter being straw and available for work, and the average amount of labour done wretched hay; for the peasant rarely grows roots or by them on the farm is that of forty men daily the year clover, but cultivates his land, as his fathers have done round. The horses of the torpare (in this case about before him, on the two-course shift, half-fallow, half- forty) are also at the disposal of the farmer ; but this grain alternately, about one-seventh of the fallow being right is sparingly exercised, except for the carting of dunged yearly; the great object apparently being to timber for farm or household purposes, or of grain to grow as much grain as possible with the least expendi- market, or during harvest-time, when they are freture of manure and labour. Vast tracts of rich loamy quently all summoned to the field. The peasant has clay on the east coast of Lake Wettern have been so this protection against an oppressive exercise of authority, cultivated from time immemorial, and still yield weighty that he is at liberty to quit his holding after fifteen crops of grain.
months' notice, which he must also receive before he can The Swedish farmer is of an entirely distinct class be discharged from it. from the peasant, and, in virtue of his usually superior The management of the Graffraas Farm would reflect education and creditable character and habits, occupies credit on any Norfolk or East Lothian farmer. The an important social position. He is generally the Thane fields, roads, ditches, &c., are beautifully kept; the of his district, a man of urbane address and liberal under-drainage, which now extends over one-half of the ideas, and does the honours of his house and table, farm, has been scientifically conducted, the drains, 4 feet which are seldom wanting in the elegances and comforts deep and 22 feet apart, being uniformly in the direction of life, with graceful and genial hospitality. He is of the fall. On this point the Swedes appear to begenerally often obliged to be as much merchant as agriculturist; in advance of many of our Yorkshire farmers, who still for a Swedish farm, in addition to its generally large ex- adhere to the diagonal direction, without considering tent of arable land, frequently includes a flour mill, a that on this system only one side of the drain will act. saw mill, and a roofing and draining-tile manufactory, Another point on which I believe most English farmers and perhaps a Branvin distillery, where the potato crop might take a lesson from them is that they invariably is converted into spirits.
begin to lay the pipes at the upper instead of the lower The peculiar features of a Swedish farm may, perhaps, end of the drain, thus avoiding, what otherwise so often be best anderstood by the description of one in the happens, especially in wet weather, and when the fall is
slight, the sludging up of the pipes as the work pro- / of scientific cultivation, would meet with much success ceeds. The pipes used at Graffnaas are 13-inch, the in a country where the conditions of climate and labour main drain consisting of six, laid pyramidally.
are so different from his own; but were he first to The rotation on this farm is—first year, fallow dunged; acquire, by a year or two's tutelage under some intellisecond, rye or wheat; third, clover and timothy, gent farmer, a knowledge of the language of the country, one crop ; fourth and fifth, ditto pastured; sixth, and of the system of agriculture, which the observation wheat, balf dunged; seventh, oats ; eighth, peas, tares, and experience of practical men have established there, potatoes, or turnips with bone-dust, or oats again without and, after maturely considering the nature and requiremanure. 18 pairs of work horses are kept, and there are
ments of the soil and climate, cautiously and gradually 160 bead of dairy cows and 40 heifers and calves, which to improve upon, rather than alter, existing practices, (contrary to the usual custom in Sweden of keeping the judiciously applying the cheap labour at his command, cows in the house till the hay crop is off) are pastured and making the most of the internal resources of the from the beginning of May till the end of September. farm, so as to avoid all unnecessary outlay on experiTwo-thirds of these cattle are of the native breed (worth mental farming, implements, and manures, he would about £6 a head), the rest either pure Ayrshire or
then, probably, receive better interest on bis outlay crossed with Ayrshire, 20 cows and a bull of that breed than appears to satisfy so many of our agricultural having been entrusted by the Swedish Government to
farmers at home, in these days of high rents and heavy the farmer, with a view to the improvement of the breed
