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BERKELEY AND THORNBURY AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION.
MEETING AT BERKELEY.
“The objects of this society are the benefits the mem- serve them crowded under the shelter of the buildings bers will derive from discussions of agricultural subjects, appropriated to the exhibition of cheese and poultry, exhibitions of stock, and the general stimulus to im- where they could neither see nor be seen. Ii there was provement," is the introductory sentence in the book not, as at Battersea, a dairy-maid clad in Highland or which contains the rules and lists of premiums for the other characteristic costume, to attract notice, there current year. How generously these principles have were numerous dairy-maids clad in crinoline most ex. been responded to, and how happy the results, will be pansive, and equally worthy of admiration ; for be it gleaned from the following statistical returns. It is known the farmers' wives and daughters in this district necessary, however, to premise that this society was only almost invariably attend to the duties of their dairies. established in the year 1860, and its limits are con- On this especial occasion they were naturally anxious fined between Gloucester and Bristol, a distance not ex- concerning the result of their labours in the one de. ceeding 35 miles, and the breadth is restricted within partment, and the success that would attend the care some 16 miles. In the first year we find that the ex- they had bestowed on their pet poultry. hibition yard contained 77 head of cattle, 37 horses, In the first class, which was a special premium of 48 sheep, 31 pigs, 31 entries of cheese, and 28 pens of £10, given by the President, the Earl Dacie, for the poultry. The entries in 1861 amounted to 66 head of best bull in the yard, and £5 for the second-best, nine cattle, 31 horses, 135 sheep, 27 pigs, 12 candidates for were exhibited ; two by his Lordship, one by Lord cheese, and 19 competitors for poultry. This year a Fitzhardinge, the others by tenant farmers, and, as will most gratifying augmentation of numbers is apparent. be seen by the prize list, the tenants were successful. Of cattle there were 152, of horses 57, sheep 129, pigs It was indeed a severe contest, and the judges had 52, cheese 24, and 40 pens of the feathered tribe. The great difficulty in deciding to which of the two they success of this society is attributable to the unanimity should award the first prize ; it was eventually given in that prevails among its members, the good understand- favour of Mr. John Hopkins Knight, for Saladin, 3 years ing between landlords and tenants, and the excellent 8 months 2 days old (18794), sire Buckingbam (15700), rules by which it is conducted ; one of which is, that dam Martha (14763). He is a rich roan, of very good “the judges are requested to exclude from competition quality, and took a second prize at the first meeting all or any over-fed animals exhibited for breeding of this society, and a first prize last year ; reversing the stoek, and to consider their merits with a view to ge- fiat at the first meeting, when he was second to Mr. neral purposes.” Thus there were none that could be Saul Savage's Honeysuckle Duke, who, on this occaclassed as animals bred and fed professedly for exbibi- sion, had to resign the premiership. Lord Ducie took tion honours, whereby their utility is diminished—a the first prize in the second class with the bull White feature too frequently apparent at other meetings, where Duke, to whom was last year awarded the second prize this injunction is disregarded. While it does not prevent in a similar class, the first being then secared by his animals of the highest pedigree and character from Lordship's other bull Hornet. Sir George Jenkinson's taking premiums, it does act as a salutary check against bull Lord Marshall acquired second honours, and the baneful consequences of destroying their pro- Lord Pitzbardinge's Prince of Orange third. creative powers.
