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drops of sweat it hath cost the preacher. The day is far spent, thou knowest not how little time thou hast to spend. . . . "Cast away from you all your transgressions, whereby you have transgressed, and make you a new heart, and a new spirit." So that, though all come from God's grace and mercy, yet this doth not exclude our labour. Every child of grace must be a co-worker with God.

To enable thee to do this,

First, a desire. If a man do not desire it, he will not take pains. Strive to enter in at the strait narrow gate, it's a narrow gate: peradventure he must leave his skin behind him. And therefore the spring and the ground of the labour must be an earnest desire. Set an high price on it. Until thou set a price on grace, thou wilt not labour for it. . . . Bare desires that put not a man to work, make him not separate himself; this is the desire of the slothful, and it kills him. A bare desire is worth nothing.

This desire then must make thee separate thyself, to examine thyself which way thou art going to heaven or hell-to cast up thy accounts, and see whether thou thrivest in grace. Set apart some time for meditation that the word may be ingrafted in thy heart. . . .

bring up their children in a trade whereby
they may labour. If it be so for earthly
things, much more for heavenly. "But I
laboured more abundantly than they all, yet
not I but the grace of God that was in me."
Observe, the more thou labourest, the more
grace thou hast, the more diligent in receiving
the sacrament, in hearing the word, in prayer.
grace of God is so far from making a man
idle, to look that heaven should drop in his
mouth, as the drops of rain that fall on the
earth, that it will make him work and labour
in private, separate himself, which is an argu-
ment of grace; and this a man will not do till
his heart be seasoned with grace. "For it is
God that worketh in you both the will and
the deed." You will say, If God work let him
go on, what would you have me to do? But
mark the conclusion the apostle hath drawn,
"Work out your salvation with fear and trem-
bling," for it is God that worketh both the
will and the deed, yet his grace makes thee
work out thy salvation. Thou prayest in the
Lord's prayer, Give us this day our daily
bread. In the word "give us" I acknowledge
I must be a beggar, and beg every bit of bread
I eat; if I do not beg it I am an usurper; yet
for all that, though it be God's bread, yet thou
must labour for it, as it is commanded, "We
command and exhort you by our Lord Jesus
Christ that they work with quietness, and eat
their own bread." It is called their own bread,
because they work for it. If it be thus for
the food of our bodies, then how much more
for the bread of life! "But labour for the
meat that endureth unto everlasting life."
Thou must not think this bread shall come
without great pains and labour. No, thou
must labour earnestly. You may not think
the mere hearing of a sermon will do it. Thou
thyself must get it with the sweat of thy
brows; and when thou hast laboured thou
must acknowledge that it comes from God.
"Beware lest thou say in thy heart, My power
and the strength of mine arm hath prepared
me this abundance;" but remember the Lord
thy God, for it is he that giveth thee power to
get wealth in this world. Think not because


thou takest pains it is by thy wit and by thy HOW ADAM AND EVE BROKE ALL THE strength thou hast got it: it is the Lord which gave thee power to get substance. If thus in the outward meat, much more in the spiritual. Thou must labour for it, and when thou hast it, say, that the Lord my God gave me power. It is not in thine own power, but it is from God. If ever thou meanest to come to heaven, idle not out thy time. Consider how many

Again, without this separating, setting apart some time for meditation, our prayers cannot approach the throne of grace. By a powerful prayer Heaven suffereth violence; not a stronger thing on earth than the prayer of a Christian; it binds God's hands, it returns not in vain. . . . This pouring out of the soul in prayer is as it is said of Hannah. "And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out myself before God." This pouring of the soul is a prayer in God's own language, which cannot be done without meditation.

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Thus you see the necessity of meditation; we must resolve upon the duty if we ever mean to go to heaven.

How doth it agree with the goodness, or with the very justice of God, to punish mankind so fearfully for eating of a little fruit?

Very well; for first, the heinousness of an

1 From the fifth edition (1658) of A Body of Divinity.

offence is not to be measured by the thing that is done, but by the worthiness of the person against whom it is committed. And how much more the commandment our first parents broke was easy to be kept (as to abstain from one only fruit in so great variety and pleasure), so much more grievous was their sin by breaking it.

