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The 19Can. Con. Laod.

makes no mention of the Energu

the Compe

mens and Penitents only.

•Ap. Conft.

1. viii. c. x.

Catechumens: Then after they were difmiffed, for the Energumens: And after they were dismissed, for the Competentes, or Candidates. for Baptism: And lastly after dismissing them likewise, for the Penitents. Then all these being difmiffed, the Miffa Fidelium, or Service of the Faithful, began with the mens, or of Eun dia owns, the filent or mental Prayer, which is the tentes, but of first of the three Prayers mentioned in the Laodicean the Catechu- Canon, the fecond and third are faid to be did πgoopwvńσεως ; of thefe two, the firft is certainly the προσφώνησις TÈρ TWY TIS, the Bidding-Prayer for the Faithful; the other (according to Mr. Bingham) is the following innois or Collect of the Bishop *: And these are the Eʊxal 201ναὶ ὑπὲρ ἑαυ]ῶν ἄλλων παλαχδ πάνων, the common Prayers for our felves-and for all others every where, in St. Juftin. Then after the Priefts washing their Hands, and the Kiss of Peace, and the Mýtis xalá Tivos, Let none have ought against any one; the Deacons brought the Aga the Gifts of the People to the Bishop, to be by him placed on the Altar; and he having prayed fecretly by himself, and likewise the Priefts, and making the Sign of the Cross, with his Hand, upon his Forehead, fays the Apoftolical Conftitutions, began the Anaphora, as p. 1, 2.

■ Ib. C. xi.

We have indeed most of the Petitions, at least, of the first of the two above mentioned Prayers dia gownσews scattered up and down in this preceding Part of the Liturgy of St. James, which I have collected and put in Order in the App. N. i. We have likewise there, what answers to that Bidding-Prayer in 1. viii. c. 37. of the Apoftolical Constitutions, which I have conjectured to be the second of them, and which I have therefore inserted in the App. N. ii. And three Forms of the Evyn dia σuañs, or filent Prayer; the last P. 164. of which, being the fame with that in St. Bafil's Liturgy,

e Goar. Euch.

* But fince poopanos properly fignifies calling upon the People to pray, or Bidding-Prayer by the Deacon, and is always fo ufed in the Apoftolical Conftitutions, and that in Contradiftinction to the mixλnois or Collect of the Bishop; may not this fecond of the two Prayers diagonows be understood of fuch a BiddingPrayer as we have in Cont. Apoft. 1. vii c. 37. a Collect by the Bishop being fuppofed to follow after each of thefe two Bidding-Prayers, as in the Conftitutions, though they be not exprefly mentioned in the Canon? So Conft. Apoft. 1. viii. c. 35. the @goparnos or Bidding-Prayers of the Deacon for the Catechumens, Energumens, Competentes, and Penitents are mentioned, without taking any Notice of the Collects by the Bishop, which yet, as we are fure from the very Places there referred to, followed after every one of them. But I fubmit this Conjecture to the Judgment of the Reader.


fome few Variations excepted, I have alfo inserted in the App. N. iii. with these Variations below it. And as I am very And as I am very much inclin'd to suspect that that Prayer which is entitled Ex Ts évágęsws has been taken from the Prieft's Prayer for the Competentes, to whom, as you will perceive, it very well agrees, only changing рσσά σ προσιδσάν σοι διὰ τὸ Χρισ8 σε τὴν ἐκκλησίαν σε, into τὰς δέλες σε τέτες τις προσιόντας τῷ ἁγίῳ σε φωτίσματι, and the Pronoun of the firft Perfon into that of the third; so I have given it a Place in the App. N. iv. And because the very laft Prayer in this Liturgy, after the Anaphora, is plainly the Prieft's Prayer for the Penitents, I have put See it as in it likewise in the App. N. v.


Goar's Euch.

p. 673. and as

franted nitential of

from the Pe

Jo. Jejunator in the App. to Marshall's

Penit. Difc.

