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7. I was never without fear in prosperity, nor without courage in adversity.

8. My door was never open to a flatterer, nor my ear to a murmuring detractor.

9. I endeavoured still to make myself beloved of the good, and feared of the evil.

10. I ever favoured the poor that were able to do little for themselves, and I was evermore favoured by the gods, that were able to do much for all.

Those rare counsels should be exposed in the houses of kings and all public places to the view of men, to be known of all in their respective dignities and callings, and it would be a pious and noble action if our gracious sovereign1 would be pleased to consider seriously with himself how far these just and laudable counsels have been regarded during the time of his reign, especially in conferring of estates and lands from one part of his subjects to another part of them contrary to all due course of law, and without hearing of the parties oppressed, which hath been procured to be done by the undue information and persuasion of certain of his councillors and ministers of state, and chiefly of the chancellor, the Earl of Clarindon.

If his majesty shall do this grace and justice to his Catholic subjects of Ireland, thousands of widows and orphans will be eased and relieved who now sit down in great poverty, lamenting extremely their lands, houses, and all they had wrongfully taken from them, and this day possessed and enjoyed by those invaders.

God binds all kings and judges by this commandment: Thou shalt not do that which is unjust, nor judge unjustly; consider not the person of a poor man, neither honour thou the countenance of him that is mighty. Judge justly to thy neighbour (Lev. xix.). God also forbids to give away one subject's bread to another; reason, virtue, and the laws of God, nature, and nations, are the rules that ought to guide all princes and magistrates in the government of the people under them. Did not God himself complain of evil judges in this kind: How is the faithful city, full of judgment, become a harlot? Justice hath dwelled in it, but now man - killers. The princes are unfaithful, companions of thieves; all love gifts, follow rewards. They judge not for the pupil [fatherless]; and the widow's cause goeth not in to them (Is. i.). And again

1 Charles II.

our Lord saith, They are made gross and fat, and have transgressed my words most wickedly. The cause of the widow they have not judged; the cause of the pupil [fatherless] they have not directed, and the judgment of the poor they have not judged. Shall I not visit upon these things, saith our Lord? or upon such a nation shall not my soul take revenge? (Jer. v.). Certainly it is against God's just judgment to omit such things and crimes unpunished. There are thousands of distrest Catholics' pupils [fatherless] and widows (his majesty cannot chuse but know it) that have not got justice, whose cause and complaint had no entrance into his courts; they cried out for justice, and were not heard; they cried for mercy, and found it not; and such as live of those oppressed souls are still crying to heaven and the king for remedy. Poor, desolate, and dejected, they are waiting at the door of the king's palace, and no regard is had of their tears, prayers, and petitions.

We are indeed become the reproach of all nations round about us, by the craft and iniquity of statesmen, that have poisoned the fountain of justice. It is said of some of those that their vices have far exceeded their virtues, and that in all their proceedings against our nation there was found in them no truth, no integrity, no religion, no shame, but an insatiable covetousness, and a flaming ambition of making themselves great and powerful; and are not such men, say you, able to poison the fountain of justice (and of mercy too) in a kingdom?




To give some colour to this apparent partiality the first minister of state is forced to betake himself to his last refuge, telling, as for a final reason, that the Protestant English interest cannot be maintained in Ireland without extirpating the natives, and therefore, that the counties and corporations undisposed of by the Commonwealth must not be restored to the natives upon any account. The preservation of this interest is now become ultima ratio, and the non plus ultra to all political debates; and seeing the learned gownman will needs establish it for a first principle, not to be denied, it is not amiss to consider more attentively this idol that occasions so much impiety. As for the Protestant interest, I must confess his majesty is bound to maintain

it in all his kingdoms and dominions, as far | late Commonwealth was incompatible with

forth as the glory of God requires, and the law of nations and the several constitutions of particular places will admit. Certainly no man (though never so zealous) will say that his majesty was obliged, when he held the town of Dunkirk in Flanders, to extirpate the ancient inhabitants and place new English colonies in their room for the preservation of a Protestant interest. True religion was ever yet planted by preaching and good example, not by violence and oppression: an unjust intrusion into the neighbour's estate is not the way to convert the ancient proprietor, who will hardly be induced to embrace a religion whose professors have done them so much injustice: and as to the present settlement of Ireland, it is apparent to the world that the confiscation of estates, and not the conversion of souls, is the only thing aimed at. If by the English interest we understand the present possession of the London adventurers and of Cromwell's soldiers, there is no doubt it is inconsistent with the restoration of the Irish; neither can the new English title to land be well maintained without destroying the old title of the natives, even as the interest of the

