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CHAP. IV.

War in India. Commencement of Hoftilities. Preparations of the different Armies. March of General Meadows. Taking of Carroor. Of Daraporum. Of Coimbettore. Reduction of Sattimungalum. ttack on Col. Floyd's Detachment. Retreat of Col. Floyd. Recapture of Daraporum by Tippoo Sultan. March of the grand Army. Junction with General Meadows. Succeffes of the Bombay Army. Reduction of Cannanore. Of Ferokabad. Of Barragurry and Cootab poore. Arrival of Earl Cornwallis at Madras. Affumes the Command. March of Earl Cornwallis. Taking of Bangalore. Arrival at Arrakeery March of General bercrombie. Siege of Seringapatam. Raifed. Retreat of the British. Capture of the Hill Forts. Of Nundy droog. Capture of Penagra Defeat at Kiftnaghery. Recapture of Coimbettore. Reduction of Savendroog. March of the allied rmies. Second Siege of Seringapatam. ttack on Tippoo's Camp. Attempt to furprize Lord Cornwallis. Arrival of Bombay army. Negociation. Treaty of Peace concluded.

IN

N our preceding volume we explained at large the grounds and objects of the Indian war*, and we have fince had ample reafon to be fatisfied with the correctnefs and accuracy of our statement.

We avoided entering into the detail of military tranfactions, not only because a continued narrative poffeffes obvious advantages above an interrupted recital, but because we had reafon to expect a plenitude of correct and authentic information relative to these facts, and in this we have not been disappointed.

The actual commencement of hoftilities may be dated from the engagement between the troops of the Rajah of Travancore, who were ftationed in Cranganore, and for the defence of that fortrefs with thofe of Tippoo Sultan on the 1ft of May, 1790 +. This event, which was expected by our government, and poffibly concerted with them, was the fignal for the most vigorous preparation for war on the part of

See our laft Vol. p. 133. † Ib. 135.

the British. The grand Carnatic army affenibled immediately in the fouthern provinces. The general plan of the campaign was to reduce the Coimbettore country, and all the adjacent territory which lay below the Ghauts, or narrow paffes between the mountains, and to advance by the Gujelhetty pass to the feige of Seringapatam, the metropolis of Myfore. While fuch were to be the operations of the grand army under general Meadows, the Bombay army under general Abercrom bie was to undertake the reduction of the country lying to the west of the Ghauts, and afterwards to co-operate with the main army, as circumftances might direct. In the mean time the fafety of the Carnatic was fecured by a force under colonel Kelly, and ftyled, from its pofition, the centre army, being stationed in the line between Madras and the paffes leading to Myfore.

The Poonah Mahrattas and the Nizam were respectively to pene trate the enemys's territory in the F 2 quarter

quarter bordering upon theirs; and Seringapatam was established as the common center, where the whole force was to appear in a collective body.

With fuch difpatch were the movements ordered, that general Meadows joined the grand army at Trichinopoly on the 24th of May, and on the 26th this formidable, body of finely appointed troops, amounting to 14,000 effective men, marched towards the Coimbettore country. The march, however, of Indian armies cannot be very rapid, as their baggage and provifions are moftly tranfported upon bullocks. It was therefore the 15th of June before general Meadows entered Tippoo's country; and the firft place that furrendered to the British arms was the fort of Carroor, about 45 miles from Trichinopoly, which was immediately evacuated on the appearance of the British general.

It was fomewhat remarkable that Tippoo appeared to have taken fcarcely any measures to fecure the country below the Ghauts, nor even to remove or destroy the grain in a territory which it was evidently not his intention to defend. Notwithstanding this circumstance, however, fo inadequate is fuch a country to the fupply of fo confiderable a force as that of the British, that it was the 3d of July before the army was enabled to move from Carroor, after collecting all the fupplies which the country afforded, and after putting the fort on the moft tenable footing poffible.

Seven days were spent in marching 59 miles to Daraporum. In this place the army was fortunate enough to find a very feafonable and plentiful fupply of grain. They now learned that Tippoo had afcended the Ghauts, leaving at the

foot of them, between Gujelhetty and Damicotta a ftrong detachment of horfe. On the 22d of July the army entered Coimbettore, which wasalfoevacuated on their approach, though it contained a confiderable quantity of grain, and fome military ftores. The fmaller forts in the neighbourhood of Coimbettore were reduced by different detachments in a fhort time.

An enterprize of inore importance was alfo attempted during the halt of the army of Coimbettore. Soon after their arrival at that capital, col. Floyd, with the cavalry, was difpatched towards Damicotta, about 40 miles to the north, in the hope of furprising the detachment of cavalry, which, we have just intimated, was ftationed by Tippoo below the Ghauts; the colonel however only fucceeded in capturing about 50 horfe.

