« EelmineJätka »
with a force of only nine horses, supplemented by the this, the turnips bave been preceded by six crops: peas, steam-tackle. The great achievement here is that barley, beans, 'wbest, beans, wbeat. I have farther to time has been gained. The coup de main has been remark that, save for the first crop, the steam-cultivator startling, sudden, overwhelming. Such bold assaults was only used once in a place. The course of cultirain war are often denounced as extravagant of blood, tion was this: Last October the wheat stubble was but they usually turn out to be economical of the vital smashed with No. 3, crossed with horse-scufier, anafuid in the end, and so it will be in this case. These oured and ridged in November, and subsoiled between energetic tenants
made a bold stroke for a farm in the ridges ; costing 178. an acre. During the summer the first instance, and by a clever coup de main they have turnips bare been 4 times horse-boed, and twice band. now, by the trenchant use of well-chosen weapons, boed, the last in July. added a brace of years to the lease without rent.
Looking across the valley to an opposite hill side, a On the 12th September I took a ticket for Penny Strat. few hundred yards distant 1 perceived four horses toilford, crossed the Grand Junction Canal, wbich unites ing to turn a shallow mould furrow. The scene of this the Grand Trunk Canal with the Thames, soon after I operation was a dead fallow, that, as I learned, had left that station, made across Houghton Common, and already been plougbed six times, at an expense of $4 struck upon tbe range of cold clay hill land wbich is 16s., and surely must be further pelled about and precisely similar to that farmed by Mr. Pike. Most of ploughed, for the surface was covered with thistles. the fields presented a very foul appearance ; bean and The next plot for investigation was 8 acres of beans, wheat stubbles were full of thistles and “beggrement.” | cut and stooked. The stalks were podded from top to Two crops and a fallow-a dead fallow, mark, which bottom, and the stubble was remarkably clean. It costs do less than £3 per acre—is the course usually stood out from amongst surrounding crops with the followed ; and the stubble of the first crop is usually so same distinctness as Hallett's wheat at Brighton. The full of weeds that I wonder how the farmers can have land was treated with No. 3 in October, and then the assurance to sow them again. Until steam was in- crossed with horses. In February, the combined matroduced, turnip culture was very unusual in this neigh-chine cultivated and drilled it in eleven hours, the drill bourhood; but in the midst of such a scene as this taking five rows, with 16-inch intervals. In walking dead fallows alternating with weedy stabbles I came across this stubble, I should have thought it a fine upon a fresb, vigorous plot of turnips, where turnips friable loam, had I not seen in the neighbouring field had never been before. It was on a hill side. The the force exerted by four horses to turn a single farrow common land mentioned lay at the bottom, and a com- five inches deep. Drawing the toe of my boot along, it mon, the name of which I forget, covered with furze, was easy to bury the foot, almost anywhere, in three or above. The secret is that the land was “steamed." four inches of mould. The cost of preparing that piece of land occupied by An eight-acre plot of stout, clean wheat-stubble Mr. Bigpold, of Laughton, was about £l per acred joined the beans. The crop had evidently been fine. Passing this foretaste of better things, I came by afrough The preparation for wheat was as follows: One steam lane, which gave me a view of poorly-farmed land of smashing, and crossed with horses. The wbeat was similar description, to 40 acres in one field, upon the sown broadcast ; and not a penny had been expended in same ridge, in the occupation of Mr. Smith, of Wool hoeing or weeding. No hoeing ; and such a stubble. ston. It beamed out very much as an oasis in the de- with such surrounding evidences of thistle tendencies ! sert. The thistle and dock were utterly banished ; and The cost per acre of the operations mentioned is lls., as for couch grass, one had to look very carefully for and the crop estimated by Mr. Smith at 45 bushels. it. The stubbles were strong, and clean to a miracle. I have been thus particular in giving the details of My questions were first put with reference to ten acres this little plot of land, because it illustrates in the best of barley in stook. I ascertained that it was after roots, possible manner what steam can effect, if handled jaand had been broken up and drilled with the combined diciously. It stands in high relief against the surroundcultivator and drill shown at Farningham, in one-and-a. | ing evidences of the expensive and unsuccessful chahalf days, at an expense of 6s. 2d. an acre. A fair com- racter of horse tillage for this description of soil. The parison with horse labour was to be found by crossing Oxford clay—for such is the division of the middle the hedge. Mr. Harwood, a neighbour there, had a oolite which crops out here-assumes in this position piece of barley in stook