N. v. p. 33.

But what I am concerned with at prefent is only the proper Anaphora, or Eucharistical Service, viz. from the Surfum Corda, Lift up your Hearts, to the Ite in Pace, Depart in Peace. And the Method I have taken to free it from all latter Interpolations of what kind foever, and so to restore it to it's primitive Purity, is by comparing it with the Clementine Liturgy, which never having been used in any Church fince it was inferted into the Apoftolical Conftitutions, has none of those Additions which were afterwards introduced into the other Liturgies, and therefore, as Dr. Hickes juftly fays, " is the Standard "and Test by which all the others are to be tried: and by comparing those with this the Innovations and Additions in After"times, be they good or bad, will appear." I have alfo compared it with that Account of the Liturgy of Jerufalem, which St. Cyril gives in his Catech. Myst. Vth. And that you may see all in one View, I have placed, in so many different Columns, 1st, the Liturgy of St. James as we have it at present, the latter Additions being only put in a smaller Character. 2dly, The fame Liturgy without these Additions, and so restored to its ancient Purity. 3dly, St. Cyril's Account of it. 4thly, The Clementine Liturgy. And, 5th, So much of the corresponding Parts of the Liturgies of St. Mark, St. Chryfoftom, and St. Bafil, as I thought might serve for illuftrating and confirming it. And fince the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, published by Renaudotius, has plainly been taken from the Greek one,


and from the Surfum Corda to the Beginning of the Prayer of Interceffion keeps pretty close to it; I have likewife compared them together, and fet down the Differences betwixt them in this Part, fo far at least as I reckon'd it could be of any Ufe to my Defign, in the Notes below the firft Column. As for what I have left out or altered in the second Col. I have either given my Reasons for fo doing in the Notes, or reckoned that they would appear plain enough by comparing it with the third and fourth Columns, and with what Dr. Hickes has fuggested in the Place above referred to. You will likewife obferve that in this fecond Col. I have inclosed fome Words or Sentences in Hooks, where though I had fome Sufpicion, more or less, of their not having been originally in it, yet not fuch as I judged fufficient for leaving them wholly out: I have fometimes taken particular Notice of thefe in the Notes; and where I have not, it was because I either thought it of too little Moment, or that my Reafon might eafily be conjectured.

I have faid above that the Clementine Liturgy, as never having been any where used, at least since it was inferted into the Apoftolical Conftitutions, is in confequence free from all those Additions of whatever kind that were afterwards introduced into the Worship of the Church: And it is so plain and fimple, and withal fo very decent, in it's Frame and Order, and fo exactly agrees with the best and earliest Accounts we have of the holy Eucharift, and of the Manner in which it was then celebrated (as has been fully fhewn by the learned Mr. Johnson, Mr. Bingham, and others) that we may well fay of it with the excellent Dr. Juft. M. Ap. Grabe, Apoftolica omnino videtur, certe Antiquiffima eft, It feems to be really Apoftolical, to be fure it is of very great Antiquity. Yet notwithstanding of all this, as learned Men have obferved how great Freedoms the Compiler of these Conftitutions hath taken in other Instances *, with thofe more ancient Materials out of which

1. p. 127.

Note 1.

We have in my Opinion one very remarkable Inftance of this in the "Tuvos Ew9ròs, the Morning Hymn, which he has inferted 1. vii. c. 47. under the Title of Пpoσevxǹ iwwn, Morning Prayer. For befides that the See Dr. Grabe's Proleg. to LXX. Alex. MS. in which it is preferved, is in all probability as ancient at least a as T.i.§.1, 4. &c. and Dr. Lee's to T. ii. this Collector himself; it will, I think, appear to any that will impartially Prop. 15, 16, 17. as to the one: And compare them, as I have fet them down in oppofite Columns, in the App. as to the other Grabe's Spicil. Patr. N. vi. that the firft is genuine and runs fmoothly and naturally, and the Sec. 1. p. 283, &c. fecond induftriously altered, and strained to ferve an Hypothefis, I mean to make it the more confiftent with the Arian Scheme.

See alfo Smyrb's Account of the Greek Ch. App. p. 292-298.


Forma Confec.

he hath collected them; so I must acknowledge that I think there is juft Ground to fuspect that he hath used Freedom even with this Liturgy also, and hath ".foifted in fome Words and Phrafes,Grab. de and altered others in it. This Liberty he seems chiefly to Euch. p. 79. have taken in that * long Hymn of Thanksgiving which is introductory to the History of Inftitution: For (to pass by what may be fufpected as altered in favour of that Scheme which made him, as I have observed, tamper with the Morning Hymn) fome of the Compellations he there gives to God feem to be too affected, and to have no Relish of true primitive Simplicity (not to mention the accumulating fo many of them together) fuch as αβασίλευτον καὶ ἀδέσποτον,— ἡ ἄναρχος γνῶσις, ἡ ἀἴδιος ὅρασις, ἡ ἀγέννητος ἀκοὴ, ἡ ἀδίδακτος σοφία, ὁ πρῶτος τῇ φύσει, καὶ νόμος τῷ εἶναι, καὶ κρείτων παντὸς ἀριθμᾶ, without King and without Lord,-Knowledge without Beginning, eternal Sight, unbegotten Hearing, untaught Wisdom, the first by Nature, and the Law of Being, and beyond all Number. [Of this Kind alfo are these in the Gnal Blefiing, ὁ τόποις μὴ περιγραφόμενος, ὁ χρόνοις μὴ παλαιέμενος, ὁ αἰώσι μὴ περατέμενος, ὁ γενέσει μὴ ὑποκείμενος, ὁ φυλακῆς μὴ δεόμενος, ὁ φθορᾶς ἀνώτερος, ὁ τροπῆς ἀνεπίδεκτος, ὁ φύσει ἀναλλοίωτος, who art circumfcribed by noPlace, who doft not grow old with Time, who art not terminated by Ages, who art not fubject to Generation, who ftandeft in need of no Guard, who art above Corruption, who art uncapable of Change, who by Nature art invariable.] There are alfo fome other Particulars in this long Thansgiving which seem not a little fufpicious, such as, ¿ —πρὸ πάντων ποιήσας τὰ χεροβὶμκ Αγ[ελός· καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πάντα ποιήσας