Towards the latter end of August, col. Floyd was again fent to reduce Sattimungalum and Damicotta. The former was garrifoned by a battalion, and, having been intended as a depot, confiderable quantities of provifions were collected there: it however, furrendered to col. Floyd without the fmalleft refiftance. Being foon after joined by a detachment under col. Oldham, the whole body was computed to be nearly equal in ftrength to one wing of the grand army, but without its proportion of artillery. The ftation which this fmall army occupied after the capture of Sattimungalum, was to the fouth of the Bowanny river, opposite that fortrefs. On the 12th of September, Tippoo Sultan defcended the Gujelhetty Pafs, and on the following day commenced a fmart cannonade on col. Floyd's detachment. During the night therefore the colonel thought it neceflary

to retreat towards Coimbettore, but during the whole of the fucceeding day, the 14th, found himself clofely preffed by the enemy. The fevereft part of the conflict was in the evening near Showoor, when the Myforean force was repulfed with equal valour and judgment on the part of

the British.

As intelligence was very early conveyed to general Meadows of Tippoo's motions, that commander loft no time in marching to the relief of col. Floyd. On the 14th at night the general reached Vellady, while col. Floyd was at Showoor about 20 miles to the caftward. By fome unaccountable mistake, however, the army continued to march to the northward, and did not join col. Floyd till the 16th. The lofs on this occafion amounted to 150 killed and near 300 wounded, and 6 guns were left behind, on account of the lofs of the draft cattle.

After halting the whole of the 17th, in order to refresh col. Floyd's detachment, gen. Meadows marcheds to the eastward to offer Tippoo battle; but in the mean time the Sultan had retreated to Sattimungalum, and the British general, from want of provifions, was under a neceffity of returning to Coimbet

tore.

It was the close of the month before general Meadows was able to march again in queft of the enemy. The wary Indian, however, wh never fights but at an advantage, was too cautious to be engaged by the manoeuvres of the general. When the army arrived at any poft in the evening, the ufual report was, that Tippoo had quitted it early in the morning; and a general ignorance of his motions and defigns, feems indeed, for fome time, to have pervaded the camp; and it was the 12th

of October before any authentic
intelligence could be gained.
then appeared that his object had
been to attack Daraporum, which
furrendered to his arms, and the
British garrifon arrived in camp on
the 17th, under an efcort of Tip-
poo's troops, agreeably to the terms
of capitulation. The garrifon fpoke
in high terms of the honourable
treatment which they had experi
enced from this prince, who has
been ufually characterized as a cruel
and implacable tyrant.

Tippoo departed from Daraporum on the 20th, and probably defirous of placing the Bowanny river, which at this feafon is rough and fwelling, between his army and the British, proceeded to Sattimungalum. He might also have a further view in taking this pofition, viz. to prevent the junction of general Meadows with the center army.

The British general left Coimbettore on the fame day that Tippoo quitted Daraporam, but nothing worth recording occurred till the 7th of November, when colonel Floyd, who had been fent to reconnoitre, brought the intelligence that Tippoo had croffed the Cavery to the north-eaft, in the beginning of the month, and was apparently proceeding to ftop the progrefs of the center army, now commanded by colonel Maxwell, the former commander, colonel Kelly, being dead.

It would be useless to detail minately the progrefs of this center army: let it fulice to fay, that after a fatiguing and dangerous march, and after taking poffeflion of feveral forts in the Barramaul, colonel Maxwell, on the 3d of November, took a strong pofition at Caveripatam, where probably his intelligence led him to wait the approach of

F3 Tippoo,

Tippoo, rather than rifk his army in a lefs favourable position by dar ing to advance.

The conjectures which had been formed with refpect to the defigns of the enemy, were, as it afterwards appeared, well founded. On the 12th, 13th, and 14th, Tippoo pre fented himself before colonel Maxwell in line of battle; but finding the British commander too well prepared and too ftrongly pofted, and conf ious that his rear would certainly be preffed by the near approach of general Meadows, he retired in time to fecure himself a favourable pofition for a timely

retreat.

The hiftory of the grand army during this time, is no more than a journal of its marches in purfuit of the enemy. On the 17th of No. vember the two armies (the grand and the center army) effected a junction at Poolampuity; and on the following evening,as they were purfuing their route to the fouthward, they came unexpectedly in fight of the rear of the Myforean army, the advance of which was probably at that moment entering the pafs of Tapoor. The rear confifted of the prime of Tippoo's cavalry, drawn up in compact bodies to favour the retreat of the main body. They were cannonaded and purfued to the foot of the pafs, and apparently fuffered fome lofs.

