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are poffible, much lefs fo when they are practifed without punishment. This, fir, is a ferious reflection to every man who loves the conftitution of England. Against the vain theories of men, who project fundamental alterations upon grounds of mere fpeculative objection, I can easily defend it; but when they recur to these facts, and fhew me how we may be doomed to all the horrors of war, by the caprice of an individual, who will not even condefcend to explain his reasons, I can only fly to this houfe, and exhort you to roufe from your lethargy of confidence, into the active mistrust and vigilant control which is your duty and your office."

The chancellor of the exchequer refted his exculpation chiefly on the defence which had been made for him by Mr. Jenkinson on the preceding day. He obferved that the balance of power was a queftion in which both fides of the houfe agreed in principle, and only differed as to degree. The next queftion then was, whether the fituation of the Turkish empire, was fuch, as to be affected in any great degree by the projects of the imperial courts? and if fo, whether this would have any effect upon the balance of Europe? Whether that kingdom was indebted to this for any, and what degree of intervention in its favour ? &c.

With regard to the firit of thefe queftions, he believed it would be found, that from the earliest periods of the Turkish empire, down to the prefent, it had been held effential to the balance of Europe. Such was the opinion of Montefquieu, nor has it ever been denied by any author of any authority whatever.

If this be true in general, how much more fo muft it be of the Turkish empire, when confidered as threatened by the afcendency of

1792.

fuch a power as Ruffia, the progrefs of which was fo alarmingly great and rapid, and the ambition of which was boundless.

Mr. Pitt agreed with gentlemen in oppofition, that the actual attack was commenced by the Turks. But he afferted, that the causes of offence were all on the part of Ruffia. There was, he faid, a regular fyftem on the part of Ruffia, of encroachment on the Turks; and, without our interference, all the ambitious views of the emprefs would have been accomplished. Was the compelling her to relinquith Moldavia, Wallachia and Beffarabia, nothing? These she originally ftipulated fhould be ceded to her instead of Oczakow; and, because the other object was not obtained, are the minifters to be cenfured?

The gentlemen on the oppofite fide, he obferved, had laid much stress on a queftion, which they had repeatedly put. Why did we not difarm as foon as we knew the terms upon which Ruffia would conclude a peace with the Porte? To this he replied, that no perfon acquainted in any degree with the actual fituation of Europe at the time, could be ignorant that there were other reafons which ought to claim attention, and which to have overlooked, would have been a failure of duty, and a total difregard to the intercits of the

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than almoft any tranfaction in hiftory, to illuftrate all that has ever been urged on the versatility of statesmen and politicians.

The points in which both parties were decidedly agreed, and to which they pledged their characters in these debates, were, It, That war is the evil above all others to be deprecated, and to be avoided, if poffible, on every occafion. 2dly, That the profperity of Great Britain depends altogether on the continuance of peace; its manufactures, its commerce, its revenue, even the perfonal liberty of a large portion of its fubjects, all must be materially injured, and the public credit affected by the hazard of a war. 3dly, That war ought never to be rifked till every means of negociation has failed, and that even great conceffions are law ful to preferve the inestimable blefAngs of peace. 4thly, That what ever might be thought of the value of Oczakow, if there appeared any probability of the balance of Europe being deftroyed by the anni bilation of any confiderable ftate, by partition or conquest, it afforded the

faireft caufe of alarm to all the powers of Europe. 5th, That France fince its revolution was a power no longer to be dreaded. 6th, That Rufia is the power which is most formidable to the peace of Europe, the power whofe views ought to be.. most narrowly, and moft vigilantly watched, and whose insatiable ambition ought most carefully to be restrained,

Upon these points the ministers in particular rested their defence, nor are we difpofed to difpute the ground, as we are rather inclined to believe, that they are principles to which every found politician will readily fubfcribe. It is not incumbent upon us in this place to anticipate the conduct of miniftry. Let it fuffice, that the debates on the Ruffian~armament will ferve as an infallible criterion of their confiftency and principle, a criterion which with their own mouths they have eftablihed, and to which the public in judging of their conduct, will confequently have the fullest right to appeal.