Were he, further, to possess the requisite meof the district. The only return required by the Go-chanical skill and mercantile knowledge, he might provernment for this gift is that of two bull calves yearly, bably turn the mills and factories, so frequently apperwhich are sold on behalf of the State, or consigned gra- taining to Swedish farms, to very profitable account. tuitously to other farmers. The consignee of these 20 cows Thus, on one farm north of Uddevalla, were two flour is further restricted from selling their male offspring till mills, with eight pairs of stones, working night and day they are two years and a-half old, prior to which period the year round, and yielding a clear annual profit of they are not supposed to have attained the requisite above £400 a year. The manure left by the horses vigour or development. The improvement effected by bringing grist to the mill, and waiting there, exceeded this cross on the native breed—which are too frequently 1,000 cart-loads yearly. There was here also a tape such as the patriarch Noah would, probably, bave hesi- manufactory employing 40 hands ; a small iron-foundry tated to admit into the ark—is very marked ; and my
where castings were made, and nails, ship-anchors, opinion was frequently and earnestly asked, as to whe- hawsers, and wheel tires forged--the ponderous hamther any superior advantages would accrue from the use
mers, the furnace blast (of three cylinders), and whole of a Shorthorn bull in the place of an Ayrshire; a ques. machinery being worked by the never-failing watertion which it is difficult to decide, considering that the power of a magnificent trout and salmon stream. The inferiority of the pasture and the severity of the winters farm here had evidently suffered from the attention of generally combine to render necessary the house-feeding the tenant being divided between it and the more imof the cattle 74 months in the year, and that the staple portant occupation of his mills. It was neglected and food of the people is not beef and mutton (of which unproductive, though I observed upon it a source of they produce and import but little), but rather bread, fertility invaluable in a granite district-extensive beds milk, cheese, and butter, the imports of which two lat of calcareous matter in the form of marine shells, in an ter articles actually exceed in value (in this extensive apparently calcined state, sometimes imbedded in blue and thinly populated country) £400,000 yearly. The clay, and retaining their perfect shape ; and sometimes, question was more than once asked of me, •- Why do not wbere almost unmixed with earths and crumbled by exEnglishmen, possessed of a little capital, come here in- posure to the air, closely resembling bone-dust. stead of going out to Canada or Australia ?” and it is In one respect, and under not unusual circumstances, perhaps worthy of consideration, whether a country so a Swedish farm would seem to hold out, to a man of near our own shores, and in many respects so favoured, small capital, advantages which are not offered in this might not afford scope for the energies and enterprise of country. I mean that of taking the farm with the live British agriculturists who feel the want of elbow room stock, horses, and implements upon it, thus enabling at home. My own impression, however, is, that were the tenant to retain bis farming capital to meet rent a man of moderate capital to emigrate there, with the and expenses till bis grain crops become available for idea of teaching the Swedes, and to introduce costly im- that purpose. Thus, a Swedish friend of mine lately plements or expensive cattle, or any material innova- had the offer of a farm at Linkoping, the capital of the tions upon the established system of farming, without rich province of that name, lying on the east of Lake due regard to the peculiar exigencies of the climate and Wettern, consisting of 520 Scotch acres in 10 fields of country, he would soon find himself at the end of his 50 acres each, 20 acres being in meadow. The soil is tether. For example, high-bred cattle would scarcely principally loam and marl on clay subsoil, about 50 only be remunerative in a country where beef and mutton, being hard to work, and that not so stiff as much of the generally indifferent enough in quality, but excellent land in the Carse of Gowrie. The stock, which is let under the Swedish mode of cooking, may be bought for with the farm, consists of 60 cows, 19 pairs of working 3d. and 4d. per lb., and capital veal for 5d. Reaping oxen, 5 pairs of horses, some young colts, 50 sheep, machines would hardly effect a saving, where stout men and excellent and extensive buildings and dwelling house, can be bad for the work at the rate of a penny per hour; the latter with 13 rooms. The rent asked was £525 or threshing machines, where threshers are contented to English, and if from this be deducted £50 a-year as the take every fifteenth or sixteenth sack in lieu of money produce of a saw mill and flour mill, and £50 on the wages. Two steam-ploughs have been introduced into score of cattle and implements (which may be estimated Sweden by a wealthy landowner-one into the South, as worth £1,000), it leaves the rent about 16s. a long the other to a farm 20 miles from Wenersborg; but it £60 a-year covers all government, parochial, is credibly reported that the labour of men and horses and other outgoings, and there are six torpare or free employed in the transport alone of English coal, by labourers. necessarily light loads over the billy country, would The yield of grain in Sweden varies, according to the suffice to plough the whole farm.