From this period, the united armies under general Meadows directed their courfe backwards by the ftraighteft road to Trichinopo y, in order to refre themfelves and obtain a fupply but the weather proved fo unfavourable that they did not arrive in its neighbourhood till the 8th of December. Her they learned that Tippoo had arrived at Munfurput, on the banks of the

Colaroone, oppofite Trichinopoly, on the 28th of November, where he continued encamped till December 6th, but without making any attack upon Trichinopoly deterred, moft probably, by the fwoln state of the river.

While fuch were the movements of general Meadows, a detachment from the Bombay army, under lieutenant colonel Hartley, rendered effectual affiftance to the Rajah of Travancore, and on the 5th of Dec. general Abercrombie, with the remainder of the forces from Bombay, arrived at Tellicherry, while col. Hartley was ordered to Paniani to keep the communication open between the two armies.

The reduction of Cannanore was general Abercrombie's firft object, upon which he marched the 14th of December; and on the 17th the town and garrifon furrendered, and the troops engaged not to ferve againft the ritifh during the war. Col. Hartley ne rly about the fame time obtained poffeffion of Ferokabad, the capital of the Malabar coaft, and the enemy retreated to the Ghauts. Thefe fucceffes were followed, on the 27th, by the furrender of the pots of Barragurry and ootab poole, fo that the whole district along the coaft from Billipatam river to cape Comorin was now in the poffeffion of the British and their allies.

The army under general Meadows left Trichinopoly on the 5th of January, 1791, and proceeded to the right towards Madras, where earl Cornwallis had arrived on the 13th of December. On the 12th of January the right wing of the grand army reached Vellout, about eighteen miles from Madras, and on the 29th of the fame month earl Cornwallis joined the grand army there,

which early in February proceeded in two columns towards Vellore. From the direction of the march it was fuppofed that his lordship meant to enter the Myfore territory by the Baramul valley; and fo completely was Tippon deceived by this feint, that his whole attention was directed to the paffes in that quarter. The real object however of the British general was, the pass of Muglee; and fo judiciously had he taken his measures, that no interruption was given to the rmy till they had proceeded three days march to the weftward beyond the pafs.

It was the 22d of February before the laft of the public ftores and the baggage of the army were got safe over the pafs. The fucceeding day was a day of hait. The order of battle was then published, and the bullocks and elephants muftered; of the former 27,000 were found fit for fervice, and of the latter, eighty accompanied the army.

Lord Cornwallis proceeded for Bangalore on the 24th of February. After three days march, fome parties of the enemy's horse, were difco vered which increased as the army advanced; and before the British reached within eighteen miles of Bangalore, they burnt all the adjacent villages and deftroyed the forage. When advanced within ten miles of the ortrefs, Tippoo's army appeared in excellent order, and taking poffeffion of the eights, cannonaded the British rear, while his cavalry made an unfuccefsful attempt on the baggage.

enemy being ftrongly reinforced, foon ralied, and compelled the colonel to retreat. On the following day the pettah or town was fto med and taken, with the lofs of 100 men : it was found to contain a good supply of grain, forage, and fuel.

On the 12th three batteries were opened on the fort, but they were too di tant to effect a breach; on the 16th, therefore, a new battery of nine guns was opened at 550 yards from the works. On the 17th, and again on the 21ft, Tippoo drew out his army, but without effect. A breach of fome extent was about this time effected, and on the evening of the 2 ft, the fort was stormed and taken with little lofs on the fide of the British, but with a dreadful carnage of the unrefifting garrifon. Not lefs than 1000 were maffacred with the bayonet, and 300, moftly wounded, were taken. Such is war in its very nature and fpirit, that it neceffarily deftroys the moral feelings; and fuch are its inevitable confequences, that however diftinguifhed for humanity the commander may be, he generally finds himfelf, on fuch occafions, unable to reftrain the in emperance and cruelty of his foldiers. The philofopher, in future and in better times, will perufe thefe melancholy details with a figh, and will afk, By what authority men embark from a diftant fhore for the express purpose of imbruing their hands in the blood of their offencelefs fellow creatures?

The British general encamped before Bangalore on the 5th of March. In the afternoon colonel Floyd, with the cavalry being difpatched to reconnoire, was tempted to atta k Tippoo rear, which at firft appeared to give way; but the

The army remained at Pangalore till the 28th of March, when they proceeded to the N. N E. towards Chinna-Balabaram. Nothing of importance occurred till the 7th of April, when they were joined by a party of the Nizam's troops, in number from 14 0 16,000; but in a very bad and irregular ftate. On

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