Secondly, though God tried their obedience in that fruit especially, yet were there many other most grievous sins, which in desiring and doing of this they did commit. In so much that we may observe therein the grounds of the breach in a manner of every one of the ten commandments. For the transgression was terrible, and the breach of the whole law of God; yea, an apostacie whereby they withdrew themselves from under the power of God, nay, rejected and denied him; and not so little an offence as most men think it to be.

What breaches of the first commandment may be observed in this transgression?

First, infidelity, whereby they doubted of God's love toward them, and of the truth of his word.

Secondly, contempt of God, in disregarding his threatenings, and crediting the words of Satan, God's enemy and theirs.

Thirdly, heinous ingratitude and unthankfulness against God for all his benefits, in that they would not be beholden unto him for that excellent condition of their creation (in respect whereof they owed unto him all fealty), but would needs be his equal.

Fourthly, curiosity in affecting greater wisdom than God had endued them withal by virtue of their creation, and a greater measure of knowledge than he thought fit to reveal unto them.

Fifthly, intolerable pride and ambition, not only desiring to be better than God made them, but also to be equal in knowledge to God himself, and aspiring to the highest estate due to their Creator.

Eve, by embracing the word of the devil, and preferring it before the word of God; Adam, by hearkening to the voice of his wife rather than to the voice of the Almighty.

What were the breaches of the third? First, presumption in venturing to dispute God's truth, and to enter in communication with God's enemy, or a beast who appeared unto them, touching the word of God, with whom no such conference ought to have been entertained.

Secondly, reproachful blasphemy, by subscribing to the sayings of the devil, in which he charged God with lying and envying his good estate.

Thirdly, superstitious conceit of the fruit of the tree, imagining it to have that virtue which God never put into it, as if by the eating thereof such knowledge might be gotten as Satan persuaded.

Fourthly, want of that zeal in Adam for the glory of God which he ought to have showed against his wife, when he understood she had transgressed God's commandments.

How was the fourth commandment broken? In that the Sabbath was made a time to confer with Satan in matters tending to the high dishonour of God. If it be true that on that day man fell into this transgression, as some not improbably have conjectured, for at the conclusion of the sixth day all things remained yet very good, and God blessed the seventh day. Now it is very likely Satan would take the first advantage that possibly he could to entrap them before they were strengthened by longer experience, and by partaking of the sacrament of the tree of life (whereof it appeareth that they had not yet eaten), and so from the very beginning of man become a manslayer.

Show briefly the grounds of the breach of the commandments of the second table in the transgressions of our first parents.

The fifth was broken, Eve giving too little to her husband in attempting a matter of so great weight without his privity, and Adam giving too much to his wife in obeying her voice rather than the commandment of God, and for pleasing of her, not caring to displease God.

The sixth: by this act they threw themselves and all their posterity into condemnation and death, both of body and soul.

The seventh: though nothing direct against this commandment, yet herein appeared the How did our first parents break the second root of those evil affections which are here concommandment? demned, as not bridling the lust and wandering desire of the eyes, as also the inordinate appetite of the taste, in lusting for and eating that only fruit which God forbade, not being satisfied with all the other fruits in the garden.

The eighth first, laying hands upon that which was none of their own, but by special reservation kept from them. Secondly, discontent with their present estate, and covetous desire of that which they had not.

The ninth: judging otherwise than the truth

was of the virtue of the tree, and receiving a but as him that excelleth and hath the prefalse accusation against God himself. eminence over the rest; that is to say (according to the tenure of the oath), as him that is the only supreme governor of his realms. Upon which ground we may safely build this conclusion, that whatsoever power is incident unto the king by virtue of his place must be acknowledged to be in him supreme; there being nothing so contrary to the nature of sovereignty as to have another superior power to overrule it. "Let him who is a king not have a king."

The tenth by entertaining in their minds Satan's suggestions, and evil concupiscence appearing in the first motions leading to the forenamed sins.