monarchy, and Cromwell's protectorship was inconsistent with the king's government. But if by the English interest we understand (as we ought to do) the interest of the crown and cavaliers of England, I see no reason why it might not be preserved in Ireland for 500 years to come, as well as it was preserved there for 500 years past, without extirpating the natives. Why could not the English interest be maintained in Ireland without extirpation as well as the Spanish interest is preserved in Naples and Flanders, the French interest in Rossilignion and Alsace, the Swedish interest in Breme and Pomerland, the Danish interest in Norway, the Austrian interest in Hungary, the Venetian interest in Dalmatia, and the Ottoman interest over all Greece, and so many other Christian provinces, without dispossessing the ancient inhabitants of their patrimonies and birthrights? Forts, citadels, armies, and garrisons, punishment and reward, were hitherto held the only lawful means for Christian princes to maintain their authority and secure their interest: such an extirpation was never yet practised by any prince that followed the law of the gospel.



[All that we can discover of Maurice Dugan or O'Dugan is that he lived near Benburb, in county Tyrone, about the year 1641, and that he wrote the song here given to the air of the "Coolin," which was even in his time old, and which is, as Hardiman says, considered by many "the finest in the whole circle of Irish music." He was supposed to be descended from the O'Dugans, hereditary bards and historians, one of whom wrote the Topography of Ancient Ireland, which was extensively used by the "Four Masters" in their Annals. O'Reilly, in his Irish Writers, mentions four other poems the production of O'Dugan, namely, Set your Fleet in Motion, Owen was in a Rage, Erin has Lost her Lawful Spouse, Fodhla (Ireland) is a Woman in Decay. These productions are not to be found in English, and are supposed to be lost. We incline to the belief, however, that many bardic remains, in their original and almost unreadable Irish, may yet be discovered in unsuspected and out-of-the-way hiding-places.]


In Belanagar dwells the bright blooming maid,
Retired like the primrose that blows in the shade;
Still dear to the eyes that fair primrose may be,
But dearer and sweeter is my Coolin to me.
Then boy, rouse you up! go and bring me my steed,
Till I cross the green vale and the mountains with

Let me hasten far forward, my lov'd one to find,
And hear that she's constant, and feel that she's


Had you seen my sweet Coolin at the day's early


When she moves through the wild wood or the wide dewy lawn;

There is joy, there is bliss in her soul-cheering

smile, She's the fairest of the flowers of our greenbosom'd isle.

1 Coolin means "the maiden of the fair flowing locks."

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[Of Duald MacFirbis (Dubhaltach Mac | ing and translating materials for that writer's Firbisigh) Magee says that "he was born antiquarian and historical works. In 1656 he about the close of the sixteenth or early in the completed a treatise on Irish authors, and, seventeenth century;" but, as we learn from most likely, about this time also, his transcript Professor O'Curry that he was present at the of the Chronicon Scotorum, as well as a list of school of the O'Davorens in Clare in 1595, we bishops arranged for Sir James Ware. On may well imagine him to have been born, as the death of Ware MacFirbis again became a is generally believed, in 1585. His birthplace wanderer, and in 1670 we find him travelling was Lackan, or Lecain, in the county of Sligo, near his old home and place of birth in Sligo. and he was the oldest son of a junior branch of "He must have been at this time past his the celebrated family of MacFirbis, hereditary eightieth year," says O'Curry, and he was, it historians or "ollambs" for several centuries. is believed, on his way to Dublin, probably to visit Robert, the son of Sir James Ware. "He took up his lodgings for the night at a small house in the little village of Dunflin, in his native county. While sitting and resting himself in a small room off the shop, a young gentleman, of the Crofton family, came in and began to take some liberties with a young woman who had the care of the shop. She, to check his freedom, told him that he would be seen by the old gentleman in the next room; upon which, in a sudden rage, he snatched up a knife from the counter, rushed furiously into the room, and plunged it into the heart of MacFirbis."