after roots, manured, and its character of a cold, stiff, wet clay, and is perhaps fed on the land in a manner similar to Mr. Smith's. the most expensive of all the clays to cultivate. Under The land was ploughed in February with four horses, good culture, it produces good crops of wheat, beans, 168. an acre; two scufflings, 2s. each ; one drilling (the oats, clover, and, as I can testify, of turnips ; under bad 17th April), 3s. an acre. Excluding seed and harrow- culture—nay, under horse culture, I would say “I pity ings 238. is the cost of preparation in the one case, 6s. the farmer who has to cope with it : two crops and a 2d. in the other. In both cases the land is clean, but in fallow are all it will admit of. Turnip and sheep husone the crop is vigorous and abundant, in the other weak bandry, until steam culture made them possible, were and sparse. This difference cannot represent the benefit practically unknown; but yet this is the very means by of this mere operation, but that of previous deep cal. which it may be made productive. To a man who is
not clever in the management of such land, it becomes I could not but remark how well the new machine a constant source of disappointment and poverty. The had done its work. Wheel-marks were nowhere visible, mechanical disposition of a clayey soil is deranged by the lines were very straight, and when he had to follow trampling and ploughing in wet weather; and although the windings of a crooked fence I perceived that the it may have a full supply of manure in it, yet the desteersman possessed complete mastery over his imple. rangement so entirely locks up all its energies, that the
necessary fermentation is stopped, and complete barrenI next came upon a 12-acre plot of turnips--the ness is the result. It was the endeavour to induce an seventh crop under steam ; and though a failure by rea- artificial friability and a mechanical pulverization of son of the flies, it spoke in its naked cleanliness volumes this churlish clay which led Mr. Smith to abandon the in favour of steam. The character of the land, too, | plough in favour of the cultivator, and from thence to judging by the tread, is completely changed. The ihe employment of steam, without which he found himlands around, with their frequent dead fallow and yet self powerless. Under horse culture, the rent of the foul surface, present a fitting comparison here ; for mark ! land in this neighbourhood in 203. Under steam, there
.....: £18} 25
Gain by crop
“ Last year
is no reason why it should not be 50s., and prove thus of the combined machine, which cultivated and drilled a more paying concern to both landlord and tenant. the piece at one blow in seventeen hours. I do not The crops raised by Mr. Smith's culture certainly con- trouble myself to advocate in these sketches any partrasted favourably with what I saw the next day in the ticular machine or implement, but only to state facts as neighbourhood of Newport Pagnell, upon splendid land, I find them ; but should I deviate from this course, it rented at 60s, an acre. The operations are simpler, would be to say that wherever it has been used this comless expensive, and more efficient. Horse tillage ap- bined cultivator drill has produced the best results. It pears to perpetuate weeds, while steam tillage most cer- is some test certainly as to the value of a system when tainly eradicates them.
it enables a man to obtain with surety a good crop, In order to come to some definite conclusion as to and which is exceptional in the neighbourhood. Of the pecuniary advantages, on these 38 acres, of steam clover lea there were twelve acres in course of being over horse tillage, I made a few calculations, which are ploughed with a furrow 74 inches deep. Mr. Smith thus summarized :
always ploughs clover lea. It comes in rotation once in 10 acres of Barley :
six years, and he takes it as a good opportunity to Gain by the operation ...... £10
bring up, for salutary mixture with the surface, some of Gain by crop....
the subsoil which has been broken up by the cultivator. 8 acres of Beans :
This ploughing (I am stating his theory) must be a 16
little deeper each time. It follows that presently it will 8 acres of Wheat:
be an operation beyond the power of horses, and at Gaiu by crop....
this point he acknowledges that some other implement 12 acres of Turnips :
for the inversion of the soil will be required in addition Gain by the operation ....
to those he now uses. The furrow was beautifully Gain by half-crop .. .......... £12)
shattered, and apparently quite changed from its original
It was with the greatest pleasure that I visited this, This result, large as it appears for so small a space of the oldest steam-tilled farm in England. Everything land, is, I believe, a fair approximate estimate of the seemed so judiciously arranged. The quiet, cunning, difference between land cultivated for a series of years assured hand of the master-workman was visible everyon the old and on the new system, drawn from my ob. where. In my rambles I have found farmers who, havservations upon Mr. Smith's land and the farms around ing acquired steam, play with it, as a child with a new him.
