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THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE

NOVEMBER, 1862.

THE PROPERTY OF MR

success.

PLATE I.
NAPOLEON; A PRIZE STALLION.
JAMES ROBINSON, OF THE GROVE INN, BURY NEW ROAD,

MANCHESTER. Napoleon, bred by Messrs. Barber and Worth - Warwick. Napoleon also won the first prize of ington, is by Great Britain, out of a cart mare for £15 at the Great Yorkshire Agricultural Show at which they gave 100 guineas when nine years old, Pontefract in 1860; the first prize of £10 and with a foal at her foot ten weeks old. Her dam, silver medal at the Royal North Lancashire Agribred by Mr. John Freeman, Wheatley Grange, cultural Show in 1860; and a cup value 20 gs. at Nottinghamshire, was out of a first-rate Lincoln Burnley, in 1860; the first prize of £5 and medal mare, by Abraham Newland, 'a horse which at Drighlington and Addwalton Agricultural Show, travelled 21 seasons on the same ground with great in 1860; the first prize at Rochdale of £10, in

1860; a prize of £20 at Burton-on-Trent, in 1860; Great Britain, late Mr. Robinson's, was got by the first prize of f30 and silver medal of the StafBangup, the property of Mr. William Stich, of fordshire Agricultural Show at Wolverhampton, in Stentone House, Derbyshire, a stallion that has 1861; and the first prize £10 and silver medal at served nineteen seasons in the same district, and the Royal North Lancashire Show, in 1862, the is the sire of many valuable horses. Bangup was sixth time he has won that Society's first prize; got by Sancho, the property of Sir George Crew, the first prize of £10 at the Manchester and Liverof Court Abbey; while Great Britain's dam was pool Agricultural Show, in 1862, the eighth time bought by Mr. W. Stich, at Lincoln, for the pur- he has taken that Society's first prize. pose of breeding first-class horses ; and she threw Napoleon is a sure foal-getter, and there are a to Bangup Great Britain and the Derbyshire great many colts travelling by him. His stock Hero, who won the first prize at the Agricultural have fetched extremely high prices, and won more Show at Shrewsbury, and was sold in the yard for prizes at agricultural shows than any other horse's 200 guineas.

stock. A three-year-old filly has won about 20 Napoleon is a bright bay horse, standing 17 hands first prizes ; and a two-year-old, out of the same 1 inch high, with remarkably short back, capital mare, also by him, has won 21 first prizes. Lord middle, clean legs, good feet, and fine freedom Derby refused £200 for a colt by Napoleon before of action.

he was two years old, and for which his Lordship Napoleon has won 98 prizes at the various agri- has since refused £300. cultural shows, including the first prize at the Napoleon has been open for the last four years Manchester and Liverpool Agricultural Show, to show against any horse living for either £100 in 1859, beating a large field of first-class horses, or £500, as well as to back and draw against any including Mr. Benjamin Taylor's England's Glory, travelling stallion. Mr. Robinson, his owner, still the first prize horse at the All England Show at stands to his challenge.

PLATE II.

HOME FROM THE HILL. When grouse or blackcock shooting, the sports-, and little Jessie should bob him a curtsey, if only man will now and then come across the delicate in due acknowledgment of his prowess. The roeroebuck, who succumbs to a charge of shot, and buck is a very harmless animal, compared with the goes to bag with other small game. If we shook more majestic stag. He is famed for none of those this bag out, we might cull from it grouse, duck, forest jousts ; is seldom in anything like good conplover, and snipe, all common enough on the dition—in fact, is nearly always poor-and is conHighland moor, with the roe and black game as sequently an object of no great or especial ambition the especial spoil of the woody districts. The of the stalker, Laird appears to have had a very good day of it ; OLD SBRIES.)

CC

(VOL. LII.-No. 5.

THE LAND'S END AND THE LIZARD,

BY CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON, ESQ., F.R.S.

As the tourist arrives at the good town of Penzance interesting temple will not fail to attract the tourist's he perceives much that is novel and interesting. He notice. It is the place of worship of the most southerly will feel that the district is not without its reminiscences English parish. It is surrounded by two or three and instruction to the cultivators of lands not possess- farms, whose live stock bear evidence of care and coming so mild and genial a climate as the westernmost fort. The pastures here are good—the root-crops excelpeninsula of Cornwall. Neither will the agriculturist lent. The gateless passages into the capacious and forget that to Penzance he owes Davy, who may be well-cared-for churchyard, and thence into the rector's fairly regarded as the founder of agricultural chemistry. gardens—the open church-doors-all indicate the order Davy was born there in 1778, of very humble parents. and confidence reposed in each other by those who The inhabitants of the town show with a just pride the dwell around the Lizard. house in which he was born. Some of those who were The soils of the district naturally vary in value with schoolboys when Davy was a pupil of Mr. Borlase, a the nature of the rock on which they rest; those restsurgeon of Penzance, well remember that he used to as- ing on Serpentine, like most of those into whose comtonish the boys with some of those brilliant displays of position magnesia largely enters, are not fertile. A explosive mixtures which in after years he was used to fair specimen of Serpentine Rock was found to contain exhibit in the course of his lectures before the members

Silica

40.12 of the Royal Institution and the old Board of Agricul.

