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pérate language, M. Lafource pledged himself to the affembly that La Fayette had propofed to lead his troops to the capital, and that M. Bureaux de Pufy had made the propofition to marfhal LuckIn fupport of this afferion, M. Lafource appealed to the teftimony of M. M. Briffot, Guadet, Genfonné, Lamarque, and Herault, and demanded that M. Luckner himself fhould be cited to give his evidence to the fats. The fpeech of M. Lafource was greatly applauded by the wretched mob in the galleries, while M. Dumoland, and every person who Spoke in favour of the general, was actually hiffed down by thofe difturbers of decency and order. In fupport of the allegation of M. Lafource, the following certificate was laid on the table, and the difcuffion was adjourned till marthal Luckner fhould have explained himself upon the fubject. In the mean time M. Bureau de Pufy, and the other parties, were fummoned to the bar of the convention,

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"Some members of the national affembly having had an opportunity - of feeing M. the Marechal Luckner, on the evening of the 17th of July, at the houfe of the bishop of Paris, and having asked him if it was true, that it had been propofed to him, on the part of M. La Fayette, to march to Paris with his army, after the event of the 20th of June, M. the Marechal Luckner answered in these terms:-I do not deny it; it was M. Bureaux de Puzy; he who has been, I think, three times prefident of the national affembly. I replied to him, L fhall hever lead the army I command but against our external enemies. La Fayette is at libery to do what

he pleases; but if he marches to Paris, I will march after him, and I will drub him. M. Bureaux de Puzy then faid to me, but the life of the king is in danger! There is what he faid to me, and they made me other propofals itll more horri ble."

"Such were the exact expreffions of the Marechal Luckner, which we heard, and which we atteft. (Signed) Briffot, Guadet, Genfon net, Lafource, Lamarque, Delmas."

On the 29th of July, M. Bureaux de Puzy appeared at the bar, and not only refuted on his own teftimony this atrocious-calumny, but produced actual copies of the letters which he carried to Marechal Luckner, with the Marechal's anfwers, and which regarded only the plan of the campaign. From thefe letters it appeared, that M. La Fayette had intimated to Marechal Luckner his intention of proceeding alone to Paris, in confequence of the atrocities of the 20th of June, and that the Marechal had objected to it, folely on ac count of the perfonal danger which he would incur by fuch a ftep.: M. de Puzy depofited on the table the private letters of the generals, in which the fentiments of both were clearly revealed, and from which it appeared that the former profefed himself in thefe terms:

Ever fince I have breathed, I have lived only for the cause of liberty; I will defend it to my laft figh again every fpecies of tyranny." And that the latter, when he had received an intimation of aa intended enunciation, wrote in thefe terms to M. La Fayette, I have been told they mean to denounce us: I wait for more information, but most certainly I will live in peace, of I will give up my commiffion." After this complere

and fatisfactory teftimony, M. Guadet obferved, "That he fhould not wonder if certain perfons prevailed on M. Luckner to recant."

On the following day a letter was received from M. La Fayette himfelf; the contents of which were as follows:

Longwi, July 26th, fourth year


The minifter for the home department has fignified to me an act of the legislative body of July 21, and the information which fix of its members have figned.

"If I were queftioned refpecting my principles, I should fay, that a conftant proclaimer and defender of the rights of man, and the fovereignty of the people, I have every where and always refifted authorities which liberty difavowed, and which the national will had not delegated; and that I have everywhere, and always, obeyed thofe of which a free conftitution had determined the forms and the limits.

But I am queftioned refpect ing a fact-Did I propofe to Marechal Luckner to march to Paris with our armies? To which I anfwer in four words-It is not true.


The letter of Marechal Luckner himself was not lefs decifive against the testimony of the fix members of the affembly. He denied in ftrong terms that ever any propofal was made to him of marching to Paris, and lamented that fuch a conftruction fhould be put upon a converfation, which it was evident thefe gentlemen muft nave mifunderstood. It was indeed fomething very fingular, and by no means favourable to their veracity, that they had fuffered the Marechal to depart from Paris without citing

him to the bar, or demanding any explanation of fo extraordinary a converfation.

