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with the aspirate h or the monosyllable va thence in process of time pushing one another prefixed, which was afterwards changed into forward into Germany, Gaul, &c., and across the vowel 0, and signifies one descended from the narrow firth from Calis to the coast of some chieftain or head of a principal family, Kent; from thence by degrees northward into as O'Brien, O'Connor, O'Neill. Yet it must that part of Britain since called Scotland, and be confessed that some centuries after King south and south-west to Wales; from each of Brien's reign numbers of families took no , which countries Ireland is visible, and might fixed or certain surnames. It has been ob- easily receive colonies in their wicker corraghs, served by writers that about the year 1000, in and other contrivances of these early ages. Brien's reign, surnames also began to be ascer- And this I take to be the most rational way tained in France, England, and Scotland, first of accounting for the first planting of Ireamong people of distinction, and afterwards land; as it is most natural to suppose, that by degrees among the inferior sort. Finally, islands were first planted from countries after surnames were settled in Ireland, some that border nearest to them; which is the particular children of Irish families had addi- reason given by Tacitus why the Gauls first tional sobriquets or nicknames given them, peopled Britain. as Bane - White, Boy - Yellow, Bacca- Lame, But as Ireland, with the rest of Europe, are Moil-Bald, and the like; and the same custom descended from Japhet, the difficulty then also gradually crept in among some families of remains from which of his sons we are to claim English birth.

our original. In the time of Moses the names and fixed seats of the descendants of Noah were without question clear enough; but now, after

the space of upwards of three thousand years, THE ORIGIN OF THE IRISH.

after so many flittings, changes, and confusions

of nations, there remains nothing to rely upon. It is certain there is nothing concerning the It is very observable what Josephus says upon first original of nations to be found anywhere this subject. “From this time forward (i.e. worthy of credit but in Holy Writ. Moses from the confusion of Babel) the multitudes hath given us a catalogue of the posterity of dispersed themselves into divers countries and Noah, whose children and grandchildren he planted colonies in all places. Some there recounts in order, probably not all, but the were also who, passing the sea in ships and principal of them, from whom the most famous vessels, first peopled the islands; and there are nations of the world have drawn their names some nations likewise who at this day retain and originals. “By the sons of Japhet the the names which in times past were imposed isles of the Gentiles were divided in their on them; some others have changed them, and lands, every man after his tongue, and after others are altered into names more familiar their families in their nations." Commenta- and known to the neighbours, and deriving tors interpret the isles of the Gentiles to mean them from the Greeks, the authors of such the maritime parts of Asia, and all Europe, titles. For they in latter time, having grown to which the necessary passage is by sea. to great name and power, appropriated the Josephus hath placed the posterity of Japhet ancient glory to themselves in giving names in those countries of Asia which lie extended to the nations which they subdued, as if they from the mountains Taurus and Amanus near took their original from them.” We see here the Mediterranean Sea, to the river Tanais a lively picture of the dispersion and plantanorthward of the Euxine, and from thence tion of colonies in several parts of the world, hath brought them into Europe, as far as the and of the changes and variations of their Gades, that is Cadiz or Cales, within the names; see the ambitious humour of mouth of the Streights of Gibraltar. If then the Greeks in seeking to draw other nations this be so, it is easy to conceive how the rest to a dependence on them for their originals; of Europe came in time to be peopled. For which hath afforded scope enough to later as the nature of man is inquisitive after nov- writers for invention. But to proceed. If elties, and as the number of our ancestors in- we allow the progress and dispersion of our creased, both necessity and curiosity forced ancestors to be in the manner as before is set them to go in quest of other countries, at once forth, then we must admit our descent from to gratify their ambition and find room for Gomer, the eldest son of Japhet, through the their people. From Cadiz we can easily see Britains, who are confessedly descended from them dispersing themselves over Spain; from that original. Josephus is my witness that