CHA P. II.

Treaty between England and Prussia, relative to the Marriage of the Duke of York with the Princess Frederica Charlotte, &c. Debates on this Treaty Statement of the Revenue-Lotteries-Petition against them-Debates on the Subject-Debates on the Slave Trade-Debates in the House of Lords on this Subject.

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The fubftance of which is as follows:

ift. The king of Pruffia gives to the princefs his daughter, one hun dred thousand crowns, viz. 40,000 as a portion, and 60,000 as parapher nalia; and in cafe the princess dies before her husband, both these sums are to revert to the king of Pruffia and his fucceffors.

za. Their royal highneffes, and the king of Great Britain, as well in his own name, as for his fon the duke of York, renounce for ever all right of inheritance to the crown and dominions of Pruffia.

3d. The duke of York makes a prefent to her royal highness of 6,000l. on the day of marriage, with intereft from Sept. 17911

4th. The duke of York agrees to pay to her royal highness, for pin money, the fum of 4,000 per annum, of which her royal highness is to have the fole disposal.

5th. The king of Great Britain pays a counter portion of one hundred thousand crowns; and engages that in cafe of the death of his royal higanefs, the annual fum of 8,000l. with a fuitable refidence and fuitable establishment, fhall be provided for the princess.

To render till plainer the terms of the above treaty, we shall recapiculate in figures, and fet down under diftinct heads, the fum which each nation refpectively pays in confequence of the marriage, which will have this further advantage, that it will render plainer to our readers fome parts of the debate, which fuc ceeded on the establishment of his royal highness the duke of York. Pruffia pays as a por

As

tion to her royal highness, 40,000 crowns, equivalent to paraphernalia

60,000 crowns TOTAL of what

PRUSSIA pays

GREAT BRITAIN pays a counter portion of 100,000 crowns or A bridal prefent to her royal highness

Pin money, 4,000!

per annum, the fole difpofal in her royal highnefs estimated at only ten years purchase This, independant of a large establishment fettled on the duke But in cafe the duke of York dies be fore her royal highness, then Great Britain

pays; counter por
tion as before

Nuptial prefent
Jointure of 8,000l.

per annum, ex-
clufive of refi-
dence and estab
lifhment,
years purchase

ten

L.28,000

40,000

£.68,000

22,000 6,000

80,000 £.188,000

The portion of 22,000l. which Pruffia pays, reverts back to Pruffia on the death of her royal highness, but there is not any mention of the counter-portion returning to Great Britain in cafe of the fame event.

The duke of York, his defcendants, and the royal family of Eng land, it is further to be obferved, 10,000 renounce entirely all pretenfions to the Pruffian fucceffion.

12,000

On the 7th of March, on the motion of Mr. chancellor Pitt, the L.22,000 houfe of commons retolved itself into a committee to take into confider ation an establishment for their royal highneffes the duke and dutchefs of

22,000 York:

The fubject was opened by Mr. 6,000 Pitt, who obferved that the fatisfaction which the houfe and the pub £28,000 lie had expreffed on the marriage of

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their royal highneffes, rendered it unneceffary to trouble them with any obfervations on that topic. The fubjest now before the houfe was to make a fuitable provision for their royal highneffes. The way in which he propofed this fhould be accomplished, would be, that eighteen thoufand a year fhould be allowed them out of the confolidated fund; in addition to which, it was in contemplation that a farther fum of feven thoufand a year thould be allowed out of the Irish revenue. Lafly, he fhould propofe, that in the event of her royal highnefs furviving the duke, the jointure of eight tho afand a year to her royal highnets fhould be alfo payable out of the confolidated fund. Mr. Pitt concluded with a motion to this effect.

Mr. Fox declared, it was not his intention to move any amendment upon this motion, but he would only venture to throw out one or two obfervations for the general confideration of parliament, in which he fhould fpeak of the royal family as princes of this country, of whom he knew no more than of thofe who were princes one hundred years ago. His firft obfervation was, that it was the intereft of this country to be governed by a monarchy, and by fuch a monarchy as fhould always be maintained with fuitable dignity.