season, soil, and husbandry, from four to six quarters of It is more than doubtful, therefore, whether wheat to the long acre, and from four to eight of barley. any English settler, embued with English notions | The price of wheat is from 458. to 60s. the gr., accord
ing to quality and the markets ; barley, 25s. to 30s. ; is generally picturesque. The winters, though severer, rye, 32s. to 359. ; oats, 16s. to 20s. This year the yield are drier than ours; the weather in summer steadier and and quality of the grain, owing perhaps to the moist warmer; wet hay-times and harvests are of rare occurspring and cloudless summer and autumn, is without rence; and vegetation is so rapid that corn is sometimes precedent. The farmers know not where to bestow sown and reaped in six or seven weeks. Nowbere on their increase, and it is calculated that at least three the face of the earth will an Englishman meet with more millions of barrels will be available for exportation. hospitable welcome and hearty kindness than in Sweden In speaking, however, of this year's yield of grain in people of Britain and of Scandinavia there seems to be a
and Norway. I say an Englishman; for between the Sweden as unprecedented, in must be remembered that mutual sympathy and bond of alliance, arising probably a greatly extended area of land was brought under cul- from the affinity, and, in great measure, common origin, tivation in the time of the Russian war, when rye rose from 13s. to 30s. per barrel, and land, temporarily at
of race, manners, customs, and institutions. In Scanleast, about 50 per cent., and that, under the impetus England regarded with feelings where envy and dislike
dinavia alone, perhaps, of all the nations of Europe, is then given to agriculture, deep drainage and tillage, have no place; and to that quarter alone must her with caretul cultivation, have yearly made rapid progress, and resulted in increasing produce; the very form a powerful and enduring Northern League.
statesmen look, should it ever be deemed desirable to peasantry beginning to feel that agriculture is a progressive art, and exhibitiog, in many instances, a spirit I have spoken of the steadiness and warmth of the of active improvement. The marvellous increase of climate in Sweden ; yet with these advantages they adopt produce in Sweden, wherever thorough-drainage has measures for the speedy drying of their crops, which been effected, leads irresistibly to the conclusion, that the might be copied with benefit in the rainy districts of vast tracts of stiff retentive soils yet undrained, or these islands, especially wbere access can be had to the drained only by open trenches and water furrows (the thinnings of fir plantations. The most simple mode of inefficiency of which appears in stunted crops and coarse drying grain is by rearing a number of light poles, about herbage), would afford profitable employment for Enge 9 feet high, in holes made for their reception by an iron lish capital. Sweden is pecuniarily a poor country, and crowbar. A pair of sheaves are placed upright against there are everywhere (but especially now, under the de- the pole to support the other sheaves, which are pression caused by the American war,) estates on sale. then linked two and two together and threaded Not more than one-third or one-fourth of the purchaser upon the pole at the junction of the bands, so as money is usually required to be paid down, the pay- to rest in a horizontal position one on each side ment of the rest being extended over a series of years. of the pole. The rest are similarly placed till It is impossible, of course, to give any very accurate the top is reached, where one sbeaf is then impaled idea of the value of estates in that country ; but, at a through its centre. In the districts bordering on the loose computation, it may be said that five hundred Baltic extensive frame-works are used. A number acres of average land already under cultivation, and of fir poles, about 20 feet high and 4 yards apart, are wanting only effectual drainage to be highly productive, erected in a row, usually running north and south. At may be purchased for £10,000; the addition of two or each side of these poles, namely, east and west of them, three thousand acres of pine forest not materially en- and 2 feet apart from them, is erected a lighter pole, hancing the price, unless where the vicinity of a naviga- 1 foot shorter. Across each of these three poles are then ble river gives a marketable value to the timber. Such nailed or pegged nine cross-bara, 2 feet apart, and two purchases should, of course, be judiciously made ; if sloping pieces are placed at the top to support a roof, possible, near some line, or projected line, of railway, falling two or three feet each way. 