It is impossible that matters could A score of dairy-cows presented a feature in the have proceeded more to the satisfaction, in every par- exhibition-yard perhaps seldom equalled, either as reticular, of all who were concerned, till the morning of gards quality or numbers. The cow (a remarkably finethe exhibition. As the day broke there were indications framed animal, shown by Messrs. Arnolds of Wickwar) of rain, and at short intervals a few drops descended, which took the first prize gained a similar distinction sufficient to excite in the minds of those most anxious last year; and Miss Darlington, exhibited by Lord for a fine day to smile on the success of their labours, Fitzbardinge, obtained second prizes on both occasions. the hope that they were only the precursors of heat-a Thus the decisions of the judges of 1861 were conhope, however, that was not realized. At about the firmed by their learned brethren of 1862. Mr. Saul hour when the gates were opened for the public it com- Savage secured the second prize with a capital cow; menced raining most unmistakably, and during the but evidently her plethoric condition had due weight greater part of the day it poured down in torrents, with the judges, otherwise a first prize would in all painfully interfering with the enjoyments of the visitors, probability have been awarded to her. Mr. Thomas and also curtailing the anticipated receipts at the gates. Hooper was distinguished by the gratifying noticeIn defiance of the unrelenting torrents, however, the “Highly commended," for a very nice animal, whose yard was well filled, and what it would have been had tender age (under two years and a-half old) has sadly the weather been propitious may be readily imagined. jeopardized her future success. Had her procreative The great interest prevailing throughout the country powers been reserved another year, it is highly probable caused the houses of all, gentry and tenants alike, to be she would have attained more solid rewards. The filled with welcome friends, vast numbers of whom were steers exhibited by Lord Ducie, wbich took the first deterred by the rain from “ assisting” on the occasion. prize in their class, were shorthorns; while Mr.
A large party was invited to Berkeley Castle, and the Hatcher, with two pairs of capital Herefords, took attention devoted by Lord and Lady Fitzhardinge to all second and third. The class for in-calf heifers was admatters of detail and preparation, significantly denoted mirably sustained with 15 pairs, and Mr. Thomas their great anxiety ; and to the indefatigable exertions Collins, an enterprizing tenant-farmer, took the first of the Hon. Colonel Berkeley is due the admirable ar- prize from the Castle stock, who claimed second, and rangements made for the occasion. The farmer's wives Earl Ducie tbird. Mr. Scarlett, who last year took a mustered in goodly numbers, and it was painful to ob. I third prize with the same heifers in the class for stirks, was consoled on this occasion with a commendation, of the books which have been written on the subject, we affording a strong inference that the show of young feel it incumbent to give it insertion. It is as follows: animals has improved. Mr. Richard Barton, another “ The duties that I have had to perform to-day, in conjunctenant-farmer, claimed premiership with a very useful tion with Sir George Jenkinson, have been arduous, but pair of stirks, Lord Ducie being placed second, and agreeable- arduous from the fact of the general excellence of Mr. Ponting (again a tenant-farmer) third ; while the the work, that our greatest difficulty arose from forming an noble house of Berkeley, with three entries, had but one opinion whom not to give a prize to. The competition was so pair commended. This was a glorious triumph for the
close that had one of the competitors given the heel of his farmers, and calculated to encourage them in the im- shoe one more blow on the beak of the anvil, he would have had
a prize instead of a commendation. The duty bas been agreeportant virtue of perseverance. The quality of both bull-calves and heifer-calves was very superior, affording the perfect good feeling existing among you. At the request
able from finding, notwithstanding the rivalry that prevailed, further evidence that the society is working most satis of the gentleman who has so kindly offered these prizes, and factory results in the improvement of the stock -and recognised an art so important to the safety of the rider and here again the tenants triumphed. Mr. Hatcher, with the comfort of the horse, I am induced to offer you some plain two splendid fat Hereford oxen, obtained first and practical remarks on wbat, in my opinion, is the true principle second prizes, with a H. C.; they were bred by Mr. of sboeing. The first principle 1 advocate is the elevated toe, Watkins, of Glasbury, and will be very hard to beat if and my reasons for so doing are these : In the present popular sent to Birmingham. A capital fat shorthorn-cow of shoe you will admit that the toe wears out in ordinary cases Mr. Augustus Barton's and a beautiful Devon took re
first, and that when the toe is worn out the shoe is done with; spective positions in the cow class, whice terminates our
and that very often there is almost as much hora left at the
quarters and the heels as when the shoe is first applied to the observations on the horned cattle.