toy. They set the tackle going, for the sake of seeing it It will have been remarked, however, that horses are
work. Not so Mr. Smith. Not a bit of land bearing by no means dispensed with. While they are retained crop this year has been steamed twice ; the new force upon the farm for carting, and so forth, Mr. Smith does is economized, and reduced to calculation. not object to employ them where they are useful. At I had just 17$ days' work for the steam tackle,” he obseasons when their feet can do no harm, and they are
served to me," and for my horses 43 days' work on unemployed elsewhere, he always brings their muscles the land. It will be the same for the coming year, with nto play.
but slignt variation.” There was a time when steam
was termed an auxiliary to horses ; now it seems horses Descending from this cold clay hill range, and again crossing the canal at another point, I came upon the must be regarded auxiliary to steam. farm in Little Woolston. Here are 70 acres of arable It has been objected to me that Mr. Smith has so land, moderately heavy. The staple is clay, very much small a farm, and has nothing else to do but to give it changed and moderated under the tutelage of No. 3 ; his undivided attention. To this very weak objection, I but beneath it lies a very stiff yellow clay, pierced by I have only to reply that the men around him are in the drains. My first introduction was to twelve acres of habit of giving as undivided an attention to farms quite beans, a tremendous_crop, about seven feet high, the
as small, and yet without producing the same results. stalks well corned. The land is light to the foot, and
And I have further to remark that the way he has made perfectly clean. After wheat it was dressed with ten amongst the tenant farmers of his own county and adtons of manure, smashed once in October, crossed with joining counties, show the opinion of those who have horses, and drilled in February with the combined
had the best means of judging of the benefits of steam culture.
F. R. S. machine. The wheat will be planted, too, with the combined machine ; the cultivator points will penetrate to four inches, and the seed will lie upon a solid bottom. Now for tne thirteen acres of mangolds and swedes in strips. They have been flied, and are not so good as ATWO-STOREY MILKING STOOL.–Something they would have been ; but still the crop is beyond an new under the sun," in the shape of a milking stool for average, and the land is excessively clean. The pre- kicking and unruly cows, is described by a correspondent of paratory processes were as follow : Ten tons of manure
the Iowa Homestead. The stool can be made of inch boards, on the wheat stubble, which was smashed up ten inches and has many advantages over the old-fashioned one. First deep, and crossed with horses. In November horses milker, and have, in addition, room for the milkpail. This
procure a piece of board of sufficient size to accommodate the ridged it, and it was subsoiled between the ridges to a
may be put on legs of about eight inches in height. Then depth of sixteen or eighteen inches. The total cost of upon this erect another seat or stool, covering half the space culture so far was 178. an acre. Thus it lay till spring,
of the bottom one, for the milker to sit, thereby giving him when the ridges were cleaned with a hand hoe, and the a chance in front to let the pail remain firm and steady, not seed drilled by hand machine. The first plant failed, the liable to get kicked over, and by being up from the ground land was fresh hoed and drilled, and before me was the kept free from dirt and mud, and so close to the udder as to crop, which had been four times horse-hoed, and twice prevent loss from milking over, &c. If a cow is in the hahand-hoed between the plants.
bit of kicking, the milker, by using a stool of this descrip
tion, can have both hands to prevent her heels from coming Beyond this lay a plot of barley, fourteen acres. The in contact with the pail, which sits firm upon the front part carters were at work removing to the stack the abun- of the stool, steadied by his knees. He could in a short dant produce from off the clean strong stubble, the time effectually break a cow of the habit of kicking while straight regular lines of which did credit to the working being milked.
AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS, IRELAND, 1862.
CEREAL CROPS, The following are the results as regards the area under crops in 1882 compared with those for the previons year;
357,816 Oats...................................... 1,999,160
192,407 Bere and rye...
12,157 Beans and peas
2,552,223 Net decrease in cereal crops in 1862.............
72,734 Acres. Compared with 1861 there appears a decrease of 43,427 acres in the extent ander wheat; 24,423 in that under oats ; and 6,548 in barley: equal to a diminution of 10.8 acres in every 100 of wheat, 1.2 of oats, and 3,3 of barley.
Bere and rye increased by 575 acres, or 6 per cent., and beans and peas by 1,089 acres, or 7.8 per cent,
GREEN CROPS. The area under green crops is given in the following abstract. There is an increase in turnips of 48,045 acres; in mangel warzel and beet, of 296 acres; and in cabbage, of 491 acres. · Potatoes exhibit a decrease of 116,187 acres; carrots, parsnips, and “other green crops," of 1,926 acres; and vetches and rape, of 504 acres-showing on the whole a net decrease of 74,735 acres in the extent under green crops in 1862, compared with the previous year.