'From each of tbese canal, navigable river, or seaport-the land sufficiently nine cross-bars to the opposite cross-bar are then laid concentred, and as level as consistent with easy drain. four loose poles, generally of split fir, thus making beage, and the buildings—as is almost always the case in tween each pair of uprights a series of nine sheives, Sweden-conveniently placed, extensive, and well- | 4 yards long and 4; feet wide, on wbich the fresh-cut arranged. Such farms, I think, let to careful and in- vetches, clover, or timothy, or, in wet seasons, grain, telligent tenants--the landlord providing for them are placed and closely packed, and there remain till dry, draining pipes, and subsequently lime, and exacting, proof against any damage from rains. It is of course under occasional supervision, a proper system of draio- necessary to prop against every other upright a sloping age and cultivation, but at the same time an easy rent pole as a buttress; and this on both sides, unless when at the outset, augmentable to a certain extent in a two parallel ranges are constructed a few yards apart, in specified ratio yearly, as the condition of the farm and which case it is sufficient to spur them on the outside, its tenant improved could hardly fail to return a much steadying them on the inside by a few poles stretched higher rate of interest than is compatible with from roof to roof, and fixed at the ends as tie-rods. anything like good security in England ; to say nothing of the prospect of more or less increase to the
A simpler and less expensive plan is in use in the saleable value of the land, as the resources and riches of western districts. Several couples of fir poles, about
8 yards long, are raised,
intervals of three or four the country are opened up and increased by the construction of railways. Thus, land in the neighbourhood yards, against each other, after the manner of a steep of Gottenburg has increased cent. per cent. in the last bouse-roof; the upper ends, which are pegged, cross or ten years ; and in the event of the expected union of over-lap each other sufficiently to afford a rest for the Denmark with Sweden and Norway, when Gottenburg, the outside of these couples are inserted, at right angles
horizontal ridge-pole, which combines the couples. On from its central position and advantageous seaboard, would probably become the seat of government and the
to the slope of the pole, and 2 feet apart, wooden pins, converging point of numerous railways, must continue about 8 inches long, to afford support for a series of to advance in value,
loose horizontal bars, which are then laid from one to
the other, thus completing the frame or rack. The The climate of central Sweden is delightful, the at- laying on of the crop (which, whether of grasa, clover, mosphere being, in the opinion of old Australians, more or grain, and however laid and twisted, is all cut with a clear, buoyant, and invigorating than that of their own short light scythe, which the mower wields in an upsettlement; and the scenery, without attaining to the wild right position, cutting close to his feet) is then comgrandeur of Switzerland or even our own Lake districts, | menced by hanging the swathes over the lowest bar (which is two feet from the ground), till it reaches the the bars, the butt-ends being outside and inclining next bar. The workman then stands upon the first layer downwards ; the whole resembling a thatched roof. whilst he fills the space between the next two bars, and I fear that I have already trespassed too far upon so on till the ridge is reached, where a little straw or your space, and remain, sir, your obedient servant, thatch is usually laid to turn the water. Where grain
WN. CARR. is dried in this way the heads are put through Stackhouse, 18th Sept., 1862.