foot. Now to reduce the friction in that part I take the shoe We now come to the horses : concerning which a that has come off the foot, and shape my new shoe in precisely strong stimulus is wanting to induce Gloucestershire the same form as that, and by so doing I get the wear more farmers to devote more attention to this very important general and the quarters of the shoe worn as much as the toe; branch of their profession-most especially as regards consequently a less amount of iron will suffice, and last a those for hunting and riding purposes. A more careful month, wbich is the limit generally allowed for the shoe to selection of mares is necessary to begin with, and more
remain on. In addition to this, which is certainly a great care must be taken of the produce when young, if they form of the ordinary flat shoe occasions, and consequently
point gained, you reduce the resistance offered, which the are to be rendered in the highest degree profitable. A happy illustration of this was presented by Lord Fitz- progression. I will offer you a familiar instance of it in our
relieve the animal of a portion of the esition he is put to in hardinge, who entered as extra stock a grey mare with
selves. You know what clogs are (shoes with wooden soles). seven foals, and their parade in the paddock was a pleas. There is no fexibility in those, so what does the clogger do? ing sight, and would have been still more charming but Why elevates the toe, as I want you to do the horse's shoe. for the heavy rain which descended at the time. The If you had a flat piece of board on the bottom of your shoes, first of this interesting family was Grimstone, a dark instead of the ordinary shaped one, you would be hardly bay, by Verulam, six years old, a very clever horse, able to walk; and if you did, only with great stress with quality and bone, and (as of course his age denotes)
on your back teodons. I will adduce another instance.
With how much more he is in the hunting-stables ; 80 also is Alderman, a
can we push a barrel brown five years old by Sir Peter Laurie, and Recorder, resistance the angles of the box offer than the circular form
& box! his own brother, one year younger : a grey three years of the barrel ! The foot presents the segment of a circle, old not yet broken, but promising to make a very firsl- during action, the heel coming to the ground first, the toe class horse, is by the same sire as the two last. A two leaving it last. Look at the foot of a cow or a sheep, you will years old, a yearling, and a foal by Elvaston, together see they have elevated toes, and the surface where the greatest with the dam, who is a daughter of Tupsley, afforded a bearing is -is on the quarters. The next point I must draw great treat to the admirers of the equine tribe, and at your attention to is the preparation of the foot for the shoe. the same time an excellent example of the advantages Let that be all done from the ground surface. Lower your obtained by selecting good, sound, and useful mares to
walls and toe with the rasp, whilst the foot is beld between breed from.
your knees, ready for the shoe I have previously described to
you, and you will find your toe will need no shortening from A pleasing feature in the programme was the pay- ihe front. Punch your weil holís as course as you can, and ment to the servants the premiums for long and faithful pitch the nail holes well out, so as to get a broad but low bole servitude. This ceremony took place in the yard, and in the crust. The farther you drive your nails up towards the unfortunately in the midst of a heavy fall of rain. That, coronet, the weaker the horn is. And now let me impress however, did not deter Earl Ducie from attending to the upon you the great importance of pot carping the outer surproceedings in person, which afforded his lordship an face of the crust. Nature always furnishes her most exposed opportunity of making a suitable address. The novelty parts with the greatest proportions; and the outer-layer of of the premiums given by Sir George Jenkinson, Bart.,
the born of the foot performs a similar office as the skin does to smiths for shoeing hunters, produced intense interest
to the other parts of the body, and if you remove that outeramong the disciples of Vulcan, and from its great use
layer, which is almost invariably done by the rasp in finishing
a foot to make it look what they think neat, you expose the fulness that interest became most extensively diffused.