Meadow and clover covered 1,552,829 acres in 1862, being an increase of 6,623 acres above the extent in 1861,
GENERAL SUMMARY, The following is a summary of the variations in the acreage under cereals, green crops, meadow, and flax, between 1861 and 1862:
Of the decrease ia land under crops this year, 138,841 acres, 117,832 would seem to have merged into grass, 1,066 Fera returned as under woods and plantations, and 870 went to increase the fallow, leaving an area of 19,073 acres, used for grazing in 1861, which appear to have been unstocked at the time of the last enumeration, but are available for pastora when required
According to 12 Tetu. received from the Enumerators, the increase under the head of "Bog and Waste" would egneer to be conaned to the province of Connaught; for, whilst the extent under “ Crops" has decreased in all the provinces- Leinster, Munster, and Ulster show an increased area under Grass, Fallow, and Plantations-Connaught alone exhibiting an apparent increase under Bog and Waste.
As regards the different descriptions of live stock, the following summaries exhibit the changes which have taken place in their number and value between 1855 and 1862, and between 1861 and 1862 :
TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVE STOCK IN IRELAND IN EACH YEAR, FROM 1855 to 1862, INCLUSIVE.
TOTAL VALUE OF LIVE STOCK IN IRELAND IN EACH YEAR, from 1855 to 1862, calculated according to the rates assumed by
the Census Commissioners of 1841, viz., for Horses £8 each, Cattle £6 10s., Sheep 22s., and Pigs 25s. each.
35,368,259 33,885,047 32,769,035 31,204,325
Decrease : Decrease: Decrease : Decrease :
£385,248 £2,041,026 £161,100 £32,275 £1,849,153
Increase: Decrease :
£78,312 £1,438,398 £110,179 £62,179 £1,564,710 With reference to the reduced acreage under crops this year, I believe that, independent of the growing disposition for pasture land which is observable, it may be very much attributed to the unfavourable seasons of the last few years, owing to which the yield of crops was considerably under the average, and the profits of the farmer greatly diminished; so that the means usaally applicable for cultivation of the soil were consequently lessened, and capital encroached upon for the paymeut of rent and other demands, which under favourable circumstances are paid out of the annual produce of the land.
The returns of tillage and live stock from which these abstracts are compiled are altogether voluntary; and I beg to observe, that the good feeling and intelligence displayed by the occupiers of land in Ireland, of every rank and class, by 80 readily affording the required information to the Enumarators, is most creditable. And I also venture to remark, that it is gratifying to observe the increased desire for the collection of agricultural istics which has been lately exhibited in many of the counties of England, at very important meetings specially convened to consider the subject. Agricultural and Emigration Statistics Office, 15th Sepi., 1862.
WILLIAM DONNELLY, Registrar-General.
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURE. The overland mail has brought us some interest- great relative disparity between the agrarian interests ing details from South Australia, which seem to mark of the two colonies gradually decrease. the growing progress of this important and rising The land fenced in, but not cultivated, in South Auscolony. The high position which it has recently taken tralia, amounted to 1,388,160 acres, and exceeded the by the awards conferred by the jurors at tbe Inter- enclosed pasturage of the previous year by 236,984 national Exhibition has led to a demand for information acres. The number of acres under cultivation in the on the part of the public respecting its resources and season 1861-62 was 486,667, against 428,816 acres in present condition. The statistical details just taken in the previous season, an augmentation of 57,851 acres, or the colony furnish most apropns all that is required with 31.5 per cent. These figures give 3.71 acres to each inregard to its land, crops, and live stock.