Gomer was the founder of the Gomarians, authors of this turn foreseen, would probably whom the Greeks (says he) called Galatians, have made them more cautious in this point. others Gallo-Grecians. Berosus styles Gomer Miracles are things of so extraordinary a nature himself Gomerus - Gallus, Gomer the Gaul. that they must be well attested in order to ... But this descent from the Britains must gain credit among men. But these writers, by be understood of the first and early colonies introducing them on every frivolous occasion arriving in Ireland, which by the best account without number, measure, or use, have called are allowed to be of British original, and con- the truth of everything they relate into quessequently descended from Gomer. As to the tion, and in this case have brought into disMilesian or Scythian, which was the last that credit, and even ridicule, the real miracles got footing in Ireland before the arrival of which perhaps this holy man may have wrought. the English, Magog, another son of Japhet, 'The lavish use they have made of them serveth was their ancestor. The sacred historian gives only to oppress faith, as a profusion of scents no manner of account of the sons of Magog; 'overpowereth the brain. By this indiscretion but Josephus makes him “ the founder of the they have made their writings to be generally Magogians, called by the Greeks Scythians, looked upon as entirely fabulous, and their and whom Ptolemy names the Massagetae. unskilful management hath only served to Keating hath given us a particular genealogy bring our great patron into contempt. I will of the posterity of Magog to Milesius through not trouble the reader with my private opinion twenty-two generations, and hath conducted as to the truth of his miracles, which is a them in their several voyages until he sets point that may admit of much dispute without them down in Spain in as exact manner as if any great benefit. On one side it may be said, he had been their pilot.

that as God inspired him with the glorious resolution of adventuring himself to reclaim an infidel and barbarous people to Christianity, so he armed him with all the necessary powers

and virtues to go through so great a work. OF THE LIFE OF ST. PATRICK. There may seem to be the same necessity in

this instance as in those of the apostles, the This primitive bishop was a person of such end and intention of their mission being the exemplary piety and virtue, and his labours same. On the other side it may be said that and success in converting this once pagan and several infidel nations have been converted to barbarous nation to Christianity were so Christianity without miracles, and that the wonderful and useful, that the actions of his present missionaries in the East and West life were worthy of being transmitted to pos- Indies work conversions without pretending terity by the most faithful and able pen. But to that extraordinary gift. I shall not engage unhappily this task hath fallen into the most in this dispute.. weak and injudicious hands, who have crowded As seven cities contended for the birth of it with such numberless fictions and monstrous Homer, the prince of poets, so almost as many fables, that, like the legends of King Arthur, places have laid claim to the honour of having they would almost tempt one to doubt the given birth to St. Patrick. Baronius and reality of the person. It is observable that (as Matthew of Worcester, usually called Florithe purest streams flow always nearest to the I legus, say he was a native of Ireland, being fountain) so, among the many writers of the deceived probably by an ambiguous expression life of this prelate, those who lived nearest to in the martyrologists, “In Ireland, the nativity his time have had the greatest regard to truth, of St. Patrick.” Whereas in the constant and have been most sparing in recounting his language of the martyrologists a saint's nativity miracles. Thus Fiech, bishop of Sletty, and is not esteemed the day of his entrance into contemporary with our saint, comprehended this world, but the day of his death. I wonder the most material events of his life in an Irish Philip O'Sullevan hath from these great authohymn of thirty-four stanzas. But in process rities omitted to claim our saint for his counof time, as the writers of his life increased, so tryman. But he hath fallen into as gross an his miracles were multiplied (especially in the error, for he makes him a native of Basdark ages) until at last they exceeded all bounds Bretagne, in France. Another writer gives of credibility.