softer and more delicate structures beneath, which are not so We believe there has only been in one instance similar capable of resisting the effects of changes in temperature, of encouragement given to artists in that craft, and on this wet and dry, heat and cold, and lay the foundation of shelly occasion Sir George Jenkinson, Mr. Hallewell, and Mr. feet, seedy toes, and other diseases. Moreover, you diminish Hunt, V. S., of Edgbaston, undertook the responsi. the capability of the born of holding the clencbes. After bilities of awarding the prizes. The first, of £3, was runding your rasp under the clenches, to what we call let it given to James Dawes, who is entrusted with the shoeing in, it is knocked down, and then the rasp applied to it on the of Lord Fitzhardinge's horses. The second prize, of top, until
, what with one thing or another, you reduce £2, went to Richard Mealing, of Westbury-on-Trym; first time the hunter hits the
the clench to the thickness of writing-paper, and the
heel of his foreand the third, £1, to Charles Craddock, of Cheltenham. Mr. Hunt's observations on the important art of sboe- clenches, and the shoe is lost. Now, what I want you to do
foot with his bind in deep ground, away go those weak ing were listened to by the men with the utmost atten- is this : twist off the ends of your nailo, and turn down your tion; and containing, as they do, so much valuable clenches the whole thickness of the nail; should there be a instruction-aye, even in comparatively a few words little bit of horn turned down with your clench, remove it with conveying more information than can be found in half an old knife; don't touch it with your rasp; and if your crust
is not previously ruined by rasping, hammer your clench down For the best pair of heifer calves under one year old.-Fint flush with the crust, and you then not only have got a good prize, £3, Mr. Saul Savage, Leys Farm, Wotton-under-Edge. strong clench the whole thickness of the nail, but you have it Second, £2, Mr. William Jones Ponting, Hamfield, Berkeley. in the densest and toughest portion of the hoof. And now, Highly commended : Mr. Thomas Hooper, Newport, let me irapress upon you, the less you use the knife to the Berkeley. horse's foot the better it will be."
For the best fat ox-First prize, £5, Mr. John Hatcher, The exhibition of sheep and pigs was good; the lat
Marlwood Graogo, Thornbury. Second, £3, Mr. John
Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. Highly commended: ter, superlatively so, Lord Fitzhardinge's fat ones
Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. affording a fine specimen of their class, reposing in the
For the best fat cow. First prize, £5, Mr. Augustus intensity of porcine plethora : they seemed scarcely to Barton, Coaley, Dursley. Second, f.3, Mr. Thomas Day Till, respire. Only eleven months and nine days old, they Moreton, Thornbury. Commended : Mr. Thomas Day Till, had, according to the nearest estimation, attained the Moreton, Thornbury, and Mr. Benjamin Poole, Tockington. weight of eighteen score each. The quality of the cheese was highly spoken of by the judges, and nothing was
HORSES. wanting but a fine day to crown the labours of all engaged in the interests of the Society, with the utmost
JUDGES.- Mr. Edward Bowly, Siddington, Cirencester.
Mr. Hunt, V.S., Edgbaston, Birmingham. success. PRIZE LIST.
(Special Premiums given by the Right Hon. Lord Filzhardinge.) CATTLE.
For the best three-year-old colt or filly for hunting purJUDGES,-Mr. Edward Bowly, Siddington, Cirencester,
poses.-First prize, £10, Mr. Levi Cornock, Lower Stone, Mr. James Gough, Sevington, Chippenham.
Berkeley. Second, £5, Mr. James Bennett, Wickwar, Com.
mended : Mr. Edward Long, Thornbury. ( Special Premiums given by the Earl Ducie.)
For the best two-year-old colt or filly for hunting purposes, For the best bull of any age.-First prize, £10, Mr. John Hopkins Knight, Haw Park Farm, Wotton-under-Edge.
-Prize, £5, Mr. George Adams, Woodford. Highly com. Second, £5, Mr. Saul Savage, Leys Farm, Wotton-under
mended : Mr. James Nickollo, Symond's Hall, Wotton-under
Edge; Mr. Thomas T. Pearce, Mobley, Berkeley (extra Edge. Highly commended : Mr. Levi Cornock, Lower Stone, Berkeley. Commended : Mr. William C. Wetmore, Stone, Berkeley. Commended : Mr. James Nickolls, Symond's Hall
stock); and the Hon. Col. Berkeley, M.P., Wickselme, Berkeley,
Wotton-under-Edge ; Mr. Rushmire Nickolls, Symond's Hall
, (Society's Premiums.)