Magnesia ..

40.04 ture. This was the board of which Sir John Sinclair

Prot-oxide of iron

3:47 was long the president, and the more celebrated

Alumina

2 Water ........

13:36 Arthur Young the first secretary. It was at the Grammar School of Penzance that Davy received his educa

98.99 tion ; and in his will he left to this school one hundred pounds, on condition that the boys should have an

The soils resting immediately on the Hornblendo annual holiday on Decomber the 17th, the anniversary Clay-slate are the most fertile of any in the Penzance of his birth. This town—the most westerly in Eng district. Now the analysis of an ordinary specimen of land-also gave birth to Davy's great friend and black Hornblende Rock will give the reader a good brother-president of the Royal Society, Davies Gilbert, idea of the mineral composition of the Hornblende Slate to the celebrated Admiral Lord Exmouth, to Borlase, soils. It was as follows : the natural historian of Cornwall, and other distin

Silica

45.69 guished men.

Lime....

13.85 The agriculturist, when he visits Penzance, will soon

Magnesia ....

18.79 see much around him that is interesting. The noble

Prot.oxide of iron

7.32 Alumina ..

12.18 Mount's Bay, the adjoining districts extending to the

Fluoric acid....

1.50 Land's End and the Lizard Lights, including both the most southerly and the most westerly parishes of Eng

The Granite soils are not so fertile as those of the land, are all fraught with interest. The kindness Hornblende Slate. Their mineral portion is far more of manners, the intelligence, the independent bearing, compound than those of the Hornblende. Granite, we and the good looks of the inhabitants will not escape must remember, is composed of three substances, viz., his notice.

felspar, mica, and quartz. It is by the gradual disinteAs soon as we leave the town of Ponzance we find our gration of these by the action of the atmosphere that selves on soils resting chiefly on the Clay-slate Rock; the Granite soils are formed. We may perhaps usebut, in our way to the Land's End, we soon leave these fully refresh our memories by referring to the compofertile lands, and reach the inferior, but produetive, sition of the three chief constituents of Granite. It is soils resting on the Granite.

as follows:

Felspar. Mica, If we proceed in a contrary direction, towards the

Quartz. Silica....

65.69

99.37 Lizard, after leaving the Clay-slata soils, we cross those

Alumina

17.97 25-47 resting immediately on the Hornblende Slate ; and

Potash

13.99 5.47 then arrive at the Serpentine Rocks and their soils,

27.06 0:32 which extend nearly to the Lizard. It is almost at the Oxide of manganese..

1.92

Soda extremity of the peninsula-on whose southern capo

1.01 Lime

1.34 0.93 those celebrated Lizard lighthouses are placed—that we find a small district composed of Mica Clay-slate, The immediato neighbourhood of Penzance is remany of whogo soils are deep and fertile, especially markable for the excellence of certain vegetables, such those around the church of Landewednack. This little l as early potatoes and cauliflowers; with which it

36:54

10
, Poctobzide of iron

largely supplies the metropolitan markets. I was if any couch appears, it is burned ; but barning is not struck, when at the town in September of the present generally liked for potatoes, it being considered that year, with the luxuriant growth of the brocoli.

the ashes cause the potato to be of a soapy, close There is a good deal of land around Mounts Bay, nature. The manure is spread as the potatoes are from which they procure two good crops of vegetables planted, which is done by ploughing a furrow, into in the year, viz., early potatoes and brocoli, The po- which the sets are dropped by women and children. tatoes, which they begin to plant in October and No. A man follows and pushes in the manure on the sets vember, are raised in April, and the cauliflower, or with the back of a rake; the plough returns, and brocoli, are immediately planted. Of these, it was covers the whole with another furrow; two small estimated that in the season of 1861-62 at least 600 furrows are then ploughed without any sets, which gives acres were grown immediately around the town of place sufficient between the rows of potatoes. When Penzance.

