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While upon hackneys, we may add that premiums given by his legs again, and it was thought that he was going to aiMr. C. Flower for the best hackney brood mares and foals tempt a reply, but he put it off-discretion again-to that went to Mr. Cubitt and Mr. T. Dolphin respectively. Some indefinite period "some future day," when the incident will elever chesnut fillies shown by Mr. Culley attracted much probably be forgotten. Mr. Beare responded for the suonotice. The district is not great in sheep, and prizes were cessful exhibitors, expressing an opinion that the prodao only offered for fat shearlings and hoggets, Mr. J. B. Perritt tion of meat in England was keeping pace with the increase took the first prize with five . pretty good Southdowns, and of population, although he was afraid the farmers of the disMr, Utting, who has attained equal success on previous occa- trict were going backward if anything with regard to the sions, was again pre-eminent in hoggetts. The pigs shown growth of wheat. Mr. Cubitt disputed this latter assertion, demonstrated that the district is makiug some progress in the however, and contended that all statisties proved the copath of porcine amelioration, Berksbire and Suffolk blood trary. Formerly the land was generally farmed on a six having been introduced, the latter from the well-known re- years' shift, bearing wheat but once in six years, while alsources accumulated in re pigs by Mr. Stearn, of Brandeston.most all land was now farmed on a four-year course. The The show included fair specimens of mangolds, swedes, and failure in the horse classes Mr. Cubitt attributed to the

Mr. turnips, of which heavy crops are ordinarily produced in the non-employment of stallions of sufficient merit. neighbourhood, and cereals were also represented. A prize of Cubitt, who acted as judge of roots, stated that on every £5 offered by Sir T. F. Buxton for the best root crop grown farm which he and his colleagues visited, they found manby any one member of the society, occupying not less than 100 gold wurtzel more blighted and diseased than in the preacres, taking quality of soil and cultivation into account, went vious year. The swedes were generally a good crop, bat to Mr. Learner, who submitted a heavy and sedulously deve- much mildewed, although 10 to 12 tons per acre were found loped yield.

on the early-sown fields. The white or common turnips A notable point after several hours spent in a breezy show- inspected were excellent, and it became a question whether yard--and one can sniff the sea at North Walsbam-is dinner. it would not be desirable to extend their cultivation. From contemplation of so much goodly raw material, the transition is irresistible to the manufactured commodity, and this was found ready at hand at the King's Arms, where about 100 gentlemen sat down, with Lord Suffield in the chair. The noble lord was“ supported" by Major-General Windham, of " Redan" fame; Mr. E. Howes, M.P., whose diligence at

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S quarter sessions seems to have ensconced him without a struggle on the softly-padded but withal thorny benches of AWARDS IN THE AGRICULTURAL Westminster; Mr. C. Buxton, M.P. for Maidstone, and almost all the leading inhabitants of the neighbourhood.

CLASSES.- October 8. Everythivg went on smoothly enough for some time, the same

AGRICULTURAL ROOTS AND VEGETABLES. stock toasts produciog the same stock speeches. Mr. C. Buxton made a desperate attempt to be funny about pigs,

Mangel Wurzel: Long Red, three roots.-Mr. J. Heath, which he said were regarded in England as dear friends-even Winchester. Bronze Medal, more highly-esteemed than M.P.8—while abroad they were

Mangel Wurzel : Long Yellow, three roots.-Messrs. somehow regarded as enemies; and in Italy and Greece looked

Sutton & Sons, Reading. Bronze Medal. more like crosses between panthers and antelopes than good

Mangel Wurzel: Yellow Globe, three roots.-Messrs. honest porkers. Of course these witticisms provoked "laugh- Sutton & Sons, Reading. Bronze Medal. ter," “ renewed merriment," and so on, till the hon, member