Wotton-under-edge ; and Mr. J. N. U. Leonard, Slimbridge. For the best bull, cow, and their offspring.–First prize, £10, The Earl Ducie, Tortworth Court, Wotton-under-Edge.
rSociety's Premiums.) Second, £5, Sir George Jenkiuson, Bart., Eastwood Park, For the best stallion for agricultural purposes. First prize, Berkeley. Third, £3, Lord Fitzhardinge, Berkeley Castle. £8. to Col, Kingscote, M.P., Kingecote Park, Wotton-under
For the best bull, above two years old.--First prize, £5, Edge. No second prize, there being no competitors.
For the best mare and foal for agricultural purposes. First For the best bull above one and under two years old.- prize, £5, Mr. Henry Bailey, Walgastos, Berkeley. Second, First prize, £5, The Earl Ducie, Tortworth Court, Wotton- | £3, Mr. Samuel Cox Pulley, Itchingtou, Thornbury. Highly under Edge. Second, £3, Mr. Richard Barton, Downhouse, commended : Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Gravge, ThortCam. Third, £1, Mr. Martin Neale, Pedington, Berkeley. | bury. Commended : Mr. James Taylor, World's-end,
For the best dairy cow.–First prize, £5, Messrs. Arnold, Berkeley.
SHEEP AND PIGS.
Mr. Charles Cook, Taddington, Winchcombe. Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. Com mended: Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury.
For the best five breeding ewes.-First prize, £5, Mr. Extra stock.–Commended : Mr. James Hewitt, North- £2, Mr. Francis Frankcom, Little Badminton. Highly com.
James Nicholls, Symond's Hall, Wotton-under-Edge. Second, wick, Almondsbury.
mended : Mr. Francis Frankcom. Commended : Mr. Richard For the best pair of in-calf heifers.--First prize, £5, Mr. Thomas Collins, Moreton, Thornbury. Second, 63, Lord Tanner, Leighterton, Wotton-under-Edge. Fitzhardinge, Berkeley Castle. Third, £l, the Earl Dacie,
Extra stock. -Mr. George Limbrick, Horton, Tortworth Court, Wotton-under-Edge. Very highly For the best five fat wethers.-- First prize, £5, Mr. Thomas commended : Mr. James Barton, Church Farm, Cam. Day Till, Moreton, Thornbury, Second, £2, Mr. James TayHighly commended: Mr. George B. Robinson, Alderley lor, World's End, Berkeley. New Mille, Wotton-under-Edge, and Mr. Richard Scarlett, For the best five wether lambs.—First prize, £5, Mr. John Thornbury.
Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. Second, £2, Mr. Extra stock.-Highly commended, Mr. G. Robinson, Slim- James Nickolls, Symond's Hall, Wotton-under-Edge. Com. bridge. Commended, the Earl Ducie, Tortworth Court, mended : Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. Wotton-under-Edge. For the best pair of stirks.-- First prize, £5, Mr. Richard Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury. Second, £2, Mr.
For the best five Cbilver lambs.--First prize, £5, Mr. John Barton, Downhouse, Cam. Second, £3, the Earl Ducie, James Nickolls, Symond's Hall, Wotton-under-Edge. ComTortworth Court, Wotton-under-Edge. Third, £1, Mr. mended : Mr. John Hatcher, Marlwood Grange, Thornbury; William Jones Ponting, Hamfield, Berkeley. Highly and Mr. John Gifford, Tockington Court, Bristol. commended : Mr. Saul Savage, Leya Farm, Wotton-under. Edge, and Mr. John Gifford, Tockington Court, Bristol.
For the best ram.-- First prize, £5, Mr. Francis Frankcom, Commended, Lord Fitzhardinge, Berkeley Castle.
