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cial”-some wags say a misprint for “officious"--as a J apparently to the official mind wretched treatment means of pointing out to them where they are to be is all it deserves. Is not the bucolic mind the slowest
That part of the "Guide" official--or officious, of the slow ? and why should complacent Commisas the case may be which informs the patient reader of sioners trouble themselves with any of its manifestathe weary mass of print of which the “Guide” is made up tions ? Truly, this may be so; but, nevertheless, as to the contributions to the Belgian departments cer- one fine day, and that perhaps sooner than they tainly gives the list of these implements among the think of, agriculture will prove itself, in the eyes of all number, but they are not there; and if by any chance men, to be the back-bone of the nation. We have a he thinks it likely that they may be in the Eastern An. Government Department of Science and Art, in which, nexe amongst the British agricultural machinery, he while other things are petted, Agriculture--the mother will not find them in the catalogue of that place, nor in of all the arts--has no position whatever. Well, well! that place itself. Again, if he peruses the catalogue Agriculture has an inherent pride of place and beauty of the Western Annexe, or the machinery in general, which may well dispense with the tinselled trappings of he will not find them given there, although it so Government patronage. These considerations are not happens that the Western Annexe is precisely the place altogether unsuggestive, nor are they out of place, when where they are to be found. The same perplexing po- recording the doings of an Exposition in which agriculsition is given to some interesting agricultural imple- ture ought to have had bigher honours paid to it than ments of Austria and Denmark. France is somewhat seem to have been thought necessary by those in the better off, as she has got all her agricultural machinery place of power. We may regret that they have not in not far from-in fact, behind-her general court; but this matter come up to the height of their position, but even they are unfortunately placed, and some time was we are at all events free to confess that we consider that, it before we could discover their position-not, indeed, in the long run, they will be more the losers than the till after weary wanderings and cross-questionings of friends of agriculture. As it is, a splendid opportunity policemen, patient enough and polite withal, but unfor- has been lost of forming a most complete collection of tunately just as much perplexed about the matter as agricultural implements and machines of all countries, ourselves. It has been a great mistake not placing and so forming it, that comparative observations of high all the agricultural machines and implements in one value might have been easily made. All parties would department. It would have been quite an easy matter have learned something from these observations, for to have given one division of it to the machinery of even our own makers, who stand deservedly high for oonBritish makers, and the other to the various makers of structive skill, might learn something from the rudelyvarious countries. Immense advantages would have made implements of other countries. We may regret that accrued from this arrangement to the visitor desirous to all this has been lost, but, the thing being already legisget ioformation on the subject of agricultural machinery lated for, regret we may have-but regret is now in vain. in its cosmopolitan aspects; and most ingenious and But, to return to the subject of Belgian impleinteresting comparisons might have been made between ments, commenced in the first of our present series of pathem. As it is, the visitor has to rush from one part of pers, and in which we gave a description of the Flemish the building to another, to see the machines of different plough. We regret, for the sake of comparison, if for countries; and when he arrives at the place where the no other lesson which might be learned from it, that no “Guide” says they ought to be, in more than one in- specimen of a Flemish plough is exhibited—at least stance he will find that is just the place where they are none is seen where it ought to be. That, however, is no not. Of course to the purely " commissioner” and proof that some confiding maker in Flanders has not " official” mind there are grave objections-very grave sent one. The Catalogue gives us no clue as to whether indeed, sir !—to the simple and philosophical plan we this is the case or not; for its wording is amazingly have pointed out above, Foreign exhibiters, sir, are ambiguous. M. Van Maele, of Thielt, exhibits two iron different from