Mangel Wurzel : Red Globe, three roots,-Mr. J. Perkins, appeared to think it necessary to set off his jokes with a refer- Northampton. Bronze Medal. ence to the less exhilarating topic of poor-sales and post-office Beet: White Sugar, three roots.-The Rev, T. Stevens, savings-banks, Mr. Howes' turn soon afterwards came, and St. Andrews' College, Reading. Bronze Medal. as he is always looked upon as a "safe" man-discreet at any Carrots: White Belgian, six roots.- His Grace the Duke rate, if not brilliant-it was generally thought that his com- of Portland, Clipstone Park. Bronze Medal. mon places would be listened to with silent respect, if indeed Carrots : Altringham, six roots.-His Grace the Duke of they did not bring out a few “ hear, heara”-why people Portland, Clipstone Park, Bronze Medal. should all gruot out “ bear, hear," and so drown to some ex- Turnips : Swedes, six roots.--Mr. S. Robinson, Shaw tent wbat they wish other people to appreciate as well as them- house. Bronze Medal. selves, is what Lord Dundreary says a " fellah never Turnips: Yellow, six roots.-Messrs. Sutton & Sons, could understand.” But the honourable

member Reading Bronze Medal. found he was treading on a volcano when he least Turnips: White, six roots. Messrs. J. Ivery & Son, expected it; and when he " regretted” that there had been Dorking and Reigate. Bronze Medal. opposition to the new poaching act in the House of Com- Kohl Rabi : Six roots.-Messrs. Sutton & Sons, Reading. mons, adding that he himself supported it, there was an Bronze Medal. unmistakeable and general hiss, in which a few counter cheers were almost lost.

CEREALS. Nothing daunted, Mr. Howes persisted that the new bill would be found of the greatest General Collection of Wheats from all quarters.--Mr. F. use where it was carried into effect with judgment and dis- L. Simmonds, 8, Winchester Street, S. W. Bronze Medal. cretion; and although he admitted that it was not much Collection of Wheats from any one quarter.-Messrs. H. wanted, and therefore would not be attended with much Raynbird & Co., Basingstoke. Bronze Medal. expense in Norfolk, he insisted that it was much needed in Collection of Wheats grown in Lower Canada.-Mr. B. the midland counties, for the sake of which he had mainly Chamberlain, 15, Fulham Place, Maida Hill. Bronze supported the measure. At this there was some more biss- Medal. ing, and shortly after Mr. Clare Sewell Read, in responding Collection of Wheats grown in Upper Canada. Mr. C. for the judges, spoke out manfully for his order. He said J. Dixon, 15, Fulham Place, Maida Hill. Bronze Medal. they were patted on the back by their landlords and county Collection of Wheats grown in Australia.- The CommisM.P's, and told that they were very clever and enterprising sioners for the colony of Victoria. Bronze Medal. fellows; but actions must be looked to, not compliments, Collection of Wheats grown in England.-Messrs. H. and they were now told in effect that, although they were Raynbird & Co., Basingstoke. Bronze Medal. so intelligent, the management of the roads should be taken Collection of Wheats sold in London Market -Messrs. from them; and although they were so independent, as they J. Wrench & Sons, London Bridge. Bronze Medal. had shown their independence so long by feeding their Sample of White Wheat of any kind.-Mr. W. Dixon, landlord's game, they should now pay for the preservation Canadian Court, International Exhibition, Bronze Medal. of it also. This blunt, courageous speech took the meeting The Commissioners for Victoria, Australia. Commended. completely by surprise, and elicited loud shouts of applause, Sample of Red Wheat of any kind.-Messrs. H, Raynbird and cries for "more." "No," rejoined Mr. Read, amid & Co., Basingstoke. Bronze Medal, more applause, “I will simply say, God preserve us from our so-called friends," Mr. Howes was soon seen to be on

Collection of Barley from any one quarter.-Messrs, J. Wrench and Sons, London Bridge. Bronze Medal.

General Collection of Barley from all quarters. Messrs.