Early in life Mac Firbis, who was intended for an antiquary and historian, was sent into Munster, to the school of law and history kept by the MacEgans of Lecan in Ormond, after having had already some training in the school of the O'Davorens in Clare. His studies extended not only to all that was to be learned in his own Irish tongue, but also to Latin and Greek, both of which he seems to have acquired thoroughly. For many years after leaving school MacFirbis seems to have lived a life of retired study, but in 1641 he left his ancestral home-a castle whose ruins may yet | be seen--and took refuge in Galway from the storm then ravaging the island. While there he made the acquaintance of O'Flaherty the author of Ogygia, and John Lynch author of Cambrensis Eversus. There too, in the College of St. Nicholas in 1650, he completed his great historico-genealogical work, The Branches of Relationship, or Volume of Pedigrees. The autograph copy of this great compilation, generally known as the Book of MacFirbis, is at present to be found in the library of the Earl of Roden. On the surrender of Galway MacFirbis most likely became a wanderer for a time. In 1655, however, we find him in the employ of Sir James Ware, collect

"Thus," to quote again, "at the hand of a wanton assassin this great scholar closed his long career-the last of the regularly educated and most accomplished masters of the history, antiquities, and laws and languages of ancient Erinn."

Besides the works we have mentioned MacFirbis wrote and compiled many others both in English and Irish, some of which are lost. His Collection of Glossaries has been published by Mr. Whitley Stokes; his Martyrology, or Litany of the Saints in Verse, in his own autograph, is preserved in the British Museum; in the Royal Irish Academy is to be found

what is left of his Treatise on Irish Authors. His transcript of the Chronicon Scotorum has been edited by W. M. Hennesy, and published in 1867; and his Annals of Ireland has been translated and edited by Professor O'Donovan and published by the Irish Archæological Society. A transcript of his Catalogue of Extinct Irish Bishoprics has also been made by Mr. Hennesy and placed in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy. Finally, in the Transactions of the Kilkenny Archæological Society may be found his English version of the "Registry of Clonmacnoise," a curious tract, first compiled in the year 1216.]


It was this Finnachta that remitted the Borumha3 to Moling after it had been levied during the reigns of forty kings previously, namely, from Tuathal Teachtmar to Finnachta. Moling came (as an ambassador) from all Leinster to request a remission of the Borumha from Finnachta. Moling asked of Finnachta to forgive the Borumha for a day and a night. This to Moling was the same as to forgive it for ever, for there is not in time but day and night. But Finnachta thought it was one (natural) day and night. Moling came forth before him, and said: "Thou hast given a respite respecting it for ever and yesterday." Moling promised heaven to Finnachta. But Finnachta conceived that Moling had deceived him, and he said to his people, "Go," said he, "in pursuit of this holy man, who has gone away from me, and say unto him that I have not given respite for the Borumha to him but for one day and for one night, for methinks the holy man has deceived me, for there is but one day and one night in the whole world." But when Moling knew that they were coming in pursuit of him, he ran actively and hastily till he reached his house, and the people of the king did not come up with him at all.

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from that till judgment; and though Finnachta was sorry for it, he was not able to levy it, for it was for the sake of heaven he had remitted it. Et hoc est verius.

In the fifteenth year from the year in which Finnachta had forgiven the Borumha, Adamnau came to Finnachta after Moling, and he sent a cleric of his people to Finnachta that he might come to converse with him. Finnachta was then playing chess. "Come to converse with Adamnau," said the cleric. “I will not till this game is finished," said Finnachta. The cleric returned to Adamnau and told him the answer of Finnachta. "Go thou to him, and say to him that I shall sing fifty psalms during that time, and that there is a psalm among that fifty in which I shall pray the Lord that a son or grandson of his, or a man of his name, may never assume the sovereignty of Erin." The cleric accordingly went and told that to Finnachta, but Finnachta took no notice, but played at his chess till the game was finished. "Come to converse with Adamnau, oh Finnachta," said the cleric. "I will not go," said Finnachta, "till this game is finished." The cleric told this to Adamnau. "Say unto him," said Adamnau, "that I will sing fifty psalms during that time, and that there is a psalm among the fifty in which I will ask and beseech the Lord to shorten his life for him." The cleric told this to Finnachta, but Finnachta took no notice of it, but played away at his chess till the game was finished. "Come to converse with Adamnau," said the cleric. "I will not," said Finnachta, "till this game is finished." The cleric told to Adamnau the answer of Finnachta. "Go to him," said Adamnau, "and tell him that I will sing the third fifty psalms, and that there is a psalm in that fifty in which I will beseech the Lord that he may not obtain the kingdom of heaven." The cleric came to Finnachta and told him this. When Finnachta heard this, he suddenly put away the chess from him, and he came to Adamnau. "What has brought thee to me now, and why didst thou not come at the other messages?" "What induced me to come," said Finnachta, "was the threats which thou didst hold forth to me, viz., that no son or grandson of mine should ever reign, and that no man of my name should ever assume the sovereignty of Erin, or that I should have shortness of life. I deemed these light; but when thou didst promise me to take away heaven from me, I then came suddenly, because I cannot endure this."