Little Badminton. Second, £2, Mr. Francis Frankcom, Little For the best bull-calf uuder one year old. - First prize, £5,
Badminton. Mr. Saul Savage, Leys Farm, Wotton-under-Edge. Second,
Extra Stock ---Highly commended : Mr. George Limbrick, £3, Lord Fitzhardiuge, Berkeley Castle. Third, £1, Mr. | Horton, Elias Barton, Oakleys, Berkeley. Highly commended : Mr. For the best boar more than twelve months old. -Fint James Till, Severn House, Berkeley.
prize, £3 Lord Fitzhardinge, Berkeley Castle. Second, £2, Colonel Master, Knole Park, Bristol. Highly commended :
JUDGES.--Mr. John Cole, Bristol.
Mr. William Pope, Berkeley.
(Special Premiums given by Henry Howard, Esq.)
To the exhibitor of the best hundredweight of extra thick
To the exhibitor of the best huudredweight of thick cheese. send Farm, Charfield.
-First prize, £4, Mr. Robert Keen, Red Hill Farm, Elber-
Berkeley. Commended : Mr. Samuel Harris, Breadstone,
First prize, £3, Colonel Kingscote, M.P., (Special Premiums given by Sir George Jenkinson, Bart., for
E. G. Hallewell, Esq., Oaklands, Dursley.
Mr. Hunt, Edgbaston, Birmingham.
W AYLAND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. Wednesday, Sept. 24, witnessed the annual gathering of the cally appending to the prize-card the words “ Look here !! Wayland Agricultural Society at Walton, Norfolk. The county The polled heifers, in which Mr. H. Stebbing took the first agricultural society being a poor affair, as compared with that prise, were mediocre ; but the fat beasts were good, the first of Suffolk or Essex, the energy and activity of some of the lead prize specimen (Mr. Dewing's) being a noble fellow, giving ing Norfolk spirits has found an outlet in two efficient district one good promise of cut-aud-come-again qualities. In longagricultural organizations, which hold their meetings annually at woolled rams, Mr. T. Brown, of Marham, whose name is hoWalton and North Walsham. Lord Walsingham and his able nourably known beyond the district, carried all before bim, as steward, Mr. H. Woods, have been the life and soul of the weil he might, there being only one other entry. The prize Wayland; and although the latter has been obliged to retire aged ram was one hired from the West Dereham flock (Mr. from the duties of the secretariat, he still gives the society the Hugh Aylmer's) -a fact in itself a guarantee of merit. There benefit of bis valuable adhesion and assistance, his successor was nothing remarkable abont the ram lambs or ewes, Mr. J. in the labours of secretary being Mr. Robinson. There was Brasnett taking the prise in the former, and Mr. C. Hart, for a district gathering a fair show of stock, the entries of Mr. W. Back, and Mr. H. F. Wrightup, in the latter. The agricultural horses were liberal, and the cart mares comprised prize lambs shown by Mr. T. Matthews, jan., were good, and some excellent animals. The first prize cup was taken by Mr. raised the character of the sheep classes. Five SouthTingey with a compact, well-formed bay, nine years old. The down wethers, entered by Mr. J. Sewell
, were also the subject geldings and cart colts and fillies were also fair classes; the of commendation and approval. The pigs were 80-90. first prizes in the former going to Mr. J. Tingey, wbo also In a field adjoining the show-yard Fowler's steam-plough swept off the premium in the cart foal class, while the Mat. was exhibited by Mr. Burrell, of the St. Nicholas Works, thews-father and son-shared the honours in cart fillies, the Thetford. Opinions set in the old direction, that the impleyoung man beating the old man. The entries in the higher ment is more adapted for dealing with heavy clays than with horse classes were meagre, and the backney stallions were con- the light lands of the district, and greater simplicity and sidered so indifferent that no prize was awarded. The hackney cheapness were also insisted on. But the fact is the farmers mares and geldings class was rather better filled, and Mr. scarcely know what it is they do want, and it is not a little Jacobs rather a noted local horae dealer-carried off both strange to hear men condemn an