British exhibiters, and must have ploughs, the mould-boards of which are capable of different departments. If otherwise, endless con- being adjusted to any desired breadth. These present fusion would arise !-endless confusion, sir.” To such some of the features of the Flemish plough, as in the bow-wow explanations as we know would be, and “ Avant soc, or skim coulter ; but being of iron, they have been offered, when criticising with the lack of are light, and give no notion of the heavy clumsy look of arrangement in the agricultural department, it might a wooden Flemish plough. The Flemish harrows are in be easy to reply, that the rule, as a rule, may be their native original form very simply arranged, and in no all very good, but that at all events the Commis- way calculated to do very accurate work. The tines are sioners have themselves broken it, and broken it too generally set to work in line, one after the other, thus: with immense advantage to the public in the case of the “ machinery in general.” In the Annexe which is the attractive and fascinating home of perhaps the finest collection of machinery the world ever saw, British and foreign machinery are placed, if not entirely side by in place of tines being placed to work in the intervallic side, at least in the same apartment: so that we have spaces, as shown by the dotted lines. A very common presented to us in consequence a magnificent display, by form of harrow as used in Belgium is the triangular, as which comparative observations can be made. Why thus : could not this have been done with the agricultural implements and machines ? Of course this would have necessitated a more liberal policy on the part of the Commissioners towards agriculture than they have adopted. ** Cribbed, cabined, and confined " in a narrow strip of a shed, our British makers have not room to display their own machinery properly; so that they could not, if they would, receive the contributions of foreign makers. But the truth is, that agriculture, and all pertaining thereto, is held in wretchedly small account by minds official; and while pains have been taken to give proud position to other departments, that of agriculture has been wretchedly treated, because
the tines being placed on the cross parts as well as the closely the movement in a broadcast sowing apparatus, side butts, and so placed that the line in advance, works exhibited some two years ago at the Smithfield Show, and within the space of those behind, thus :
last year at Perth. We gave at the time a full description of it in the pages of this Journal. While on the subject of sowing machines we may notice, that in the Austrian collection, in the Western Annexe, not far from the Belgian implements, will be seen a simple mode of adapting a broadcast-sowing machine to the purposes of
a drill or a line-sowing machine. This is very simply The roller, as with us, plays an important part in effected, by allowing the grain to fall upon an inclined Belgian husbandry. In its normal condition it is a very board in a continuous stream; but this is divided by simple affair, consisting of two side beams curved in having the board covered with a series of simple chanontline thus
nels, formed thus
V V V V and connected at either end with a fiat piece of wood,
Δ Δ Δ to which bolt and shackles are attached, so that it may
Δ Δ Δ Δ be drawn from either end. The roller-part of the bole of a tree-revolves in the centre of this framing on very rough iron centres. An implement of this class, quite The seed drops in a continuous stream on the upper part peculiar to Flemish husbandry, is the traineau. This is of the board, and falls between the inclined bars a a, used to break clods as well as toroll smooth a pasture, and the triangular “ points” or blocks catch this, spread it consists of a rhomboidal frame of timber, with its under- out, and it is finally delivered to the ground in lines, at side covered with planks. Its under-side is sometimes distances corresponding to the distances between the provided with two rows of iron or wooden tines, placed base of the triangular blocks bb. at a very obtuse angle to the plane of the implement, so In the Belgian department is a model of the celebrated as not to project very far from its surface. It is to be Britannia Farm, of M. Bortier at Ghestelles, near Ostend, regretted that none of the old-fashioned implements in West Flanders. The following very rough type nsed still in great numbers-have been exhibited. sketch will give some notion of its arrangements. Of The reason for this we can divine easily : the makers course in such type diagrams, no accuracy of scale or are evidently desirous to show implements more ad proportion is attempted. vanced in construction and arrangement, and are desirous to stand well with the agriculturists of England; they have evidently displayed their best. What their best is, is easily discovered. In the department