THE SMALL-POX IN SHEEP. From the Gazette of Friday, September 19 : expect from Professor Simonds. A contemporary speaks
"At a Council beld at Whiteball, Sept. 18, it was ordered to "the very general ignorance manifested as to the most that "it shall not be lawful for any purpose to remove any common precautions calculated to check the spread of a sheep or lambs infected with or labouring under the sheep pox, contagious disease;" and there are instances already of from the ports and places following, or any or either of them, flockmasters having the disease amongst their sheep long that is to say, Bristol ; Liverpool, in the county of Laucaster; before they discovered its existence, and only when too Birkenhead, in the county of Chester ; and Holyhead, in the late to exercise the first great remedy of PREVENTION. county of Anglesea.' “At the same Council it was further ordered (after enume
There are some people who will not study Orders in rating the several parishes in Wilts and Berks in which disease Council, or even attend Meetings in their own neighprevails) that it shall not be lawful for any person to re
bourhood; and to such as these Professor Simonds move any sheep or lambs to or from any or eitber of the must address himself. But bis dat qui citò dat; and parishes of Stanton St. Bernard, Avebury, Aldbourne, and an elaborate treatise, however able, to be published in Hampstead Norrie, or to drive or conduct any sheep or lambs the next number but one of the Royal Agricultural through or by way of such parishes or any or either of them, Society's Journal, will be of very little service. A unless the persoa 80 removing, driving, or conducting such confidential Report to the Government will scarcely be sheep or lambs shall first have obtained a certifieate, in writing, of more value to the chief sufferers, locked up as this is signed by some person who may have been authorised by two likely to be, in the archives of the Home Office. Let or more justices of the said counties of Wilte or Berks respec- the Professor, as the man the farmers are taught to tively, to seize sheep or lambs infected with or labouring under look to, so soon as he reads this hint, prepare a the said disorders, under the first section of the said Act, that such removal
, driving, or conducting may take place paper of Signs and Symptoms-of Cautions and Prewithout danger of spreading the said disease'."
ventives-of Fines and Penalties; framed, as it were, in
a succinct series of rules and regulations, that may be In anticipation of these orders the Wiltshire Inde- placarded by the way-side, or circulated through the pendent, of the day previous, declares that
penny post.' Let him thus plainly epitomise his expe“The smallpox spreads. There is no doubt of that: in- rience, and he can scarcely fail to do immense good in deed it would be very strauge if, in the early stages of such putting flockmasters upon their guard as to all they are an epidemic, it were not to spread. At first its existence is liable for. But, as we must repeat, his only course is not only upknown, but unsuspected even by those whose flocks immediate action. The most careful studies and are infected, Ibua the germs of the disease are scattered reliable results will be of comparatively little valuo, abroad; and it is some time before those whose sheep may as we hope and trust, some six months hence; or, have picked it up, come to a full belief that the dreaded dis- to put the two Professors into that direct rivalry which order is really and actually among them, and before precau- would seem on either side to be admitted, we have littionary measures are taken to prevent, as far as possible, its tle doubt but that a telling article on the subject will further spread. But, although there are other cases to be added to those already reported, they are not numerous ; in appear in the October number of the Edinburgh Ve. deed much less so than might have been expected. Up to terinary Review. With his greater facilities and opyesterday (Wednesday) only three fresh flocks have been portunities it must be Professor Simonds’ duty to added to the list : those of Mr, Isaac Dark, of Avebury ; Mr. anticipate such a paper by something of his own. So John Simpkins, of Stanton; and Mr. William Huluert, of far we actually know nothing beyond the routine OrLangley, in the county of Berks. There have been rumours ders in Council, or the necessarily more or less im. of others; but the above three, making, with those previously perfect reports of county meetings. That something reported, niue in the whole, are the only ones of which reliable straight to the purpose is much needed, the following information as to the presence of the disease has been
case from the Wiltshire Independent of Thursday received."