Their chief labour of love has been the Act for the better H. Raynbird & Co., Basingstoke. Bronze Medal.

and more economical protection of game, and for giving Malting Barley.—Messrs. H. Raynbird & Co., Basing. landowners the assistance of the police force maintained stoke. Bronze Medal.

chiefly at the expense of the occupants of land. We do Collection of Oats from any one quarter.—The Com

not need to be reminded of the latter in particular, We missioners for the colony of Victoria, Australia. Bronze shall remember it at the hustings, and perhaps some of the Medal. Mr. J. Hurlbart, Canadian Court, International worthy advocates of that measure will then receive their Exhibition. Highly Commended.

reward, and be relieved from further legislative exertion in Black Oats. - Mr. J. Choyce, Atherstone. Bronze that direction. But not to raise the question of “game," Medal.

of which farmers know too muco, I will simply say that the White Oats.-The Commissioners for the colony of Vic-opinion of the public is, that the speeches generally made toria, Australia. Bronze Medal.

are, to use an expressive term, “bunkum," and that is the Rye.--Mr. E. W. A. Dixon, 15, Fulham Place, Maida

reason why the dinners of the society are so meagrely atHill. Bronze Medal.

tended. There is no practical and useful discussion as at Collection of Rice from all quarters.--Mr. P. L. Sim- other agricultural meetings, where it is the custom for monds, 8, Winchester Street, S.W. Bronze Medal.

tenant farmers of experience to take a prominent position, Head of Maize, or Indian Corn, of any kind.-Mr. W. and to speak of the merits and defects of the show, and of Dixon, Canadian Court, International Exhibition. Bronze the success, failure, prospects, and practice of agriculture. Medal.

-A MEMBER of the Hereford Society, in The Hereford Collection of different kinds of Maize, in heads, best

Times, quality.--Mr. E. Stuart, Villa Stuart, Nice. Bronze Meda!. Collection of Maize : most numerous in kinds. Mr. P.

FAILURE OF THE NEW POACHING ACT. The L. Simmonds, 8, Winchester Street, S.W. Bronze Medal.

following case has been heard before the Leicester Borough Cereals of any kind, not included in the above. - Mr. J. Magistrates. A man named Thomas Roullson, a well known B. Lawes, Rothamsted, St. Albans, Silver Medal. Mr. poaching character, appeared in answer to a summons charsA. Dixon, Canada

West ( Buckwheat). Highly Commended, ing him with having game in his possession on the Saturday Peas.-Mr. D. Honeyman, Nova Scotian Court, Interna. tional Exhibition. Bronze Medal. & Mr. E. W. Thompson, policemen were going off duty along Brunswick-street, Lei

morning previous. From the evidence it appears that some Toronto, Canada West. Bronze Medal.

cester, wben they met the defendant and another man, who Beans. -Mr. D. Honeyman, Nova Scotian Court, International Exhibition. Bronze Medal. Mr. L. V. Sicotte, game in their possession, they stopped them, when on the de

appeared to be heavily laden. Suspecting them to bave some St. Hyacinthe, Canada, East. Bronze Medal,

fendant was found a bag containing twelve rabbits and a large GENERAL COLLECTION OF SEEDS AND ROOTS.

Det (60 yards long), such as is used by poachers. On the

other man was found anotber bag containing eleven rabbits. Messrs. Sutton & Sons, ding. Silver Medal,

Having taken their names and addresses, the police took the game and netting from the men and left.

The other person COLLECTION OF GRASSES AND CLOVER SEEDS. had, however, given a wrong address, and could not be found. Sutton and Sons, Reading. Bronze Medal.

Defendant, in answer to the charge, said he got them from land where he bad a right to go, and all he could carry on his back he considered he was entitled to. The Town Clerk said this was the first case which had come before the Borough Magistrates under the recent Poaching Act, and he tho got it necessary to call attention to the provisions of the statute.