dividual of the population; at the end of 1856 the rate From these official returns it appears that at the close per head was only 2.38 acres. Tillage increases at a of 1861 the total quantity of land alienated from the greater rate than the alienation of the Crown lands, 20 per Crown, in South Australia, amounted to 2,379,048 acres, cent. of the land sold being under cultivation, against ot' which 1,393,672 acres were in the occupation of the 19 per cent. in 1861, and 13 per cent. in 1856. Of the proprietors themselves. As respects average price per total land cultivated 310,636 acres or 64 'per cent. was acre, with the exception of 1861, which shows a little under wheat. The yield amounted to only 3,410,756 advance in price as well as in quantity sold, the sum bush. against 3,576,593 bushels in the previous season, realised has been gradually falling away for several This shows a deficiency of 2 bush. 5lbs. per acre, or over years. Of late the acquirement of land has out. 400,000 bushels, had the yield been equal to the averstripped the increase of population, until at the end age of the year previous, although 36,964 acres addiof 1861 the lands alienated from the Crown in this co- tional were sown with wheat. The average yield lony amounted to 18.2 acres for every man, woman, throughout the province was but 10 bushels 59 lbs., and child in the province. The lands alienated in Vic- against 13 bushels 141bs, in the previous year. This toria amount to but five acres per head of the popula- decreased production arose from gales and heavy rains tion ; so that the people of South Australia own, in pro- in December, wbich shook out much of the grain, and portion to their numbers, nearly four times as much laid the straw. land as the people of Victoria. The average extent of Another cause of the low average of the aggregate holdings throughout the colony of Victoria in 1859 was yield is, that much land was sown with wheat which 218 acres, and the average number of acres cultivated was not of the description best suited for the sucby each holder is 26. We have, as yet, no means of cessful cultivation in ordinary seasons of that cereal, a comparing these figures with those of South Australia. state of things doubtless owing to numerous small free
We have before us a volume of Victorian statistics holders and tenant farmers being compelled, whatever from 1835 to 1860. At the last mentioned date the the situation or the nature of the soil, to cultivate the "holdings” were subdivided into nine classes, viz., crop, raised with the least labour, and capable of being under 5 acres ; 5 and under 15 ; 15 and under gathered by machine. More than two-thirds of the 30 ; 30 and under 50; 50 and under 100 ; 100 and crops are reaped by machine in the colony. under 200 ; 200 and under 350 ; 350 and under 500 Proceeding from the subject of the culture of wheat, acres ; and 500 acres and upwards. Of the first class which is at present almost the sole reliance of there were 786 holdings ; of the second class, 1,674 ; South Australian farmers, forming as it does twoof the third class, 1,241; of the fourth class, 1,206 ; thirds of the whole cultivation, the next important of the fifth class, 2,199 ; of the sixth class, 2,087 ; of crop to be noticed is that of' hay, forming 13 per cent. the seventh class, 1,140 ; of the eighth class, 273 ; of the total tillage. 62,874 acres, principally wheaten and of the ninth class, 967. It will hence be seen that or oaten hay, were grown,against 55,818 acres in the the largest number of farms in Victoria are those that previous season-an addition of one-tenth, the produce range from 100 acres to 200 acres each, and the next amounting to 78,886 tons and 71,241 tons in the relargest those that range from 50 acres to 100. The spective years. The average yield of the bay crop was holdings of 500 acres and upwards include all the pur- the same in both seasons, or twenty-five hundred weight chased runs, and represent a wider aggregate acreage to the acre. than all the other eight classes combined. The total About one-tenth more land was planted with potanumber of all the “ holdings" in Victoria was 11,573— toes than in the previous year, 2,612 acres producing (exclusive of town and village allotments) : the total 7,726 tons in 1861-2, against 2,348 acres yielding 7,113 acreage of those holdings being 2,519,156; and the tons, the average produce being 59 cwt., or a huntotal of acres cultivated 298,959. More recent returns dredweight and a-half less than in the year before. show an increase upon the foregoing figures. On the The above supply was insufficient for the local consump31st March, 1861, there were, in Victoria, 2,076,014 tion ; 2,450 tons, or nearly one-third more, having acres of enclosed land not cultivated, against 1,388,160 been imported at a cost of £13,419 for an article that acres in South Australia, enclosed but not cultivated on could have been produced in the colony of equal quathe 31st March, 1862. On the same dates the land under lity to that imported. tillage in Victoria amounted to 419,380 acres, and in The live stock returns show an addition to the numSouth Australia to 486,667 acres ; so that whilst the ber of all kinds of stock except horned cattle. There people of South Australia exceed the people of Victoria is an increase of 3,198 horses, making a total of 52,597 ; as landowners in the proportion of four to one, they of which 47,434 are returned in the counties, and surpass them as cultivators of the soil in the propor- 5,163 in the pastoral districts. The shipment of South tion of more than five to one. The Victorians, with Australian horses to India and other ports during the their recent Land Bill and their permanent provision for past three years has attained some importance, about immigration, are, however, trying new and important 500 being the average number exported in each year. experiments, and we may expect to find the present | The decrease in the number of horned cattle is