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τὸν φαινόμενον τᾶτον κόσμον,—συ γὰρ εἶ ὁ τὸν ἐξανὸν—ςήσας—ὁ πήξας σε ρέωμα ὁ ἐξαδαίων φῶς ὁ τὸν χορὸν τῶν ἀςέρων ἐν ἐρανῷ καταΓράψας, who -before all Things didft make the Cherubim—and Angels; and after all thefe didft make-this vifible World,-for Thou art He who didft eftablish the Heaven who didft fix the Firmament-who didft bring forth the Light-who-didft infcribe the Choir of Stars in the Heaven. For however that Opinion of the Angels being created before any Part of this vifible and material World might have been embraced by fome

To judge of the Juftnefs of the Author's Obfervations, the Learned will have recourfe to the Original; the Publisher would only fuggeft, that the English Reader will find a very good Translation of this Hymn in Dr. Brett's Collection of Lit. p. 2, &c.

of the Fathers in, and after the fourth Century; yet as the Scriptures are altogether filent concerning it, fo neither has it any fufficient Evidence of truly primitive Tradition. On the contrary, as the earlier Fathers believed that they are not pure Spirits, but have fomething Material in their Conftitution, or in other Words have material Vehicles to which they are vitally united, and without which they could not have been rρss Quσews, of a convertible Nature, nor consequently capable of falling; and as this must plainly be design'd to fit them for inhabiting a material World, fo it must in confequence fuppofe fome Part at least of that materialWorld fitted up before hand for their Inhabitation. They likewife exprefly afferted that the Hoft of Angels were created by God to be the fubordinate Minifters of his Providence, and that they were accordingly placed from the highest Part to avouéve of the vifible Heavens down even to us, in a gradual Subordination; that they were diftributed among, and appointed to have the Charge of the soysia, the heavenly Bodies (fo I understand it here) and the Heavens, of this World, and the Things that are therein, Clem. Alex. for the good and orderly Adminiftration of Providence. So Strom. Viia that from the Office for which they were created, and in which they were placed, as well as from their Nature (according to the Sense of these excellent Perfons) we may conclude that they were not created before the visible and maPrax. c. 5,6, terial World*. Nor could any of these Fathers who made the perfecta Nativitas of the Logos as googinds to be when 10,11. Iren. God fpoke out Tv golégav Owny, his firft Word, faying, Vid...c.z. Let there be Light, have believed that the Angels were Grabe Not. 3. created before that first Day; for even in this respect the Logos as Telóτoxos must have the pre-eminence, and all Things be made by him. See also what Dr. Bull hath advanced from Scripture in his xith Sermon, p. 44, &c. to prove that the Angels were a part of the fix Days Creation.

Str. iv. p.571.
P. 4, 95, 98,

Athenag. Leg. 99. Just. M.


* Tert, adv.

1. iv. c. 52.


P. 117. and

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Clem. Alex. p.310, 812,815,866.

1. 13, 14. Colof. i.

Juft. M. Dial. p. 362. Ed. Jebb. Iren. i. iv. c. 78. 1. v. c. 24. Tert.



As for the Fall of that Angel who tempted our firft Parents, the Account given of it by the early Fathers is, that it was occafioned by his envying the Dignity to which he faw them advanced: which is certainly more likely in itself than the common Opinion, and more agreeable to the History in Genefis, chap. iii. where we fee that the Sentence of Condemnation paffed against him was, Because thou haft done this thou art curfed.

de Spec. c. 2. de Patient. c. 5. Cyp. de Bon. Pat. p. 218, de Zel. & Liv.

p. 222.



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