last will only the further tend to prove : “At the Now, what should be the immediate course of action public meeting at Devizes, it was stated that the under such circumstances as these ? Professors Simonds flock of Mr. John Simpkins, of Stanton, had been and Gamgee are still busily engaged in pursuing their reported to be infected with smallpox, and, on researches, although, we fear, with yet something of the the authority of Professor Simonds, the report was posame painful jealousy as to the presence of the latter in sitively declared to be unfounded. Mr. John Coleman, the district. There is, moreover, the discussion still veterinary surgeon, was the person who was said to continuing as to the advantages and dangers of inocu- have raised the report, and the fact of his opinion huvlation, an argument in which the two Veterinarians are ing been controverted by no less a person than Proinclined to take separate sides. Professor Simonds, fessor Simonds, Mr. Coleman's professional knowledge however, has been appointed the Special Commissioner was called in question. This naturally roused his inof the Government; and to him it is we must look for dignation, and happening to have some conversation advice and assistance. We really believe there is no with Professor Gamgee, who had been present at the more conscientious, able, nor pains-taking man to be found ineeting, and heard the discussion, he, accompanied by in the profession; but he must act at once for the good that gentleman, went over to Stanton to clear up the of all. The visit to a suspected flock, or the opinion matter by requesting Mr. Simpkins to allow Mr. Gamon an individual case, the address at a local meeting, or gee to examine the sheep which he (Mr. Coleman) had even the prompting of an official order from the Home pronounced to be affected with smallpox. This Mr. Uffice, are by no means all that we have a right to ex. I Simpkins angrily refused, declaring that neither he nor
any other person should see those sheep, adding, of “shab” or mange first suggested itself, but there was no shortly afterwards, that they had been put out of the biting or tucking of the wool, the invariable accompaniments way and buried. Professor Gamgee very properly of mange. Being puzzled as to the nature of the complaint, pointed out to Mr, Simpkins the bad policy of such a it was resolved to dip them in the usual arsenical solution, line of proceeding, which he assured him would lead now universally practised for the destruction of ticks and to unpleasant conclusions being drawn from his con
other vermin, immediately after which operation the whole duct. But as Mr. Simpkins persisted in his refusal, vanished, the speculation turning out a most profitable one.
dock began to mend, and every symptom of the disease Mr. Gamgee and Mr. Coleman had no alternative but The first impression made on the owner and my son was to go away. The matter however was not allowed to that it might be the much-dreaded small-pox. Had it been, rest here: the sheep were disinterred (though without and that of the same wature as that known to us as such, Mr. Simpkins' permission), examined by Professor would not the arsenical dipping have been instant death ? Gamgee, and, having been identified as those Mr. Cole- | And if these eruptions, as described, could be produced by man had professionally examined at Mr. Simpkins' ro- other affection in 1853, may they not be so accounted for in quest, his opinion was fully confirmed, Professor 1862? I only moot the question in order to raise discussion Gamgee declaring both sheep to have been full of small- and to induce the trial of the dipping-trough on some pox, and one of them in the last stage of the disease ball-dozen sheep in the first stages of the now-prevailing before it was killed. It should be mentioned that the malady.-J. F. TwynaM, Winchester. statement made at the meeting that Professor Simonds had examined the flock, and pronounced them to be sound, was correct. He had examined them on the
IMPORTANT TO FARMERS.--Mr. William Rawle, of previous day, but he was not shown the two diseased
East Meer Farm, Minehead, was summoned at the instauce of sheep. What follows is more painful still. A part of his neighbour, Mr. Thomas Kent, of Windon Farm, near the fock to which these two diseased sheep had be- flock on Minehead Common (on which the complainant, de