of implements now under consideration, M. O. Desoer exhibits a skeleton roller or clod crusher. This consists of four discs of cast-iron revolving on a horizontal shaft, carried by framing dragged by a horse. The discs work in pairs, a short interval of two or three inches being placed between them. The discs are cast with a series of corresponding slots in their outer edges, and into these slots a series of wrought iron bars are placed. These stretch between the two discs, and the distance between them corresponds to the distances between the slots in the edges of the discs. The bars of wrought-iron are not fat, but have their outer edges, those which come in contact with the soil, flanged like a rail, thus T. This shape enables the bar to act upon the soil more effectually than if left plain. To prevent the bars from working out of the slots in the discs of the wheels, the lower edge of the bars is also flanged, but with less projection than the outer edge; the slots are of corresponding shape, so that the bars bave to be driven up from the end ; there are some points in this implement worthy of consideration. A very ingenious sowing-machine is exhibited by M.Van. Maele, of Thielt. This in general appearance resembles our hand turnip-sowing barrow, but with one wheel only. The seed is carried in a long tin-box supported above the 101
11 barrow; and generally narrows to a small opening in front. Before this opening a small cup-shaped wheel or dasher revolves on a horizontal shaft. This receives a rapid motion from the carrying-wheel of the barrow, through The position of the farm house is shown at a; the a driving-band, pulley, and bevel gearing. The cup- accommodation consists of a large kitchen, with three shaded wheel is divided in the direction of its face into bed rooms, a vestibule, and dairy cellars underneath ; four compartments by cross-armas or partitions. As the 6, is the infirmary for the horses; C, that for the sheep; seed passes out of the aperture of the hopper which de, implement and cart sheds; ff, the position of a contains it, it is met by the rapidly revolving arms of range of sheep sheds; I g. that of a range of cattle the cup-shaped dasher, and as it passes finally from this boxes; h h, that of a range of pig huts, and yards. through the end, it isscattered over the soilin all directions. In the back range, the central part i is the cooking This scattering part of the mechanism resembles very chamber for the cattle food; j, a steam-engine house;
k, the beet-root distillery; l, the thrashing machine, &c., &c., from place to place; and pipes are also laid straw.cutting room, &c., &c. Behind the back range down, to convey the liquid manure to tanks, and others is the boiler for the engine, the liquid manure tanks, to convey pure water to various parts. and the stacks and heaps of roots ; n o, show the posi- There is yet much interesting matter to detail contion of covered dung pits. In this building a complete nected with the foreign section, which we propose to system of rails is put down, to carry produce, manure, give in future papers.
ON ARTIFICIAL FOODS FOR STOCK.
This is becoming one of the most important questions ( I have the greatest confidence for the following inforof the day to graziers and all others engaged in fattening mation respecting the different qualities of linseed cake. domestic animals for human food. It well deserves the He states that the finest quality is made as follows :gravest consideration, as upon its satisfactory solution 300lbs. of ground linseed are mixed with 28lbs. of depends mainly the prosperity of the modern system of ground nut cake, 28lbs. of rape cake (also ground), and fattening stock by such adventitious aids. This system, 28lbs. of coarse bran. The second qualities are made too, has now received universal favour, and astonishing of a small admixture of linseed with a considerable part results have been derived from its adoption. The weight of the undermentioned articles ; and the third qualities of food produced for the consumption of a meat-loving are made wholly of the last-named of the following people by it exceeds belief. Take a case of summer articles, without any linseed at all : -Foreign linseed grazing. Some years ago I occupied a field of excellent cakes, dodder seed cakes, poppy seed cakes, African grass land, upon which I considered myself doing well ground nut cakes, castor oil nut cakes, rice husks, cotto fatten on grass alone fifteen head of Shorthorned ton seed cakes, rape cakes. Sometimes the whole of cattle. The present occupier bas, by the aid of artificial | the above are mixed and worked together; but a supfood (i. e. linseed oilcake), been able to fatten twenty- ply of each is not always at hand, and some or all, two equally good Sborthorns upon the same field; the according to circumstances, are