The clause under which the information was laid might be THE FARMERS' FRIENDS.

divided into two parts-one relating to the duty of the policeIn LEICESTERSHIRE.—As if to show how utterly absent

man, the other to the offence to be proved before the magis

trates. With respect to the policeman, his duty was to search from the meeting was all chance of the expression of agricultural sentiment, Lord Berners, one of the authors of the

any person he may meet on the highway whom be may have new Game Preservation Act, said: "I am glad that this

good cause to suspect of coming from lands where he shall

have been unlawfully in search of game, and having in bis society, while rigidly excluding party politics, is founded upon the principle of not excluding the discussion of ques.

possession auy game unlawfully obtained. In the case before tions of a fiscal or social character which may affect the

them it was therefore clear that the constable was justified in general interests of the country. This has been the means

searching the defendant and detaining the rabbits so found of enabling the farmers to meet together and discuss their

-rabbits being game for the purposes of the Act. It was grievances, with the view, if necessary, of drawing up peti

then the policeman's duty to lay an information before the tions for presentation to both houses of the Legislature." magistrates, and the offence to be proved before them was

that of the defendant having obtained the game so found by Can anything be more absurd than such a statement ? What was one of the chief grievances of the Leicestershire going unlawfully on land in search or in pursuit of game. tenants? Why game, with all the incidents of vexation and

The mere possession of the rabbits was not legal proof of the loss which game preservation brings to them. Were there defendant having unlawfully obtained them, and the Act did not any of Mr. Hartopp's tenants there? If so, what did they impose upon him the obligation of accounting for the possession think-though they said nothing about game, and more

of, or of showing how he obtained them. The game might stringent laws for the preservation of game? Surely it

have been lawfully obtained by purcbase, or, as the defendant must have been in the spirit of mockery that Lord Berners

had said, going on land where he bad a right to search for was put up to talk about "farmers' grievances." Why he

game. It might also have been unlawfully obtained, but by not has just made himself, par excellance, a farmer's grievance! going

on land. It might have been received from some person -The Economist.

who bad without his knowledge uolawfully obtained it, or it

might have been taken on the highway. In none of such cases In HEREFORDSHIRE. We all highly respect our parlia- would the offeuce be within the words of the Act. A recent mentary representatives irrespective of their politics, and

Act of Parliament required any suspected person found in we are greatly obliged to them for their patronage in times possession of any deer to account satisfactorily for the same, past, and even now (so far as we need it); but these are not but there was no such provision in the present Act, and this sufficient reasons for us to be bored with long useless

difference confirmed him in the construction of it. He was speeches containing a resumé of the labours of the parlia- therefore of opinion that it was the duty of the prosecutor to mentary session, observations on foreign and home affairs, prove the offence charged by distinct affirmative evidence, and congratulation or condolement on the results of the and as the only proof before the magistrates was that of mere harvest. Farmers are not so ignorant of matters as to re- possession on the highway, he must advise the magistrates to quire this special information-thrice repeated-at their dismiss the case. The Mayor then discharged the defendant, agricultural meetings. We are aware, all of us, what amidst applause from the Court as the rabbits were restored our members have aided in doing during the last session. to him.