Cornwall in the south of England the honour Ther: one consequence that hath followed of his birth, with as little reason as the former. such a legendary way of writing, which, had The English translator of the Golden Legend

this passage,

will have him a Welshman. Camden also tells Usher could see no reason to depart. Yet us that St. Patrick was born in Ross Vale (in with reverence to these great authorities, I Valle Rosina), which signifies a verdant plain; must take the liberty to fix his birth a year and Humphrey Lloyd in Vale Rosea or Rosina, later, i.e. in 373, on the 5th of April. For the rosy plain. Sigebert of Gemblours and the most commonly received opinion is (with many others have called him a Scot, and the which Usher in another part of his work Scottish writers to a man will have him their agrees) that St. Patrick lived but 120 years, countryman. But this is grounded on two and that he died in 493. And this is further mistakes: First, from the language of ancient confirmed by the old Irish Book of Sligo, as martyrologists, as I observed before, which quoted by Usher, that St. Patrick was born, means by the nativity of a saint the day of his baptized, and died on the fourth day, Weddeath, so that when we meet in Bede, &c., nesday. Now the 5th of April, 373, fell on

“On the 17th March in Scotia, Wednesday, and consequently was his birththe nativity of St. Patrick," it must be under- day that year. stood the day of his death. And it is well known that in the days of St. Patrick, and for I shall pass over his infancy without taking many ages after, Ireland was known by the any notice of the miracles ascribed to him by name of Scotia and not the modern Scotland. the legend writers of his life. His contemThe second mistake hath been occasioned by porary, the venerable Fiech, is silent as to this the alteration of the bounds and limits of particular; and St. Patrick himself ascribes countries, so that Dun-Britain, near which his captivity to his ignorance of the true God, St. Patrick was born, though it be now a part and his disobedience to his commands. He of modern Scotland, yet in his time it was was educated with great care and tenderness within the British territories. Having thus by his parents, and his sweet and gentle cleared the different pretensions to his birth, behaviour rendered him the delight and adI shall now proceed to fix the right place of it, miration of all his neighbours. and from thence go on to relate the several particulars of his life.

His father, mother, brother, and five sisters He was born in the extreme bounds of undertook a voyage to Aremoric Gaul (since Britain (in that part of it which is now com- called Bas-Bretagne) to visit the relations of prehended within the limits of modern Scot- his mother Conchessa. It happened about land), at a village called Banavan in the terri- this time that the seven sons of Factmude, tory of Tabernia (as he himself saith in his some British prince, were banished, and took confessions). Joceline explains Tabernia to to the sea; that making an inroad into Aresignify the Field of Tents, because the Roman moric Gaul they took Patrick and his sister army had pitched their tents there, and adds Lupita prisoners. They brought their booty " that the place of his father's habitation was to the north of Ireland, and sold Patrick to near the town of Erupthor, bounding on the Micho-Mac-Huanan, a petty prince of DalarIrish Sea.” From this description Usher adia. Others tell the story in a different points out the very spot where he was born, at manner and with a better face of probability, a place called after him Kirk-Patrick or Kil- that the Romans having left Britain naked Patrick, between the castle of Dunbriton and and defenceless, its inhabitants became an the city of Glasgow, where the rampart which easy prey to their troublesome neighbours the separated the barbarians from the Romans Irish, and that our saint fell into the hands of terminated.

some of these pirates and was carried into As there were various opinions concerning Ireland. But in this they all agree, and he his country, so writers differ much as to the himself confirms it, that he continued captive time of his birth. William of Malmesbury, in Ireland six years. He was sold to Milcho Adam of Dornerham, and John the Monk of and his three brothers, which gave the occaGlastonbury, place his birth in 361, with whom sion of changing his name into Cothraig, or Stanihurst agrees, and allof them follow Probus, rather Ceathir-Tigh, because he served four on whom we cannot depend. ... The Annals masters, Ceathir signifying four, and Tigh a of Connaught are yet more grossly mistaken house or family. Milcho observing the care in assigning his birth to the year 336. Henry and diligence of this new servant, bought out of Marleburg says he was born in 376, Joceline in 370, but Florence of Worcester, nearer