introduced to make up quantity given to each animal not exceeding four pounds the desired quality.” Here, then, in the finest quality daily. The system applies with greater benefit to sheep of linseed cake we have 3001bs. of linseed (I presume the grazing. I name an instance under my knowledge of a husks or outer coat is meant) to 84lbs. of foreign matfield upon which the grazier fattens thirteen sheep per ters; in the second quality, a small admixture of linseed acre, giving them half-a-pound of linseed cake each is made with some of the substances named above, acdaily. Anotber instance I give where the grazier fat- cording to circumstances; and the third quality of tens ten sheep upon half an acre, with a similar allow - linseed cake is made without any linseed at all. What ance; and on some of his larger fields he grazes them in imposture to be practised by respectable manufacturers ! nearly the like proportion. The kind are good " balf- Can anything be more abominable? What constitutes breds,” i, e., from Leicester, Lincoln, or Cotswold swindling? Am I not swindled when I buy of a rams, to Southdown ewes. Another case I could name respectable house linseed cake “without any linseed at of a grazier who fattens fifteen Lincoln longwools per all” being in it? And why am I thus imposed upon ? acre with the aid of artificial food, but I am not con- It is because if these respectable men would dare to be versant with the kinds used. I could also instance cases honest, and advertise their cakes as made of the subalmost innumerable where graziers are depasturing from stances they do contain, they would not only experience eight to twelve fatting sheep per acre, and getting them a worthless trade, but they would lose caste with their fat with the like aids. Now in most of these instances fellows and also the public. these fields, under the old order of summer-grazing, It applies with equal or greater force to the trade would be thought heavily stocked at from five to seven wbich of late years has sprung up in “cattle foods," sheep per acre. I observe the same additional propor- and “cattle condiments." Who would buy them if tion in fields appropriated to the fatting of caitle. A they were precisely acquainted with their constituents ? small field of four acres that I frequently pass by, which I do not say that they as substances for cattle-food are used only to fat four Shorthorn cattle, I now observe worthless ; far from it. I believe that many of them do, six upon it, and fine cattle too ; but I also observe the if they are properly and judiciously mixed, constitute á cake or meal-tubs lying about. In an adjoining field valuable addition to our means of fattening and proare twelve head of like cattle, minus the tubs; but this moting the healthy condition both of our flocks and field contains eleven acres. The land of equal value. herds; but what I deprecate is that the consumer is These instances any casual observer may note. I could charged so enormously for such articles of food as name very many of such-like facts, but it is quite Indian corn-meal, bean.meal, pea-meal, wheat-flour, superfluous, as the knowledge is patent to every modern carib or locust beans, barley-meal, oat-meal, rice and grazier. Seeing, then, that such important results fol- rice-cleanings, linseed, cotton-seed, mustard-seed, rapelow the adoption of this modern system of grazing or seed, lentils, tares, malt, malt-dust
, bran starch, comfatting of stock, I repeat that it deserves the gravest mon salt, and a few trifling additions of fenugreek-seed, consideration, and for this reason, i. e., that since the coriander-seed, canary-seed, ginger, and other aromatics demand for artificial foods has become so enormously to give scent and flavour. Now, these enumerated great, the adulteration of these foods has gone on in articles, which are known to constitute the base of all proportion to it; so that now it is almost impossible to such foods, are harmless enough, nay actually beneficial obtain unadulterated food of artificial character. Take under careful administration, but the purchaser has to linseed cake-the very foundation upon which the sys- give full four times their true value when be buys them tem was built-it is shamefully adulterated, and often in mixture for “cattle-food." I fear, however, that in with substances actually prejudicial to the animal eco- addition to the above enumerated articles, there are subnomy. Mr. Wright, in bis Essay upon the Manage- stances actually deleterious pressed into the mangment of Cattle, printed by the Royal Agricultural facturer's service, such as chalk, yellow clay, or other Society, gives a capital exposure of such abominations. like vile materials – in fact almost anything that will He says—“ I am indebted to a correspondent in whom 'give the proper colour and add to the weight.