iustrument whicb, after first and second prizes; the first with a bay, and the second years of careful thought has secured general approval elsewith a grey. Mr. Castendieck's thoroughbred stallion Roland where. Granted that the cost of one of Mr. Fowler's appawas on the ground, and was without a rival. The horned bull ratus is too much for individual farmers to undertake, what is class last year was beneath notice; but this year there were ten there to hinder a county or district combining—as has been fair average entries, Mr Birch taking the first prize with a pretty done in Ayrshire--to secure a set of tackle, engine, &c., and good, but not first-rate four-year-old. The polled bulls were to work it among themselves, one subscriber or shareholder *no great shakes.” The prize animal (Mr. Marsh's) was a fair taking it one day and one another? It would be rather exspecimen, but was not very level, and had indifferent 'hips. The pensive work for an individual to make a railway for his own horsed cows of the district were well represented both in sole nee and benefit, but few persons would now be found who numbers and character: the first prize went to Mr. Matthews. would be bold enough to dený, in consequence, that railway The polled cows shown, eleven in number, comprised some communication was an immense advantage. Mr. Burrell's useful, but small animals : the first prize was taken by Mr. T. " speciality" seems to be traction engines on the principle Matthewo, jan,, with a nice roan. 'Mr. J. Sewell, who was (with improvemente in the details) of the late Mr. Boydell ; second-best, bad a good animal of the Norfolk polled stamp. and a few days since he had a public trial at Thetford, of an The horned heifers were not first-rate, and there was some engine of this kind, adapted for corduroy roads. A large grumbling expressed as to the award of the judges, who gave party assembled, including gentlemen from Australis, Norway, their decision in favour of Mr. H. Oldfield, some one ironi- | Canada, Germany, New Zealand, and South America ; a
more than ordinarily-bad corduroy road was improvised, tomed suavity and geniality. The noble lord, however, took and the engine having passed over it several times backwards a bold course with regard to the practical character of the and forward per se, a train of four waggons loaded with pig- speech-making, maiutaining that proceedings at agricultunl iron was attached to it by a chain, and drawn in an excellent dinners sbould be more of a convivial and social character, u manner. Mr. West, an engineer who has lately returned from persons attending agricultural meeting required, after com Sydney, New South Wales, reported favourably as to the paring notes in the show-yard in the morning, to be amused working of one of the engines which had come under his rather than instructed at the dinner in the evening. Practinotice in that colony. After the trial, which extended also cal talk was consequently ignored for the evening, except a into the billy streets of the town, the visitors were shown passing allusion by the poble president to the steam-ploogbing plans of a new traction engine designed by Mr. R. Roberts, trial (in which his lordship reiterated the idea that the appaformerly of the firm of Sharp, Roberts, and Co., Atlas Works, ratus at work was not adapted for the light lands of Norfolk), Manchester, embracing various improvements in the details of and a remark or two by Mr. Flatt, one of the judges, as to the "endless railway" apparatus. Mr. Burrell, it may be the necessity for security of tenure if tenants were to be added, is now constructing an engine to draw coprolites to the stimulated to progress, compensation for unexhausted improve Royston railway station.
ments, &c. The mot d'ordre of the Wayland Society apTo recur for a moment to the Wayland Agricultural 80- pears to be “ Practice, with science in the morning ; compliciety: The proceedings closed, as usual, with a dinner in the ments, with platitudes, in the evening.” Well, everyone to Wayland Hall, Lord Walsingham presiding with his accus- his taste.
PROTECTION TO PROPERTY.