God, for the better settling of piety and hon-
In the second place, we are to consider that

What the danger of the law is for refusing this oath, has been sufficiently opened by my lords the judges, and the quality and quantity of that offence has been aggravated to the full by those that have spoken after them. The part which is most proper for me to deal in is the information of the conscience touching the truth and equity of the matters contained in the oath; which I also have made choice the rather to insist upon, because both the form of the oath itself requireth herein a full resolution of the conscience (as appeareth by those words in the very beginning thereof, "I do utterly testify and declare in my conscience," &c.), and the persons that stand here to be censured for refusing the same have alleged nothing in their own defence, but only the simple plea of ignorance.

esty among men, and the repression of profaneness and other vices, hath established two distinct powers upon earth: the one of the the sword, committed to the civil magistrate. keys, committed to the church; the other of That of the keys is ordained to work upon the inner man, having immediate relation to the remitting or retaining of sins. That of the sword is appointed to work upon the outward man, yielding protection to the obedient, and inflicting external punishment upon the rebellious and disobedient. By the former the spiritual officers of the church of Christ are and rebuke, with all authority, to loose such enabled to govern well, to speak, and exhort, as are penitent, to commit others unto the

That this point, therefore, may be cleared, and all needless scruples removed out of men's minds, two main branches there be of this oath which require special consideration. The one positive, acknowledging the supremacy of the government of these realms, in all causes whatsoever, to rest in the king's highness only. The other negative, renouncing all jurisdic-do evil; whether by death, or banishment, or tions and authorities of any foreign prince or confiscation of goods, or imprisonment, accordprelate within his majesty's dominions. ing to the quality of the offence.

Lord's prison until their amendment, or to bind them over unto the judgment of the great day, if they shall persist in their wilfulness and obstinacy. By the other princes have an imperious power assigned by God unto them for the defence of such as do well, and executing revenge and wrath on such as

For the better understanding of the former we are, in the first place, to call unto our remembrance that exhortation of St. Peter: "Submit yourselves unto every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be unto

When St. Peter, that had the keys committed unto him, made bold to draw the sword, he was commanded to put it up, as a weapon that he had no authority to meddle withal. And on the other side, when Uzziah the king would venture upon the execution of the priest's office, it was said unto him, "It pertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the Lord, but unto the priests, the sons of Aaron, that are consecrated to burn incense." Let this, therefore, be our second conclusion that the power of the sword and of the keys are two distinct ordinances of God; and that the prince hath no more authority to enter upon the execution of any part of the priest's function, than the priest hath to intrude upon any part of the office of the prince.

In the third place we are to observe that the

the king, as having the pre-eminence, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him, for the punishment of evil-doers and for the praise of them that do well." By this we are taught to respect the king, not as the only governor of his dominions simply (for we see there be other governors placed under him),

1 From a very rare work entitled "Clavi Trabales, or

Nailes fastened by some great Masters of Assemblyes,

with a preface by the Lord-bishop of Lincoln. 1661. A speech delivered in the Castle Chamber at Dublin, 22d Nov

ember, 1622, at the censuring of some officers who refused to take the oath of supremacy. By the late Primate Usher, then Bishop of Meath."

power of the civil sword (the supreme manag-
ing whereof belongeth to the king alone) is not
to be restrained unto temporal causes only,
but is by God's ordinance to be extended like-
wise unto all spiritual or ecclesiastical things
and causes; that as the spiritual rulers of the
church do exercise their kind of government,
in bringing men into obedience, not of the
duties of the first table alone (which concern-
eth piety and the religious service which man
is bound to perform unto his Creator) but also | life in all piety and honesty.


[Maurice Fitzgerald was the son of David duff (the black) Fitzgerald, and, as his poems testify, lived in Munster in the time of Elizabeth. Though several works of his are extant the facts of his life are shrouded in darkness. It is supposed that he died in Spain, where many of the most eminent Irishmen of his time found an exile's home. His journey thither probably suggested the Ode on his Ship, though, as Miss Brooke says in her Reliques of Irish Poetry, it is possible the third ode of Horace deserves that credit. In O'Reilly's Irish Writers is a list of seven poems by Fitzgerald which were in O'Reilly's possession in 1820. Fitzgerald seems to have been a man of considerable education and of refined taste.

The Ode on his Ship is greatly admired in the original for its purity of language and strength of expression.]



Bless my good ship, protecting power of grace!
And o'er the winds, the waves, the destined coast,
Breathe, benign spirit!-Let thy radiant host
Spread their angelic shields!