The south and south-east parts of the county of the truth, in 372; from whose calculation Antrim and all the county Down.

seventh year.

the shares of his brothers, and made him his | in some islands of the Tuscan Sea, and he own property. He sent him to feed his hogs spent a good part of the time in the city on Slieu Mis. 1

of Rome among the canons regular of the

Lateran Church. It was here he perfected himself in the Irish language; the wonderful providence of He was in his sixtieth year when he landed God visibly appearing in this instance of his in Ireland in 432; Alfred, Cressy, and other captivity; that he should have the opportunity writers, following the authority of William of in his tender years of becoming well acquainted Malmesbury and of John the Monk of Glaswith the language, manners, and dispositions tonbury, place his arrival in Ireland in 425, of that people to whom he was intended as but this plainly contradicts the more early a future apostle. Possibly the ignorance in writers. He happily began his ministry by these particulars of his predecessor Paladius the conversion and baptism of Sinell, a great might have been the cause of his failure in the man in that country, the grandson of Finchad, like attempt.

who ought to be remembered, as he was the A.D. 395. He continued six whole years in first-fruits of St. Patrick's mission in Ireland, servitude, and in the seventh was released. or the first of the Irish converted by him. There seems to have been a law in Ireland for He was the eighth in lineal descent from this purpose, agreeable to the institution of Cormac, king of Leinster, and afterwards Moses, that a servant should be released the came to be enumerated among the saints of

Ireland. Nathi, the son of Garchon, and king

of that district, who the year before had The writers who deal in the marvellous tell frightened away Palladius, in vain attempted you that the angel Victor appeared to him, to terrify Patrick by opposing and contradictand bid him observe one of his hogs, who ing his doctrine. should root out of the ground a mass of money sufficient to pay his ransom; but St. Patrick All the early Irish writers affirm that St. saith no such thing; he only informs us that Patrick was buried at Down, in Ireland, and he was

warned in a dream” to prepare for it is from such authorities that the truth must his return home, and that he arose and be took be drawn. . . . From these and many more himself to flight, and left the man with whom early authorities we may safely conclude to he had been six years.

give Down the honour of containing his

remains, with which several of the English He continued abroad thirty-five years pur- writers also agree; and Cambrensis affirms suing his studies, for the most part under the that the bodies of St. Patrick, St. Brigid, and direction of his mother's uncle, St. Martin, St. Columb were not only buried at Down, bishop of Tours, who had ordained him but were also there taken up and translated deacon; and after his death partly with St. into shrines by John de Courcy, conqueror of German, bishop of Auxirre (who ordained Ulidia, about the year 1185, and to this purhim a priest and called his name Magonius, pose gives us these verses :which was the third name he was known by), “In Down three saints one grave do fill, partly among a colony of hermits and monks

Brigid, Patrick, and Columbkille.”


BORN 1615 — DIED 1669.

[Sir John Denham, the first Irish poet of that kingdom, was of Little Horseley in Essex. repute that wrote in English, was born in His mother was Eleanor, daughter of Sir Dublin in the year 1615. His father, at that Garrett More, baron of Mellefont in Ireland. time chief baron of the exchequer in Ireland, When the poet was only two years of


his and also one of the lords commissioners for father, being appointed one of the barons of

exchequer in England,removed to that country, i Mis, a mountain in county Antrim.