Sir,—The interesting letters upon “Sheep-breeding” that this subject, I shall endeavour to make a convert of Mr. Wrigbt, appear from time to time in your paper are calculated in many by submitting to him that every most valuable tribe of cattle instances to mislead the uninitiated. In this observation I in England were bred in-and-in, yet from the right sort to refer in particular to those you have extracted from the Syd- tegin with. ney Morning Herald, and that have appeared in your issue The most famous cattle-breeders that were ushered in to us of last week, written by James Wright and by N. P. Bayly. with the present century were the Messra. Colling, of DasThe latter gentleman especially writes so very well, erroneous lington. These men, as can readily be seen from “ Coates," as his doctrines are, that the very plausibility of what he ad selected their breeding beasts from various sources, as the vances may be of serious harm in a community of " casual French did their sheep. This they did no doubt with great observers." Thus, both of the above-pamed writers would skill, at the same time with a full knowledge of the strains lead us to suppose that the nucleus of the Rambouillet flock of blood of their various purchasers. From these animals bad been selected from the sheep of ten different breeders, they bred carefully and closely, until from brother and sister purposely for crossing. Now, an impartial peru sal of the they produced the bull “Favourite” (252). This bull was Baron's report will not admit of that construction. The allowed by all competent judges who saw him to be the best natural inference drawn from the circumstance rather is, that in the world. What use his owner made of him can be best no smaller number of flocks could afford to yield 383 sheep seen by referring again to “Coates,” and giving the pedigree sufficiently good, in the opinion of those intrusted with the of a cow or two. Here it is : selection, for the great national object in view. This, sir, is the "Barmpton, red and white, bred by Mr. R. Colling; got by only just and candid interpretation of the Baron's utterances. Favourite' (252); dam ' Bright Eyes' by 'Favourite' (252); And if the report in question had not been altogether so very grandam by 'Favourite' (252); great grandam by · Favourite' explicit upon this and various other points, as it fortunately (252)" &c. &c. is, I could easily conceive what course of management had Here, sir, we see that while his owners considered been pursued with regard to the French flock, since it was " Favourite” (252) their best sire, they used him to his own first formed, from the results being so very successful. Indeed, descendants, generation after generation, to the day of his I teel certain that similar results-namely, a satisfactory type, death. To show that they acted wisely, I may mention that combined with a permanent character-can never be secured at Charles Colling's sale, in 1810, “Comet” (155), an aged in any department of stock-breeding, but by adopting the bull, got by “ Favourite” (252), and out of a sister of one course, that is, selecting the right parents to begin with, "Favourite” (252), realized the enormous (in those days) sum and breeding continuously afterwards from this family, with of one thousand guineas ; and no bull could well be bred inout any external mixture or foreign croas. Every best man and-in more than was “Comet” (155). His father was his and beast, of whose history I know anything, bas been bred grandfather, his great grandfather, his uncle, his grandin this way; and I think it could be easily shown that every uncle, his cousin, and what not; his mother was his sister, man who has distinguished himself for successful breeding in his aunt, his full cousin, and second cousin, and every other the British Empire has diligently pursued this course. But

cousin. Mr. Wright is not satisfied with advancing vague and general

It is probable Mr. Wright will imagine, upon the strength theories in support of an opposite course in reference to sheep of this close-breeding, that his purchasers regretted their larbreeding, but in the warmth of his onslaught upon those gain. Not so. No sooner were his calves seen with his der whose judgment is happily better founded than his own, he owners, than they were offered 1,500 guineas for him, an unhesitatingly oversteps the bounds of his province, and says: offer that was at once declined; and all the most valuable

The effect of breeding in-and-in is not confined to sheep. cattle from “ Comet's” day to our own are bred after this It is very manifest in the majority of the herds of cattle, and fashion. Bates, of Kirkleavington, procured his first the mobs of horses throughout the colony, from want of "Duchess" from Colling. No man could be a greater enthu. knowledge and want of power to prevent it, &c., &c.”