Minehead, for keeping scabbed sheep among the defendant's longed, and from which they had been removed after fendaut, and others have a right to depasture sheep), contrary they had been pronounced to be infected with small- to the provisions of 38 Geo. III., cap. 61, sec, 1. Mr. Taunpox by Mr. Coleman, were sent off on Thursday morn- ton conducted the prosecution. It appeared from the evidence ing to Wilton fair, which was to be held on the follow- of the complainant and his sbepherd that on several occasions ing day, there to be placed for sale among 70,000 scabbed sheep, marked W. R., the defendant's initials, had others !! Professor Gamgee having learned this, been found on the commov, mixing with other people's sheep, telegraphed to the Mayor of Wilton and to Professor and had been driven into the defendant's enclosed land, and Simonds, to acquaint them with this circumstance early have his sheep better washed and the evil avoided. On the
that complaints had been made to bim, when he promised to on Friday morning, the day of the fair. Unfortunately 30th of August, however, three of defendant's bill sheep were the message did not reach them till the evening, after
agaiu discovered to be scabbed, and a fourth was in a doubtthe sheep were sold and driven away. They were, ful state, but it had evidently been “ dressed” for the scab at however, traced to some place beyond Woodford, and a recent period. The defence set up and attempted to be have been returned to Mr. Simpkins. To what ex. proved by defendant's shepherd was a curious one, namely, tent, and in how many directions the driving of the that two only instead of three sheep were scabbed ; and the Aock from Stanton to Wilton, its intermingling with defendant called several witnesses to prove that they had flocks there, and contact with others while being driven since examined his flock, and that there were no scabbed sheep from the fair to Woodford, it is impossible to tell. It among them, but whether the four sheep complained of were is to be hoped that it may not have spread the disease ;
then among them did not transpire. The case, wbich excited but that hope is very faint indeed."
considerable local interest, resulted in the defendant being
fined f.2 5s., including costs, and he was ioformed by the jusNow, surely, if this case be correctly stated, it is tices that on any similar occasion be would be much more one which, even if only out of regard to Mr. Simonds' harshly dealt with. professional reputation, will demand some further in. quiry. Here is a man said to have systematically deceived the Government Inspector, and then deliberately to have sent diseased sheep into a large fair! As put AVERAGE OF THE WHEAT CROP UPON on the authority of County Paper, there was no assumption of ignorance, but all proper examination
WOBURN PARK FARM, 1862. refused, and it was only by stealth that the actual truth
Sir, -Having ascertained the average of our wheat crop was arrived at. Neither the public nor the profession can have fair play if a statement like this is to pass
according to the plan detailed in your journal a few weeks unnoticed.
since, I now send you it, and will leave your readers to draw their own conclusions. I am disappointed in the
yield, although it is up to the average of the last twelve SHEEP DISEASES AND REMEDIES.-In the year years, but it is not nearly so good as I antictpated, and my 1853, a near relative of mine purchased 200 Spanish sheep in opinion is that this district is not an average crop, being, Smithfield market; the seller would not warrant them free
in some instances, much blighted, and of very inferior from infection, the so-termed small-pox having prevailed quality. amongst many lots about that time; they were two-shear 1862
33 bush. per acre, 61flbs. per bush. sheep, and the price given was £l per head without warranty. 1861
334 They were sent down to Beaurepaire Park, near Basingstoke, 1860
303 belonging to Mr. Oldfield, the feed of which was hired for the 1859
24 season. A few days after their arrival the owner, accompanied 1858 by my son, went to see bow they were getting on, and found 1857
32} many doing very badly, backs set up, drooping heads, wool 1856
Average of 12 years, 324 bush. open, and deadened in colour, the usual symptoms of ill-bealth. 1855
per acre. The keep was luxuriant, but they fed little; their walk being 1854
413 also cramped and stiffened, it was resolved to examine them.
21 when on the inward parts of the thighs and the forelegs
31 which are always free from wool, a thick eruption of white- 1851
36 headed pustules, with a red base of inflammatory appearance,
32 was found on all which appeared to be suffering. The idea