the field, or a given portion thereof, is planted, the The planting of the early kidney potatoes in Corn. land is harrowed down fine, which completes the work. wall, as described by Mr. J. Paynter, commences the The potatoes are taken up as soon as they are ripe by latter end of October, and continues until Christmas. men, women, and boys, with an implement called the Lay is best adapted for the purpose, which is turned “ digger,” having three prongs, like a dung-fork, only down in a peculiar manner by hand labour, and a good turned downwards instead of looking forward, as those tilth obtained on the surface by the dexterous hand of that implement. The price for “ digging" the of the workman. The manure used is generally sea potatoes varies from 15s, to 208. per acre ; the produce weed. The "sets" are placed in the drill, a little averaging from 240 to 300 Winchester bushels of 8 earth thrown on them, and the soit weed placed over gallons per acre, which in the season will fetch at the the whole. A better plan is to place a little rotten ship's side from £18 to £20 per acre. As soon as the stable dung between the earth and the sea weed. The land is clean of potatoes, the wheat is sown, after early potatoes are not banked up, but merely hood, and which a barley crop too often follows, without any this not after the middle of March. They are grown

other manure being applied to the land than that for chiefly on what the good Cornish men call the growan

the potato crop. The potato tillage is an enticing one (gravelly) soils ; but the most extensive breadth is on at first view, promising as it does a fair profit; but the greenstone rocks, where they intersect the clay since no manure is made by the crop, no portion of it slate, in the fine sheltered districts near Penzance; being consumed on the farm, there is no provision 1,000 acres of which is said to yield a clear rental of made for another year's cropping beyond the sea-weed £10,000. A few of the potatoes are taken up early in occasionally to be obtained at the sea-side. April, and these are worth on the spot ls. 3d. per lb., The produce of vegetables in Cornwall for the Lonand sometimes even 25. 6d. These are not obtained by don market has materially increased since Mr. Kardigging up the entire plant, but by carefully examining keek wrote. It was at the last Truro meeting of the the root with the hand, and pulling off such tubers as Bath and West of England Society, that the chairman may be sufficiently large. The root is then covered of the West Cornwall Railway observed (Farm. Mag., up again. The potatoes are full-grown about the vol. lv., p. 43) : " From the 4th of December last to middle of May (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., vol. 6, p. 429). the 23rd of March, just four months, there passed Poor Karkeek, of Truro, in his prize report on the

over the West Cornwall Railway 6,986 crates of Farming of Cornwall (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., vol. 6 brocoli, weighing in the aggregate no less than 866P. 428), gave, in the words of Mr. W. E. Geach,

tons 11 cwt.; and I beg to say that the land conveydeseription of the potatos of the valley of the Looe,

ance of nearly 900 tons of brocoli in some three or four where great quantities of potatoes are grown for the

months from the west of England to the millions of London market. In some of the parishes which ad- London and the north was an impossibility until the join the cliffs and the river, where sea-weed can be appearance of the locomotive. Again, from the 22nd of obtained at a small expense, the greater portion of the April to the 7th June-a period of six weeks onlyland intended for a wheat crop is first planted with

there was conveyed and transferred in a similar way, potatoes. The preparation for the last-named crop

8,566 baskets of potatoes, weighing 439 tons. Pour commences in the months of January and February, by hundred and thirty-nine tons of early potatoes transcarting out the accumulated soil from the hedges into

ferred from the west of Cornwall in about six weeks, small heaps; if this should not prove sufficient, fur.

to a good market in the large and populous districts rows are ploughed up across the field, and the soil also

of the kingdom, is no bad illustration of the aid railadded to that which the hedge-grips produced. On

ways extend to agriculture." these " bottoms” of earth, dung from the farm-yard,

The sea-sand which is used so extensively in Cornsea-weed, and sand are deposited and mixed together. wall, owes its chemical value as a manure chiefly to The quantity of dung and weed amounts generally to the presence of carbonate of lime. It is only on the about 25 cart loads per acre; sand from 12 to 14 heavier kind of soils that it beneficially operates loads. The lay is then partly skimmed, the one por- mechanically in rendering the land more friable. It tion being turned over on that which remains, and is is true that the carbonate of lime exists in the finelycalled “turning to rot.” After it has been “ to rot" broken shells of which sand is composed, but the for two or three months, it is harrowed down fine, and sand also contains silica, alumina, and a small portion

50
25

40

of phosphate of lime, but from the following table it would astonish some of my neighbours in the county will be seen that carbonate of lime is the chief ingre- of Surrey. These walls are, in fact, often formed of dient.

blocks of granite either placed like posts upright in the The following are the proportions of carbonate of ground, or piled without any mortar one upon another, lime found in the sands from fourteen different dis- their mere weight enabling them to maintain their tricts :