siast-no man had greater experience than Bates, yet he was Now, sir, in this paragraph Mr. Wright verifies the saying, not satisfied with the half brothers and very near relations for "a little learning is a dangerous thing.” I have for thirty sires, but he procured for the use of “ Duchess" an own broyears paid a good deal of attention to cattle-breeding, but I ther—"Duke" (226) — bone of their bone, and flesh of their never thought the inferiority of our herds onght to be attri- flesh for many generations. From these he bred a fixed perbuted to in-and-in breeding. No; the inferiority of our manent type. His mode of breeding was not only sanctioned herda is only the result—the legitimate result of indiscrimi- but heartily encouraged by the lovers of shorthorn cattle, Date crossing. So little regard has been devoted to breed in both in the old world and in the new. That he felt satisfied their management, that it is now wholly out of the power of himself that he held "correct opinions” can be readily seen the most skillful to say whether they are Longhorns, Short- from his contributions to the agricultural prints of his day, horns, Devons, Scotch, Welsh, or Irish. Had our herds been In one of these, he says: “When I began breeding, early in bred in-and-in from the originals, with due care aud skill exer- life, I acted on sure principles, and on data that can never decised in the selection of sires, their superiority would be now ceive; and success has been the certain result. And my as striking as unfortunately is the reverse. I assume in say- breed of Shorthorn cattle may yet be further improved from ing this, that the originals themselves were of the right sort. my own herd, and they can be improved from no other." If so, and that the natural process (using the best sire) had The“ sure priociples" and " data” of Mr. Bates are DO been facilitated, the type would be now grand, the character mystery. He possessed bimself of parents of the right kind, would be now permaneut. As I have not at all touched upon as was done in the case of the Rambouillet Aock, and bred

closely and carefully from these, to the exclusion of every mulation of proved blood in one individual.” That this docother blood. And many men who would not believe in his trine is the right one can hardly, now-a-dayı, be disputed. day that his mode was the proper one are since convinced. Mr. Booth's cattle have become so very valuable that no one The pure offspring of his cattle have been sought after far and can now purchase a single hoof from him. His bulls, pronear; re-conveyed across the Atlantic, and sold, in some in- bably numbering upwards of thirty, are hired out by the seastances, as high as four shillings an ounce. A startling fact son at an average rental of £200 each. Some very particular that is, to those who recommend crossing.

hirers, indeed, and crack breeders, like Mr. Carr, of StackAnother breeder of no less note, although a Hereford man, house, go as high as three hundred guineas for the season for was the late Mr. Jobn Price, of Poole House. Indeed, I do their favourite bull—if they can get him. And even at these not know of any man, dead or living, who understood the rents the " Booth bulls” pay their hirers well. From their principles of breeding better. Mr. Price saw clearly the in- close breeding and extraordinary family merit, their hereditjurious effect crossing had upon animals ; that if animals had ary force is quite irresistible. This is the reason why the hire been left pure and in their natural state, they would for one of them, for a single season, is more than would be be perfect. In forming bis herd, he accordingly took sufficient to buy, for good and all, a bull apparently very good, a great deal of pains to secure a tribe that was for gene- but of mixed blood, such as Mr. Wright would recommend to rations bred in the natural way. This tribe he thus people. speaks of, latterly in life: “I have kept the blood of these

Lastly, I myself bave here a heifer from which, for various cattle unadulterated for forty years, and Mr. Tomkins," of reasons, I wish to produce a male calf. I had at this time as whom he bought them, “ assured me that he had bred the good a bull as I could wish-her first cousin. This relationwhole of his stock from two beifers and a bull selected by ship, in my opinion, was remote enough to admit of an uncerhimself in eariy life, without any cross of blood. My herd of tainty in the character of the offspring. To preserve my type cattle bas, therefore, been bred in-and-in, as it is termed, for I used her brother. The produce was a bull. He is now upwards of eighty years, and by far the greater part of it in a thirteen months old. Should he and I visit Melbourne todirect line on both sides from one cow, now in call for the gether, he shall halt at the door of the Economist for “ocular twentieth time. I have bred three calves from her by two of demonstration.” Visitors who have, last month, seen him, her sons, one of which is now the largest cow I have, possess shook their heads and observed, “He must have been the reing also the best form and constitution. The other two were sult of a good cross.” In another year, I expect he shall be bulls, and proved of great value; thus showing indisputably the sire of his brother. Mr. Wright condemns that way ; . that it is not requisite to mix the blood of the different kinds of the same race of animals in order to keep them from de

" Yet buirdly chiels and clever hizzies

Are bred in sic' a way as this is." generating.” Here is the firm fact of Mr. Price against the vague notiou of New South Welshmen.