Well, if graziers and fatteners of stock will so pro- according to the state of his stock. The most forward fusely purchase these admixtures, they alone are mainly in condition may safely be supplied with the richest food i to blame. There will always be found plenty of cunning the lowest in condition with the most simple and nourand unprincipled men who will provide for them to any ishing, such as oat-meal, with a slight admixture of extent. My object is to induce all stock-masters to linseed or linseed-cake and bran—the linseed in all cases take up this subject, and carefully ponder it over for to be crushed or boiled. Starch and carraway-seed themselves. They will soon discover that there is a would form a valuable aid to a scouring animal; comgreat value in these condiments, and an immense saving mon salt, linseed, and malt to a costive animal. Ginger in their cost. They will soon adopt means to provide might be added in small proportion for a hoven or for themselves. What can be easier than to select the flatulent animal. These matters, however, would soon most nutritious cereals ? grind them, add a little linseed, become a part of the grazier's every-day business, and malt, carob-bean (powdered), and any little aromatic he would look after the admixture and administration of seed, and we have the best of condiments and cattle- these foods with as much regularity as to his other foods. A little attention to the progress of the animals affairs, and he would soon become as conversant with feeding will soon give evidence as to the vtility of the them and their most profitable application as be is with food. A healthy fatting animal may be supplied with the best mode of raising and managing his crops. This the most nutritious condiment, but a store animal or one would put an effectual stop to the adulterations of all in delicate condition must have a less nutritive mixture. kinds of food. It would soon be seen that these This is easily ascertained, as also their medicinal or con ingredients, judicionsly, mixed and applied, would superstitutional qualities. Indian meal, wheat-flour, starch, sede adulterated linseed cake and the numerous caitlerice, barley, and oat-meal would form the basis of food food and condiments with which the whole country is for the poorer and younger class of animals; whilst bean- pestered. The result would be an immense saving to meal, pea-meal, linseed, carob bean and malt would form our stock-masters in the price of artificial foods, and a the basis of the best fattening food. It would by no much more satisfactory progress in the fattening of their means be requisite to mix many of the ingredients fatting stock, and well doing of their store stock and together. The grazier can select such as he deems best ' younger animals.
THE SUPPLIES OF RICE.
In view of the increasing demand for rice in this rice (locally called Dhan), coarse rice, and fine rice. Rice country, as shown by the large imports of the past is the staple product of that division of country. It is year, it will be interesting to learn something of the used as food for man, beast, and bird, distillation of sources of supply in India, and the varieties cultivated. spirit, &c. Its varieties are as numerous as its uses. The study of those from the Indian provinces, as well as in There are in this locality three distinct crops. · The the collections from the French and Dutch Indian pos- first, grown on somewhat high ground, is the early sessions, offers a wide field for investigation. Last year crop, and is sown for the most
part in June, and reaped the imports of husked rice were more than double those in August and September ; the second is the main crop, of either of the two preceding years, amounting to sown in June and July, and cut from November to 3,305,632 cwts. The local consumption in Ceylon, January. It requires a great deal of moisture, some Mauritius, and parts of India is enormous. The Caro- varieties growing in several feet of water. The third lina rice is for the present thrown out of culture. is a dwarf crop, cultivated in the months of March, Fine rice is, however, produced in British Honduras, April, and May, on low-lying land, generally on the Demerara, Brazil, and other South American States ; sides of marshes and pools, where irrigation is easy. but we cannot look for any supplies of rice from thence. The ratio of productiveness is said to be, in a good seaWe must, therefore, confine our inquiries to the East, son, as 1 to 35. and shall notice principally the collection of samples The peculiarity in the cultivation of these two kinds shown in the East Indian gallery at the Exhibition. is, that they are transplanted and placed about 5 inches There are 54 varieties of rice, shelled and unshelled, apart. By this method, if the soil be good, they shown from Durrang in Assam.
grow to the height of an ordinary-sized man, and proIn Moulmein rice is the daily food of the people. duce a much larger quantity than if otherwise treated. All the varieties cultivated are sown in May or June, The odour and flavour of these two kinds, when by the setting in of the south-west monsoon ; and reaped cooked, are superior to those of any other kind. They from October to December. It is very quick in its are only used by those who can afford to pay the high growth, and requires little attention. 100 baskets of price demanded for them. paddy, when cleaned, will yield 60 baskets of rice. The bateesa paddy, which produces a white rice, is
In Chittagong there are four or five kinds of rice considered one of the best sorts. Lamba-chawl is which grow on the hills. In March or April thojungle another superior kind. Bagree-chawl is a brown rice, is cleared, and burnt on the spot when dry. When the produced from the black paddy in Oude, and used by first shower of rain falls, the cultivator makes small the poorest people. An inferior kind, termed by the holes at short distances, and into each drops paddy, natives bagree, produces, when husked, a reddish rice. cotton, and other seeds. These come to perfection Some consider Phool-biring the best, as it swells in promiscuously, and are reaped as they become ripe; boiling, and has an agreeable odour. but the produce is too scanty to admit of its forming There is no special preparation of the ground for any an article of commerce. Hundreds of varieties of rice are particular crop in Oude, but the land is worked up in grown in Oude. A heavy soil and plenty of water suits the same way for all crops, except it is for wheat, when them best. There are five kinds which are most appre- the land is ploughed several times before the seed is ciated, Mihee and Bansoe being the foremost.