carrying with him his family. In 1631 the youth was entered a gentleman commoner of “The same attempt,” says Johnson, “was made Trinity College, Oxford, where it seems he was to rob Addison of his Cato, and Pope of his “looked upon as a slow and dreaming young Essay on by his seniors and contemporaries, and In 1647 Denham began to mix in political given more to cards and dice than his study; matters, and in 1648 he conveyed James, Duke they could never then in the least imagine of York, into France, or at least so says Johnson that he would ever enrich the world with his and others, though Clarendon affirms that the fancy or issue of his brain, as he afterwards duke went off with Colonel Bamfield only, who did.” At the end of three years he underwent contrived his escape. Certain it is, anyhow, his B.A. examination, and was sent to Lin- that Denham went to France, from whence coln's Inn to study law, which he did so far he and Lord Crofts were sent ambassadors to as his vice of gaming would allow him. After Poland from Charles II. In that kingdom having been plundered by gamesters and they found many Scotchmen wandering about severely reproved by his parents he acquired as traders, and from these they obtained a sudden abhorrence of the evil practice, and £10,000 as a contribution to the king. About wrote an essay against it, which he presented 1652 he returned to England, where he was to his father. He also about this time added entertained by Lord Pembroke, with whom, the study of poetry to that of laws, and pro- having no home of his own, he lived for about duced a translation of the second book of a year. At the Restoration he was appointed Virgil's Æneid. In 1638 his father died, and to the office of surveyor-general of the king's immediately after Denham gave himself up buildings, and at the coronation received the to his old vice, and lost the money several order of the Bath. thousand pounds--that had been left him. After his appointment he gave over his

In 1641, like a lightning flash out of a clear poetical works to a great extent, and “made sky, appeared his tragedy called The Sophy, it his business," as he himself says, “ to draw which was at once admired by the best judges, such others as might be more serviceable to and gave

him fast hold of the public attention. his majesty, and, he hoped, more lasting.” Speaking of the poet in connection with this Soon after this, when in the height of his piece, Waller said that “he broke out like the reputation for poetry and genius, he entered Irish rebellion, threescore thousand strong, into a second marriage, in which he was so when nobody was aware or in the least sus- unhappy that for a time he became a lunatic. pected it.” Soon after this he was made high- For this misfortune he was cruelly and unsheriff of Surrey and governor of Farnham generously lampooned by Butler, but fortunCastle for the king, but not caring for, or not ately it did not last long, and he was again being skilled in military affairs, he quitted the restored to his full health and vigour of mind.3 post before long and retired to Oxford, where, A few months after he wrote one of his best in 1643, he published Cooper's Hill, a poem of poems, that on the death of Cowley. This some three hundred lines, on which his fame was his last work, for on March 19, 1669, he chiefly rests. Of this work Dryden says it died at his office in Whitehall, and was laid is “a poem which for majesty of style is, and in Westminster Abbey by the side of the poet ever will be, the standard of good writing.” | he had just panegyrized. An attempt was made to rob Denham of his Dr. Johnson says that “ Denham is justly laurels by what Johnson calls “ the common considered as one of the fathers of English artifice by which envy degrades excellence.” In poetry. ... He is one of the writers that the “Session of the Poets,"2 in some lumbering improved our taste and advanced our language, verses, it is said that the work was not his own, and whom we ought, therefore, to read with but was bought of a vicar for forty pounds.

a widower, and old enough to be her father... 1 It has been supposed that this poem was directly in- was then about to be appointed lady of honour to the spired by his residence at Egham. additions to Camden's Britannia says, in speaking of when Lady Denham was seized with a sudden indisposiEgham, “Here lived Sir John Denham the poet, who tion, of which, after languishing some days, she expired, has immortalized Cooper's Hill adjoining."


January 17, 1667, in the first bloom of her youth and ? An anonymous poem which appeared in Dryden's beauty, and before she had completed her twenty-first Miscellanies.

year. It was believed at the time that she had been * The facts relating to Lady Denham's death are thus poisoned in a cup of chocolate. In notes to the English given in Notes and Queries, Sept. 28, 1872:-"Lady Denham edition of Grammont's Memoirs of 1809 -- notes partly had attracted the notice of the Duke of York; but in the written, it is said, by the late Sir Walter Scott-we red, midst of this liaison she was married, by the interposition “The slander of the times imputed her death to the of her friends, at the age of eighteen to Sir John Denham, jealousy of the Duchess of York.'"

The writer of the

Duchess of York.

The matter was still in discussion

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