One little recapitulation, and I am done, The French At the risk of being considered tiresome, I must still draw flock of sheep at Rambouillet, and the herds of cattle in Eng. the attention of those who think, with Mr. Wright, that close- land that I have specified, are bred upon the right principles. breeding in stock is injurious, to the fact that the most famous High-bred stock can only be preserved in a high-bred state cattle breeder in England confines himself exclusively to bis by excluding every other blood from them. Once introduce a own tribe. I now speak of Mr. Richard Booth, who bas, strange strain of blood, and the old doom will overtake youwithout any exception, the best Shorthorn cattle, to-day, in uncertainty first, degeneracy next, and a common type at no the world. This prince of breedera uses always the best sires, distant period. Again, if you are in possession, unfortunately, irrespective of relationship. He puts the sire to the daughter. of an inferior race of breeding stock, and if you have not the “Lady Grace,” that took the first prize last year at the skill, the means, or the opportunity of replacing that interior Cleveland Society's Show, is both the daughter and grand race by a high-bred one, by all means begin at once to introdaughter of “ Crown Prince" (10,087). He puts brother to duce fresh blood. This can be most economically and most sister, and in this way was produced "Soldier's Bride,” that successfully done by procuring fresh sires. The more closely beat the nation last year as a two-year-old heifer ; and is said, and highly bred these sires may be, the better to "Advance upon good authority, to be the best beast that appeared in Australia.” I have the honour to be, Sir, England since the days of " Bracelet,” In fact, Mr. Booth

Your obedient servant, seems only to study one thing in the choice of parents July 2nd,

ROBERT MʻDOUGALL. That thing he himself describes" the greatest possible accu- -Melbourne Economist.


It is truly pleasing to report such wholesome sound than by encouraging, in every way in their power, discussense, delivered at an agricultural gathering, as the follow. sion at such meetings. He was rather inclined to feel, from ing extracts. The first is from the speech of the Earl of what he had seen at various agricultural meetings, that a Lichfield, at the Staffordshire Society's dinner.

certain number of people who sat at the head of the table His lordship said : “ Perhaps, although he was trespassing had it far too much their own way. He should be very upon their time, they would allow him to say a word or two glad, upon certain subjects, to hear the voices of some of on the subject which brought them together. The im- the tenant farmers; and he could not help thinking that, mense utility of these agricultural meetings would be in the list of toasts, that was one which might be very ad. allowed on all hands, but he thought a word might be said vantageously introduced, not only because, after all, these as to how they could be made still more useful. He believed agricultural societies were intended to instruct them in the that by nothing could they do more to promote this end calling which they followed, but also as giving them an opportunity of stating opinions which might prove very their balance-sheets, he had a shrewd suspicion that they valuable to their landlords. There was one subject, par would be very unwilling to do so. All he could say for ticularly, upon which they had lately heard a good deal of himself was that, if he had been dependent upon his agridiscussion which might be effectually canvassed in this cultural produce alone, he should have been, a long time manner. It was that of the tenure of land. It was a ques. | ago, in the Gazette. What he wanted to hear was the praction which, to his knowledge, had been often amply dis- tical experience of practical men-men of intelligence cussed at small meetings, while very little allusion had been who had gone into districts more favoured than our own, made to it at the meetings of their great societies. It was and had brought their knowledge of the systems there one also, he believed, upon which there was some variety adopted to bear upon their own land. He thought some of opinion, and in which there were more difficulties to advantage had already resulted from the public discussion contend with than in almost any other. He did feel, as of such subjects. There was a less disposition to preserve having the control of a large property, that that was just undue quantities of game, and there had lately been a great the occasion upon which one would like to hear some destruction of hedge-row timber. In reference to agree tenant farmers speak their minds. He was especially per- ments, his own opinion was that the best agreement, if you suaded that nothing could be more useful than a prize given had a good tenant, was to interfere with him as little as for the best agreement which could be drawn out. He possible. No doubt it was necessary that there should be alluded to the question of leases, because it was one in agreements of some kind, protecting the tenant on the one which every individual landlord must judge for himself. If hand and the landlord on the other, when a change of a good man went and offered to take a farm upon lease, it tenancy took place; but it ought to be of the simplest chamight probably be unwise to refuse it; but he was very far racter. He should be very glad to assist in forming a comfrom approving, as a rule, of leases, nor did he believe that mittee to draw out such an agreement as would be con. in this part of the country they were generally required. sidered generally acceptable in this county. There was one He was happy to be able to believe that the feeling between question, of great importance between landlord and tenant, landlords and tenants in this county made a lease, for the which ought to be settled. It was the question of the sale most part, unnecessary; and he had frequently also been of straw. The value of straw was so great that it approached told that there was just as little necessity for an agreement, very nearly that of hay; and yet the tenant was bound to but he regarded this as a very one-sided view of the matter. take this exceedingly valuable produce, to tread it ander He was greatly inclined to think that if a prize were offered foot in his yard, and convert it into something worth in. for the best agreement which could be drawn up for a year- finitely less, and was not allowed to sell it. It was a ques. to-year tenancy upon any farm, at a future meeting, and a tion of serious importance as to what conditions ought to body of tenant farmers were called upon to act as judges, be made under which the straw should be sold. Whether the prize would not be given to a blank sheet of paper. He the money for the straw sold was laid out in manure or catdid hope that, if not on that, at least on some future occa- tle food, or anything else, he was satisfied that the straw sion, the remarks made might give rise to some observa. ought to be allowed to be sold under some arrangement or tions from tenant farmers which might not only be useful other." to their own body, but also to the landlords."