Per cent.

position against the attacks of the cattle. Perfectly Gwithian and Phillack...... 70

free from soil, however, as are these piles of stone, for Gannel (near the mouth) 834

they are kept clear of decomposing matters by the Porth Town

driving rains of this elevated Peninsula, still, from Portreath

between the interstices of these over-lapping blocks Perranzabuloe

70 St. Mawes

64

the little wall pennywort (Cotyledon umbilicus) estabFalmouth Harbour

80

lishes itself, its little circular succulent leaves vigrously Padstowe sand

864

creeping out in all directions. Harlyn Bay

94 Trevose Bay

At the extreme point of the Land's End, about half911

a-mile in breadth of uncultivated land encircles the Blown sand from Bude.... 68 Beach sand from Bude....

cape. This long belt is chiefly tenanted by the furn, Stanbury Mouth

52

heath, and mosses which grow amidst the protruding Widemouth

44

granite rocks. It is in a little glen of this strip of In proceeding with our Cornish examination, let us

heath land that we find a comfortable little cottage and first travel from Ponzance towards the far west before outbuilding, which form the most westerly homestead we turn towards the most suotherly point of England. of England. This is surrounded by a little farm of not In the nine or ten miles between this town and the more than six acres, which has been gradually enclosed Lands-end, various interesting scenes present themselves. from the waste, is supplied with water by a little During the first two or three miles the country is well streamlet, supports a horse and a cow or two, which wooded, the hedgerows crowded with ferns and the are fed with the grass in summer, and rough hay and

The land is divided into ordinary hedge plants, the little vallies deep, the root unthrashed oats in winter. crops excellent. The traveller, however, soon begins to six or seven little fields, and is held on lease at only ascend the high table land which rests on the noble about 60s. a-year. It might interest, and deeply too, granite formation of the Lands-end, and here the some of our great modern agriculturists from fertile farming becomes rather primitive. The fields are now diluvial soils to behold this most primitive of little mostly in pasturage. but are very productive, com- farms; its rude, healthy, yet modest appearance ; all its manding in many places a rent of 60s. per acre. The inmates, like its own huge granite cliffs, so simple, yet holdings, bowever, like the fields, are small, commonly so bright. Such a visitor when he looks over these consisting of not more than from ten to thirty acres, deep, picturesque cliffs which have ever stood as our and seldom more than one hundred or one hundred island's breastwork against the rolling surges of the and thirty; these have a thin but very fertile soil, Atlantic, will feel mingled sensations of admiration and composed of the decomposed granite, a rock which gratitude. commonly is so close to the surface that it frequently In travelling from Penzance round the eastern side protrudes through the soil in large blocks, which defy of Mounts Bay to Helstone, and thence to the all the farmer's efforts to remove them. These granite Lizard, wo cross the soils of the Serpentine. Here we rocks are not always composed of one piece : they are find a large extent of uncultivated, undrained land. often divided by large fractures into layers. It was On these wild moors we find the dwarf furze, the Cornish very close to one of these great heaps of stones, each heath (Erica vagans) peculiar to the Serpentine, the weighing perhaps from five to twenty tons, that at the cross-leaved heath, and the common fine-leaved heath, Lands-end I found the house of a little farmer placed. and the heather. From the vigour with which these In remarking to his good housewife upon the shelter wild plants grow I am led to conclude that the soils from the wind thus afforded to her dwelling by these resting on the Serpentine rock might be rendered, by rocks, she complained sorely, not only of the way in drainage, and perhaps by dressing with mineral and which the eddies of wind they caused made her kitchen organic manure, far more profitable to their owners than fire smoke, but of the inattention of her lord and

at present. It was when descending the deep ravine master to all her requests to remove these huge eddy- that leads to Kinancecore, that my guide pointed out causing blocks of granite.

some hill-side heath land that is now let for about Granite in the neighbourhood of the Lands-end 1s. an acre. The visitor to this romantic cove, onforms the chief building material ; here you find granite vironed by its dark red-tinged Serpentine cliffs and houses granite homesteads,granite fences. It is this which wildly insulated rocks, will feel well repaid for all tho forms the flooring of their houses, this which closes the labour of his pilgrimage. Let him select, if he can, a openings into their fields. As granite is worked only bright sunny day, with a stiff westerly breeze, and by considerable labour, the builder naturally bestows then he will behold a scene of noble blue waves foamas little upon it as he can possibly avoid. The large ing against these huge Serpentine rocks, worth all the size and roughness of outline of the blocks of stone pains he has taken to reach this remote portion of our which are displayed in some of these houses and walls, sland. Let bim not fear lest he shall not meet with a

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