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NEW YORK: D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
549 & 551 BROADWAY. 1871. t?
LANE MEDICAL Lidiwu> .
LIBRARY OF THE LELAND STVtFORD JR. UNIVERSITY. U VJ./7?
Introduction, . Page 1
.... . , PART A.
THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN.
THE EVIDENCE OF THE DESCENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
Nature of the Evidence bearing on the Origin of Man.—Homologous struct-
ures in Man and the Lower Animals.—Miscellaneous Points of Corre-
spondence.—Development.—Rudimentary Struotures, Muscles, Sense-
organs, Hair, Bones, Reproductive Organs, etc.—The Bearing of these
three great Classes of Facts on the Origin of Man, . . . p. 9
COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND TUB LOWER ANIMALS.
The Difference in Mental Power between the Highest Ape and the Lowest
Savage, immense.—Certain instincts in common.—The Emotions.—
—Progressive Improvement.—Tools and Weapons used by Animals.
—Language.—Self-Consciousness.—Sense of Beauty.—Belief in God,
Spiritual Agencies, Superstitions, p. 33
COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS—
The Moral Sense—Fundamental Proposition.—The Qualities of Social
Animals.—Origin of Sociability.—Struggle between Opposed In-
stincts.—Man a Social Animal.—The more enduring Social Instincts
conquer other less Persistent Instincts.—The Social Virtues alone re- gardcd by Savages.—The Self-regarding Virtues acquired at a Later
Stage of Development.—The Importance of the Judgment of tho
Members of the same Community on Conduct.—Transmission of
Moral Tendencies.—Summary, page 67
ON THE MANNER OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
Variability of Body and Mind in Man.—Inheritance.—Causes of Varia-
bility.—Laws of Variation the same in Man as in the Lower Animals.
—Direct Action of the Conditions of Life.—Effects of the increased
Use and Disuse of Parts.—Arrested Development.—Keversion.—Cor-
related Variation.—Rate of Increase.—Cheeks to increase. —Natural
Selection.—Man the most Dominant Animal in the World.—Impor-
tance of his Corporeal Structure.—The Causes which have led to his
becoming erect.—Consequent Changes of Structure.—Decrease in
Size of the Canine Teeth.—Increased Size and Altered Shape of the
Skull.—Nakedness.—Absence of a Tail.—Defenceless Condition of
Man, p. 103
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES
DURING PRIMEVAL AND CIVILIZED TIMES.
The Advancement of the Intellectual Powers through Natural Selection.—
Importance of Imitation.—Social and Moral Faculties.—Their Develop-
ment within the Limits of the same Tribe.—Natural Selection as af-
fecting Civilized Nations.—Evidence that Civilized Nations were once
barbarous, p. 152
ON THE AFFINITIES AND GENEALOGY OF MAN.
Position of Man in the Animal Series.—The Natural System genealogical.
—Adaptive Characters of Slight Value.—Various Small Points of Re-
semblance between Man and the Quadrumana.—Rank of Man in the
Natural System.—Birthplace and Antiquity of Man.—Absence of
Fossil Connecting-links.—Lower Stages in the Genealogy of Man, as
inferred, firstly from his Affinities and secondly from his Structure.—-
Early Androgynous Condition of the Vertcbrnta.—Conclusion, p. 178
ON THE RACES OF MAN.
The Nature and Value of Specific Characters.—Application to the Races
of Man.—Arguments in favor of, and opposed to, ranking the So-
called Races of Man as Distinct Species.—Sub-species.—Monogenists
and Polygenists.—Convergence of Character.—Numerous Points of
Resemblance in Body and Mind between the most Distinct Races of
Man.—The State of Man when he first spread over the Earth.—Each
Bacc not descended from a Single Pair.—The Extinction of Races.—
The Formation of Races.—The Effects of Crossing.—Slight Influence
of the Direct Action of the Conditions of Life.—Slight or no Influence
of Natural Selection.—Sexual Selection, .... page 20G
PRINCIPLES OF SEXUAL SELECTION.
Secondary Sexual Characters. — Sexual Selection.—Manner of Action.—
Excess of Males.—Polygamy.— The Male alone generally modified
through Sexual Selection.—Eagerness of the Male.—Variability of
the Male.—Choice exerted by the Female.—Sexual compared with
Natural Selection.—Inheritance, at Corresponding Periods of Life, at
Corresponding Seasons of the Year, and as limited by Sex.—Relations
between the Several Forms of Inheritance.—Causes why one Sex and
the Young are not modified through Sexual Selection.—Supplement on
the Proportional Numbers of the two Sexes throughout the Animal
Kingdom.—On the Limitation of the Numbers of the two Sexes
through Natural Selection, p. 245
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS IN THE LOWER CLASSES OF TUE ANIMAL
These Characters absent in the Lowest Classes.—Brilliant Colors.—Mol-
lusea.—Annelids.—Crustacea, Secondary Sexual Characters strongly
developed; Dimorphism; Color; Characters not acquired before
Maturity.—Spiders, Sexual Colors of; Stridulation by the Males.—
Myiiapoda, p. 312