The decifion upon the charges against M. La Fayette was deferred to the 8th of Auguft, when a long and tumultuous debate took place, M. Jean de Brie, one of the moit. factious members of the affembly, made the report, which concluded ⚫by propofing a decree of accufation, and was highly applauded by the difgraceful mob that infefted the galleries. He was answered in a most able and eloquent speech by M. Vaubanc, who was hiffed vehemently by the galleries, but applauded by the majority of the members: at length the motion for a decree of accufation was rejected by 406 voicesagain 224.

It was evident from this decifion, that the affembly, weak and incompetent as it was, ftill preserved fome fhare of decency in its character and proceedings; but the Jacobins had made fure of their party: the mob were completely devoted to them, and they hoped to carry by their force the boldet meafures. Innumerable addreffes had been prefented to the legislature, which contained the moft infolent and outrageous abuse of the king and royal family; even the constitution, which had fo lately been an object of adoration with the whole nation, was openly reviled both within and without the doors of the flembly, and the galleries never failed to teftify their difplea fure with their ufual indecency. The restoration of Petion was the fignal to the directory of the department to refign, though their only crime was endeavouring to reftrain the fatal infanity of faction, and to fupport a conftitution they had laboured to establish.

While we cannot but cenfure thefe unwarrantable proceedings,


the fame principle of candour and equity obliges us to look to their origin, the concert of princes against France. That concert has been avowed by themselves, and it could not have been founded in any motive of virtue or good will to France. In our preceding volume, we freely animadverted on the defects in the conftitution established by the affembly in 1791. The great error in that conftitution was the weaknefs of the executive government. But that was not to be removed by external attack, or the interference of foreigners. Time, the continuance of peace, the fupport of his nobility and kindred, who bafely forfook him for the purpose of gratifying their own private refentment, were the only means of restoring to Louis XVI. that reasonable share of authority which was likely to effect his own and his people's happiness: but we cannot fufpect the hoftile fovereigns of any fuch benevolent 'defign as that of procuring for France a juft and equal government: their fuccefs, fhould the contest terminate in their favour, will explain their defigns; it will then appear whether or not their immediate object was to take advantage of the diftrefies of France to procure for themselves what is always the foolish paffion of monarchs, an acceffion of territory.

Some time muit generally elapfe before the veil is entirely removed from political tranfactions. Whether there actually cxifted or not a connexion and correfpondence between the hoftile powers and the court of France; whether the league of Pilnitz and the inimical proceedings of Austria were either planned by the royal party at home, or approved by the king, is at prefent involved in impenetrable obfcurity. The affirmative is almost universally

believed in France; but it is believed on prefumptive, and not on pofitive evidence on the other hand, the friends of Louis have been renuous in denying the charge They affert that his perfonal influence with Leopold actually prevented that monarch from engaging in hoftilities, and that every effort was made as a fovereign and a brother, by the able and trufty agency of M. Bigot de St. Croix, to induce the emigrant princes to return to the bofom of their country.

Whatever conclufion pofterity may be difpofed to draw upon this fubject, upon better evidence than lies before the public at this period, certain it is, that every measure of the combined courts appeared calculated to precipitate the ruin of the unfortunate monarch, for whofe caufe they profeffed to have taken up arms. It was of little immediate avail to him, whether he was really innocent of any traiterous defign against his country or not, provided it was believed in France; and how should it not be univerially believed, when the empero and the king of Pruffia pofitively afferted, in their proclamation, that "the king was not fincere in accepting the conftitution?"

The infulting and fanguinary manifefto flued at Coblentz, on the 25th of July by the cuke of Brunfwick, infinuated the fame fact, and,

as well as that of the 27th of the fame nonth, was calculated to have the very wort effect upon the populace of Iaris. It left no middle party in the nation; all who isbed to refe ve a government, in any degreep plar; all who conceived that admitation of the fupreme authority was a defirabie circumftar ce, were thrown, by these measures, into the hands

of the avowed republicans, and felt themselves compelled to give way to the fanguinary madnefs of that fanatical party, or at once accede to the deftruction of liberty by the army of the duke of Brunfwick-A fatal alternative, which rendered it almoft impoffible to be at once the friend of order and the friend of liberty!