Before us the bright bulwark let them place,
And fly beside us, through their azure fields!

of the second (which respecteth moral honesty, and the offices that man doth owe unto man): so the civil magistrate is to use his authority also in redressing the abuses committed against the first table as well as against the second; that is to say, as well in punishing of an heretic, or an idolater, or a blasphemer, as of a thief, or a murderer, or a traitor; and in providing, by all good means, that such as live under his government may lead a quiet and peaceable

Oh calm the voice of winter's storm!
Rule the wrath of angry seas!

The fury of the rending blast appease,
Nor let its rage fair ocean's face deform!
Oh check the biting wind of spring,
And, from before our course,

1 Translated by Miss Brooke.

Arrest the fury of its wing,
And terrors of its force!

So may we safely pass the dangerous cape,
And from the perils of the deep escape!

I grieve to leave the splendid seats
Of Teamor's ancient fame!
Mansion of heroes, now farewell!
Adieu, ye sweet retreats,
Where the famed hunters of your ancient vale,
Who swelled the high heroic tale,

Were wont of old to dwell!

And you, bright tribes of sunny streams, adieu!
While my sad feet their mournful path pursue,
Ah, well their lingering steps my grieving soul

Receive me now, my ship!-hoist now thy sails
To catch the favouring gales.
Oh Heaven! before thy awful throne I bend!
Oh let thy power thy servant now protect!
Increase of knowledge and of wisdom lend,
Our course through every peril to direct;
To steer us safe through ocean's rage,
Where angry storms their dreadful strife maintain;
Oh may thy pow'r their wrath assuage!
May smiling suns and gentle breezes reign!

Stout is my well-built ship, the storm to brave,
Majestic in its might,

Her bulk, tremendous on the wave,

Erects its stately height!

From her strong bottom, tall in air
Her branching masts aspiring rise;
Aloft their cords and curling heads they bear,
And give their sheeted ensigns to the skies;
While her proud bulk frowns awful on the main,
And seems the fortress of the liquid plain!

Dreadful in the shock of flight
She goes she cleaves the storm!

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Cuts through the foaming main its liquid way.

God of the winds! oh hear my pray'r!
Safe passage now bestow!

Soft o'er the slumbering deep, may fair
And prosperous breezes flow!

O'er the rough rock and swelling wave,
Do thou our progress guide!

Do thou from angry ocean save,
And o'er its rage preside!

Speed my good ship along the rolling sea, O heaven! and smiling skies, and favouring gales decree!

Speed the high-masted ship of dauntless force,
Swift in her glittering flight and sounding course!
Stately moving on the main,
Forest of the azure plain!
Faithful to confided trust,
To her promis'd glory just;
Deadly in the strife of war,
Rich in every gift of peace,
Swift from afar,

In peril's fearful hour,

Mighty in force and bounteous in her power
She comes, kind aid she lends,

She frees from supplicating friends,
And fear before her flies, and dangers cease!

As the fierce Griffin's dreadful flight
Her monstrous bulk appears,
While o'er the seas her towering height,
And her wide wings, tremendous shade! she rears.
Or, as a champion, thirsting after fame-
The strife of swords, the deathless name-
So does she seem, and such her rapid course!
Such is the rending of her force;

Hear, blest Heaven! my ardent pray'r!
My ship-my crew-oh take us to thy care!
Oh may no peril bar our way!

Fair blow the gales of each propitious day!
Soft swell the floods, and gently roll the tides,

When her sharp keel, where dreadful splendours While, from Dunboy, along the smiling main
We sail, until the destined coast we gain,
And safe in port our gallant vessel rides!


BORN 1594 DIED 1666.

[Among all the men who have made posterity | though they may be added to, cannot be set their debtors by preserving for its edification aside. Though religious and political strife the relics of a dying past few deserve more seethed all round him, and though he himself credit than Sir James Ware, and few have stood forth honourably for his political leaders had that credit accorded them with more of and friends, he has kept his works almost common consent. Living chiefly in a time absolutely free from any taint of either bigotry when the air was full of horrors, and being or intolerance. himself, in consequence of the office he held, constantly brought in contact with these things, he yet found time to collect an enormous amount of Irish manuscripts, and to compile a series of works which every day renders more and more important, and which,

Ware was born in Castle Street, Dublin, on the 26th November, 1594, his father being then auditor-general of Ireland after having already served as secretary to two different lord deputies. At sixteen he entered Trinity College as a student, and while there, much to

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