sown. The natives generally manure their fields once The extremes of quality are shown in the samples of in the year, and they plough them once or twice before rice sent from Cattack, comprising paddy or unshelled | sowing them, excepting those intended for the reception of wheat, which are ploughed as often as possible, Straits and coast markets, but Gua-kreen-tbee being from May to October, the latter being the month for that most esteemed in the European markets, and the sowing. They observe some kind of routine, such as yield per acre being greater, it has almost entirely wheat followed by maize; wheat followed by gram and supplanted the other kinds. The quantity produced in linseed; wheat followed by barley and keraw-a kind Arracan may be estimated at 200,000 tons of Guaof pea.
kreen-thee and its varieties, and 20,000 tons of
The koung-nyeen, or hill-rice, is of three kinds, red, kind, the natives will readily appreciate that which gives
AGRICULTURAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. On Wednesday, June 11, this society held its annual general, is taken into account, most satisfactory. Donations to the meeting at the London Tavern, to receive the Secretary's amount of £894 12s. 10d. were received during the year, report for the year ending the 31st December, 1861, and and the annual subscriptions reached the sum of £1,398 for the election of officers and pensioners. Present: Mr. | 18s. 6d. The entire expenditure, including pensioners, THOMAS Batson, in the chair; Mr. Cantrell, Mr. Bazin, amounted to £2,864 11s. 78., of which two-thirds, or £1,823 Mr. Scott, Mr. Mechi, Mr. Reeve, Mr. Shackel, Mr. Naish, 11s. 6d., were devoted to the purchase of stock. The Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Collins, Mr. F. Roach, Mr. P. Roach, funded capital, standing in the names of the trustees of Mr. Strong, Mr. P. G. Dodd, Mr. Philpott, Mr, Algor, Rev. the institution, amounts to £4,000, and the balance at the C. Klanert, Mr. Christopher, Mr. Weall, Mr. W. Boards, bankers, on the 31st December last was £135 os. 2d. A Mr. Knight.
detailed statement of receipts and expenditure, which I According to the rule of the society the following mem- have now the honour of submitting to you, verifies the bers of council retired, but were re-elected: Messrs.Batson, figures above given, and bears the attesting signatures of Battock, Bazin, Cantrell, Hoskyns, and Johnson.
the auditors appointed by the board. The SECRETARY read the following report, which was
The Council then proceeded to the election of pen. unanimously adopted :
sioners, Mr. Chandos Wren Hoskyns in the chair, when
Four male pensioners at £26 per annum :
Age. Acres. Rental. Yrs. County. Votes.
Warwick, 825 cember 31st, 1861. Founded in 1860, the Institution William Stanford 66 570 500 29 Wiltshire 302 opened its first complete financial year withont any pension- John Rippin....... 73
120 117 30 Northamp 178 ers on its books.
527 825 21 The election, however, of May 2nd, Robert Arnold Faldo.. 57
Beds..... 162 1861, put its youthful vigour to a satisfactory test. On Two married pensioners at £40 per annum: that occasion an annual sum of £455 was appropriated to
220 210 28 the maintenance of twenty farmers, farmers' wives, and
73 widows, selected from numerous applicants, as most worthy Mary Way .......... 74}
James Way ......... 78
730 760 21 Hants ... 982
Four widow pensioners at £20 per annum :
ks ... 523 head of pensioners upon the balance sheet of the year re- Ann Raven ....4
Essex ... 300 ferred to. With respect to the financial position of the Sophia Sammons .... 61 180 213
Beds society, everything is, when the recent date of its origin 'Rachel Ann Simson 71 150 200
24 Essex.... 229
28 89 20