"Is it true," said Adamnau, "that the

Borumha was remitted by thee for a day and a night to Moling?" "It is true," said Finnachta. "Thou hast been deceived," said Adamnau, "for this is the same as to remit it for ever." . After this Finnachta

placed his head in the bosom of Adamnau, and he did penance in his presence, and Adamnau forgave him for the remission of the Borumha.


At first this Finnachta was poor and indigent. He had a house and a wife, but he had no property but one ox and one cow. On one occasion the King of Fera-Ros happened to wander and stray in the neighbourhood of Finnachta's hut. There never was before a worse night than this for storm and snow and darkness, and the king and his wife, with their numerous people, were not able to reach the house which they desired to reach, in consequence of the intensity of the cold and the darkness; and their intention was to remain under the shelter of the trees. But Finnachta heard them express these intentions; for they were not far from his hut at the time, and he came to meet them on the way, and said to them they had better come to his hut-such as it was-than to travel on that dark, stormy, cold night. And the king and his people said, "It is true it were better," said they, "and we are glad, indeed, that thou hast told us so." They afterwards came to his house, and the size of the house was greater than its wealth. Finnachta, moreover, struck the ox on the head, and struck the cow on the head, and the king's own people actively and quickly prepared them on spit and in cauldron, and they ate thereof till they were satiated. They slept well afterwards till the morning came. The King of Fera-Ros said to his own wife, "Knowest thou not, O woman, that this house was at first poor, and that it is now poorer, the owner having killed his only cow and his only ox for us?" "This is indeed true," said the wife, "and it behoves us now to enrich it; whatever much or little thou wilt give to the man, I will give the same amount to his wife." "Good is what thou sayest," said the king. The king then gave a large herd of cows, and many pigs and sheep, with their herdsmen, to Finnachta; and the king's wife gave the same amount to the wife of Finnachta. They also gave them fine clothes, and good horses, and whatever they stood in need of in the world.


[The site of this battle (fought in 722) is a celebrated hill about five miles to the north

of the town of Kildare, now called Allen. The cause of the battle was the tribute which King Finnachta had remitted to Moling, who was Bishop of Ferns, A.D. 691 to 697. The Leinster men had not paid it, and King Ferghal collected a great army of the men of Meath, 21,000 strong, and met the Leinster men, who were only 9000. The strange occurrences of the battle were as follows:-]

Long indeed was this muster of forces being which means the north half of Ireland, to carried on, for each man of Leth-Chiusm, whom the order came used to say: "If Donnbo1 come on the hosting I will."

Now Donnbo was a widow's son of the Fera-Ros, and he never went away from his mother's house for one day or one night, and

there was not one in all Ireland of fairer countenance, or of better figure, form, or symmetry than he; there was not in all Ireland one more pleasant or entertaining, or one in the world who could repeat more amusing and royal stories than he; he was the best to harness horses, to set spears, to plait hair, and he was a man of royal intelligence in his

countenance: of whom was said

Fairer than sons was Donnbo,

Sweeter his poems than all that mouths rehearse, Pleasanter than the youths of Innis-Fail, The brilliancy of his example took the multitude. His mother did not permit Donnbo to go with Ferghal, until Mael-mic-Failbhe3 was pledged for his return alive . . . safe to his own house from the province of Leinster.

King Ferghal proceeded upon his way. Guides went before him, but the guidance they afforded him was not good, through the narrowness of each road, and the ruggedness of each pass, until they reached Cluain-Dobhail,* at Almhain. And Aedhan the Leper of Cluain-Dobhail was there before them. The hosts ill-treated him; they killed his only cow, and roasted it on spits before his face, and they unroofed his house and burned it; and the Leper said that the vengeance which God

A tribe inhabiting the district round the present town of Carrickmacross.

2 No account of this personage is to be found in any other authority, and this legend in the old vellum book of Nehemias Mac Egan must be from a romantic tale now


3 Tenth abbot of Hy, a successor of Columbkill. This name is now forgotten.

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