Another confideration was, that the princes of the blood in this country, efpecially when they be

came in a more diftant relation to the crown, were placed in a very hard ftate indeed, when they were to depend entirely for fupport upon the will of the crown, and be thus totally under its direction.

With refpect to the provifion for the princes of the blood, the firit question, when application was madeto parliament, would naturally be"Is the civil lift adequate to the

purpose of supporting them?" He prefumed it was not, or they would not hear of any motion of this kind. If the civil lift therefore was not adequate to thefe purpofes, and the whole were to remain under the controul of his majefty, the civil lift ought to be augmented. But on the whole, he hoped that the time would foon arrive when fome provifion for thefe things fhould be made upon a found and rational principle. That the public might fee the whole amount of the expence they were to be at on account of the whole family, and that when an annuity was granted it fhould be correfpondent with a fplendid eftablishment.

Sir James Johnflone thought the fon ought to be dependent on the father. He mentioned the bishopric of Ofnaburgh, and pointedly afkcd, if that was worth nothing?

Mr. Fox replied that it was totally unufual to confider any thing belonging to princes out of the kingdom. Not a word was ever faid of his majefty's revenue from Ha nover; it was not even thought of in the difcuffion of his majesty's revenue, on his different applications to parliament for fupport.

Mr. Burdon thought the fum propofed was more than the country could afford, and more than was neceffary for his royal highnefs to expend. He had therefore no hefitation in faying, he should have confidered 10,ocol. a fufficient fum.

Mr. W. Smith faid he had not the fmalleft doubt, that, was the money to come out of the pockets of gentlemen in that houfe, there would not be a fingle voice against it; bus he begged the committee to recollect that it was the money of their conflituents they were voting away.

Mr. M. Montague faid it was of importance to consider, whether this was merely a provifion for the duke

of.

of York, or whether it was a principle, that all the branches of the royal family might expect, under fimilar circumftances, the fame allowance ifthis principle was to be extended, he certainly difapproved of it. Sir W. Dolben thought the fum was too large, and if the other branches of the family were to have each as much, their allowance of 37,cool. per annum, would be much greater than the prince of Wales's. As to Ofnaburgh, he did not think it ought to be put entirely out of the question, as he understood his royal highnefs received upwards of 12,cool. per annum from it.

Sir James Johafon faid, the income from Olnaburgh was a very material confideration; from the beft information he could obtain, it produced 35,000l. per annum.

Mr. J. T. Stanley requested the houfe would confider how ftrongly the country called for economy in the diftribution of public money. A right hon. gentleman had faid the English nation fhould be generous and liberal. Liberal he did think they would be, though fo large a fum as that propofed should not be given. It should be confidered what a confiderable income a grant of 10,000l. a year only, instead of 18,0col. would make when added to the 12,000l. per annum already al lowed to the duke, and to what it was probable would be granted to him from the Irish parliament, and the revenue derived from Ofnaburgh. We had no right, it was true, to demand an account to be laid on the table of fuch fums as were annually received from that place; but furely it was not unreafonable that the houfe fhould pay fome attention to it.

After much defultory converfation of the fame kind, and which contained no new ideas, the refolutions paffed the house, by which thefe kingdoms were pledged to an allowance

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The laft object to which his majefty's fpeech at the opening of the feflion directed the attention of parliament was the fate of the public revenue and expenditure; on the

17th of February, therefore, the houfe of commons, refolved itself into a committee to take into confideration this important fubject, and the debate was opened as ufual by the chancellor of the exchequer.

Adverting to the paragraph in his majefty's fpeech which related to the finances of the country, Mr. Pitt faid, it had already announced the most welcome information that could have been received. It held out to them, that, after all the difficulties they had experienced, the happy period was at length arrived, when they were enabled, with fafety to the country, to diminish in fome degree the burdens of the people. On the first day of the feffion he had taken an opportunity of ftating the general refult of the finances of the country, which he would then pro- ceed more minutely to detail. In entering upon à field at once fo in

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interesting

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