And how feelingly and sensibly was his lordship's call on The second, on this subject, is from the vice-president, the tenant farmers “ to speak their mind," answered by Mr. Mr. Baller, who aptly said, " He entirely concurred in what Swaffield, who said : " He stood before them not only as a had fallen from the noble lord who had first addressed judge, but as a tedant farmer; and, as the tenant farmers them, in relation to what should be the nature of their dis- had been called upon to say so he would say, as cassions at those meetings. He had always thought that, on regarded the landlords, give your tenants confidence (ape those occasions, too much was left to the landlords. He did plause). Give them confidence in their holdings, and there not think that gentlemen who farmed their own lands, who, would then be no need for agreements. If a tenant manno doubt, grew magnificent turnips and mangold wurtzels, aged his farm as it should be managed, that confidence and so on, were the best men to give information on agricul. would be repaid; and, if not, he would say, set him going. tural subjects. They might, with reason, call upon them If a tenant had the confidence of his landlord, it was not to show their balance-sheets, and they would probably find required to tie him down to any agreement whatever. out that all this sort of thing would not pay. The test of Another thing he had to say was, that where a tenant's good farming was that it should pay. Mr. Alderman Mechi, holding was small, and it was not convenient for him to of whom they heard so much, was no doubt a man of great keep a good bull, it was the landlord's duty to keep one, in intelligence and energy, but he was a gentleman who drove a order to improve the stock of the neighbourhood. It was very valuable trade in cutlery and dressing cascs; and when not to be expected that a tenant farmer, holding sometimes he went down to Tiptree farm, to teach the Essex farmers at rack rent, could afford 100 guineas for a bull; but it how to manage their land, they had a great deal of doubt would be worth a landlord's while to give 200, or even 500 whether he did not make more by his penknifes than his guineas for an animal to be at the service of the district. pigs. He (Mr. Buller) thought it was just possible that he To the tenant he would say, take heed that your feed does might derive a greater profit from shaving than sheep- not seed, rise early in the morning, and take care, as far as shearing (laughter). If they were to call upon him (Mr. in you lies, to keep on good terms with your wife and your Buller) and his honourable and noble friends to produce I landlord” (Hear, hear, and laughter).

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