The unfortunate Louis did not dare to prefent this declaration to the affembly as an authentic paper. The very letter which fubmitted it to the inspection of the legislature queftioned its authenticity; and though the royal metlage was replete with the ftrongeft, and probably the most fincere expreflions of patriotism, the propofal of printing it for the use of the departments was rejected, and the notoriety of the matter authorized in point of fact the infolent remark of M. Ifnard, "that the king had afferted what was not true." The republican party acquired new acceffions of vigour and of authority; and on the 3d of Auguft the fatal die was caft, when M. Petion, at the head of the fections of Paris, appeared at the bar of the affembly to demand the depofition of the king. The audacious propofal was heard with horror by all good patriots; but it was followed by others of the fame nature on the 6th and 7th. A petition had lain for eight days on the altar of the Champ de Mars, and was prefented by a countless multitude on the 6th, who were preceded by a pike crowned with the- Jacobin

enfign, the red woollen cap, with an infcription upon it, "The depofition of the ing."

In compliance with thefe repeated requifitions, the affembly at length determined to come to a decifion on this difficult and dangerous fubject, and the fatal 10th of Auguft was appointed for the difcuffion. The affembly, however, had exhibited fome proofs of caution and temperance which did not coincide with the impetuofity of the Jacobins, and the urgency of their caufe. The federates had been detained on various pretences in the metropolis, and even if their ftay could be protracted, the leaders of the party were doubtful whether harmony could long exist between them and the mob of Paris: the paffions of the people were now inflamed; but the French are verfatile, and a change of opinion might-fucceed. In few words, there can be little doubt but that it was well understood that the people were to be excited by the Jacobin party, and that force and a mob were to effect what they defpaired of from the legally conftituted powers. In proof of this affertion many facts might be adduced. To fome foreigners regular notice was given by the leaders of this party to abfent themselves from Paris on that day; and we know, from the best authority, that one of the most active in the confpiracy was heard to fay, "If we cannot provoke the people to rife by the tenth, we are loft."


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Preparations for the Defence of the Tuilleries. Election of a new Commune. Murder of M. Mandat. The King and Royal Family defert the Palace. The Tuilleries attacked by the Federates. Refiftance and Majacre of the Sifs. Death of M. Clermont Tonnere. Depofition of the King, and Accufation of the Minifters. Imprisonment of the Royal Family. Murder of M. de Rochfaucault. Flight and Imprisonment of La Fayette. Submiffion of the other Generals. Capture of Longwy and Verdun. Execution of Minifters. Banifhment of the Priefs. Horrid Majacre on the 2d of September. Murder of the Princefs de Lamballe. Decree propofed for forming a Battalion of Regicides. Advance of the combined Armies. Action at Grand Pré. Armistice. Retreat of the Pruffians. Recapture of Longwy and Verdun. Weakness of the Court of Berlin. Ill conduct of the combined Armies. Sieges of Thionville and Lifle. Declaration of War against Sardinia. Conquest of Savoy. Of Nice. Tranjactions with the Republic of Geneva. Success of Cuftine. Capture of Spires, Worms, Mentz, and Frankfort. Recapture of the latter.


HILE fuch were the evident designs of the adverse party, the king was not uninformed of their proceedings; and as no alter native now appeared but to repel force by force, preparations were made for defending the Tuilleries in cafe of an attack. The dreadful Rubicon was now paffed, and no hope of the return of harmony or peace remained. A folemn gloom overfpread the palace, and fuperfeded the native gaiety of the French nation. Loyalty and friendfhip were now put to the feverest teft; and the question was not, Who will conquer, but, Who will die in the defence and in the prefence of his fovereign? Amidft his accumulated misfortunes, a fmall and firm band retained their attachment to the king, and upon different motives devoted themselves to his defence. Among thefe might be counted fome of the remnants of the ancient aristocracy, who made this Laft facrifice to their principles, and whofe errors, when united with fuch difinterested virtue, became refpectable. Some had been among the

most forward of those who united in the first efforts to meliorate the con dition of their countrymen, but equally remote from anarchy and defpotifm, now dreaded the evils which impended on a total alteration of government: fome were the perfonal friends of the fallen majety of France; fome from gratitude, fome from prejudice; fome pregnant perhaps with improbable hopes; and fome, in the frenzy of defpair, crouded round the tottering ftandard of royalty.

Among there brave and gallant men, none were more refpectable than the Swifs guards. By repeated decrees of the affembly, this body of troops had been confiderably reduced; and even on the 7th of Auguft the king had been obliged to difmits 300 of them. The departure of the whole from Paris had been indeed decreed; but the king, upon the plea that the arrangement pointed out by the legiflature was contrary to the treaty with the Helvetic body, had deferred the execution of the decree; and the number which remained in L 4


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