Sir, -Protection to property in a densely-peopled coun- | portant property of all—the most necessary to the existence try includes protection to life ; for without protection to of civilized man. How preposterous, how absurd to expect property misery and destruction would follow, till man was improvement, or even maintenance, of the present condithinned away and reduced to the savage stage. Evidence lion of the vegetable mould, without protection to capital of this decline is visible in various regions of the earth, employed in enriching it, and necessary for its main. where a former dense population had sunk back to that of
It is vaiu to attempt to protect vegetable mould a few wandering savage tribes under the incubus fof des. | by written lease, by rules and restrictions on crop. potism; or, in other words, want of protection to pro. ping. Such will only act as restrictions upon the outlay of perty-mark me—such a want of protection to the industri- capital and skill in improvement, as restriction on pro. ous producers of property in the property they create, or duction of food, and only be productive of quarrel and litiare capable of creating, as we find on the part of our despot gation. Nothing but actual legal right of the farmer to landlord-legislators, which crushes down the energy and the improvement he, and he only, can create in the soil, will industry of our farmers, and is greatly diminishing our bring forth improvement of the soil and increased prorural population. It is this landlord-despotisın--this in- duction. Where is the landlord, where is the man of comcubus upon farmers' industry and production, which has mon sense, who will say nay to this ? And, this admitted, prevented agricultural industry and production in Britain which is the landlord so dead to his country's good, to the from keeping pace with manufacturing industry and popu: good of his fellow.creature, who will go on in his present lation; and, as I have before stated, which will, if not re- mischievous course ? He has before bin a clear and disformed, lead to a land revolution similar to that of France tinct path of right and of wrong-a rising or descending some seventy years ago, or sink the glory of the British path for himself and his country, of which to choose-the empire.
one leading to improvement, British freedom, plenty, conThe writer has before him work in other important fields, tentment, security; the other (facilis descensus averno), a conand, being already beyond the usual term of human life, it tinuation of indirect slavery, leading to famine, disaffection, is necessary to make the best use of his time. He there- destruction; for it is not probable that a system, entailing fore hopes that younger men will take up the subject of degradation of race, and decline and fall of the British protection to property created by the farmer in improve- empire, will be submitted to by the British people. I ment of the soil. It is with regret he has observed only repeat, it is betwixt these two paths that our landlords have one other person, a man of some fourscore years, take up to choose. So sure am I that the present chronic disorder this question of protection to property in the Mark Lane will soon resolve itself into a curative fever-an effort of Erpress, a question beyond all others the most important to nature to relieve herself--and perhaps effect a more radithe national well-being, and which the motto of thut honest cal core of landlord despotism and landlord prevention of paper calls upon them to do. It augurs not well for the improvement than the plan I suggest, that I am doubt. rising energies of Britain that such a subject should be left ful whether I do not do wrong in projecting reform ; wheto the old. Is there no vigour, no independence, no spirit ther it would not be better to allow things to take their of liberty in the young or middle-aged, to denounce, to put natural course. It is, however, my duty, if possible, to redown evil in high places? Is it only those so old as, in a form evil. It belongs to nature to crush it. Yet such must manner, to be released from the indirect slavery, that dare be attended, in this manufacturiog nation, with so great despeak out? Silence, under slavery, in such an intelligent struction of property and life of the innocent, far exceeding and powerful class as the farmers of Britain is more omin- that which took place in France, that I anxiously desire ous-more to be dreaded than speaking out. The slave salutary reform. Two years ago how few in the American can be punished for speaking out. The sole man that has States were aware of the impending destruction! Modern had spirit openly to join in this, states he has been a farmer civilization cannot submit to slavery, whether direct or infor sixty years; and the writer has been so for fifty-six direct. Facts have shown that the writer is no idle dreamer. years. Are we to have none to succeed us in warring His predictions of the Irish famine a number of years before against the enemies of British liberty and British progress. it took place, and his letter in the Standard to Sir Robert It is not from ignorance of the magnitude or debasing Peel, in the autumn (he thinks) of 1845, stating that the character of the evil that aid is wanting: every farmer disaster bad arrived (the first who saw it), that twelve knows its character. Why is aid wanting? Is it manhood millions sterling would be required to preserve human life that is wanting ? Must the evil go on to convulsive cure ? (the actual sum expended by Government), and that a high
This is no myth to sham and play with ; no creature of responsibility rested upon Sir Robert to repeal the corn the ideal, but a dire reality. Here there is no room for dis. laws, which Sir Robert did; but did not follow the previous pute or difference of opinion. We have before us a breach warning and scheme of coloni ion, in alliance with of that for which government was instituted, of that which Mexico, published by the writer eight years previous, is necessary to the formation and existence of property, which would, in a great measure, have prevented the protection. This want of protection affects the most im- | famine, given Britain California, placed Mexico under a