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periments; in the same year also appeared his Free Enquiry into the vulgarly received Notion Seraphic Love, a piece which had been written of Nature, 1691 ; and finally, in same year, as early as 1618. In 1661 he issued certain Experimenta et Observationes Physicæ. physiological essays and other tracts; and in In 1677 Boyle, who was a director of the 1662 his Sceptical Chemist. All these were East India Company, printed at Oxford and successful, and were reprinted--some of them sent abroad 500 copies of the Gospels and more than once-within a few years. In 1663, Acts of the Apostles in the Malayan tongue, on the incorporation of the Royal Society, he and in November of this year he was apwas appointed one of the council. In the same pointed president of the Royal Society. In year he published Considerations touching the the early part of 1689 his health began to Usefulness of Experimental Natural Philo- decline, and on the 18th of July, 1691, he made sophy; Erperiments upon Colours, a curious his will. In October of that year he grew and useful work; and Considerations upon the worse, chiefly owing, it is supposed, to the Style of the Holy Scriptures. In the year illness of his favourite sister, who died on the 1665 appeared his Occasional Reflections upon 230 December. On the 30th he followed her, Several Subjects, a work satirized by Swift, dying peacefully in the sixty-fifth year of his but which is said to have actually given that age. genius his first hint of Gulliver's Travels. In Among the good deeds of Boyle's life we that year also was issued New Experiments must not omit to mention his large contribuand Observations on Cold. On the 8th March, tions to the printing and publishing of Bibles 1666, he wrote his celebrated letter to Mr. for Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; his contriStubbe on the controversy as to Valentine butions towards propagating Christianity in Greatrakes, who professed to cure diseases by America; his large expenditure over the pubstroking. This letter is upwards of twenty lication and dispersal of an Arabic edition of octavo pages in length, “very learned and Grotius, On the Truth of the Christian Relivery judicious, wonderfully correct in diction gion; and above all, his establishment of and style, remarkably clear in method and the Boyle Lectures in Defence of Revealed form, highly exact in the observations and Religion. remarks, and abounding in pertinent and Boyle never married; but in early life it is curious facts. Yet it appears it was written said he loved a fair daughter of Cary, earl of within the compass of a single morning.” In Monmouth, and to this we owe the production this year also he published Hydrostatical of Seraphic Love. Paradoxes and The Origin of Forms and As to Boyle's present position in the theoQualities.

logical, philosophical, and scientific worlds we In 1668 Boyle settled permanently in London will say nothing. What it was in his own in the house of his beloved sister Lady Rane- time, and for long after, is well indicated in lagh, and from this until his death work after the words of Boerhaave, who declares that work appeared from his pen in rapid succes- ' Boyle, the ornament of his age and country, sion. We cannot do more than name the succeeded to the genius and inquiries of the chief of them here:--Continuation of Experi- great Chancellor Verulam. To him we owe ments touching the Spring and Weight of Air, the secrets of fire, air, water, animals, vege1669; Tracts about the Cosmical Qualities of tables, fossils : so that from his works may be Things, 1670; Essay on the Origin and Virtue deduced the whole system of natural knowof Gems, 1672; Essays on the Strange Subtlety, ledge."] &c., of Efsluvia, 1673; The Excellence of Theology, 1673; The Saltness of the Sea, &c., 1674; Some Considerations about the Reconcilableness of Reason and Religion, 1675; Erperiments

SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE about the Mechanical Origin or Production of POSSIBILITY OF THE RESURRECTION. Particular Qualities, 1676; Historical Account of a Degradation of Gold by an Anti-Elixir, (FROM COLLECTED WORKS PUBLISHED IN 1772.) 1678; Discourse of Things above Reason, 1681; Memoirs on the Natural History of Human They who assent to the possibility of the Blood, 1684; Essay on the Great Effects of resurrection of the same bodies, will, I preEven, Languid, and Unheeded Motion, 1690; sume, be much more easily induced to admit Of the High Veneration Man's Intellect Owes the possibility of the qualifications the Christo God, 1690; The Christian Virtuoso, 1690; tian religion ascribes to the glorified bodies of

5

VOL. I.

the raised saints. For, supposing the truth of the apostle adds, as we formerly noted, that the history of the Scriptures, we may observe this great change of schematism in the saints’ that the power of God has already extended bodies will be effected by the irresistible power itself to the performance of such things as im- of Christ, we shall not much scruple at the port as much as we need infer, sometimes by admission of such an effect from such an suspending the natural actings of bodies upon agent, if we consider how much the bare, one another, and sometimes by endowing slight, mechanical alteration of the texture of human and other bodies with preternatural a body may change its sensible qualities for qualities. And indeed, lightness, or rather the better. For without any visible additaagility, indifferent to gravity and levity, in- ment, I have several times changed dark and corruption, transparency, and opacity, figure, opacous lead into finely-coloured transparent colour, &c., being but mechanical affections of and specifically lighter glass. And there is matter, it cannot be incredible that the most another instance, which, though because of its free and powerful Author of those laws of obviousness it is less heeded, is yet more connature according to which all the phenomena siderable, for who will distrust what advanof qualities are regulated, may (as he thinks tageous changes such an agent as God can fit) introduce, establish, or change them in any work by changing the texture of a portion of assigned portion of matter, and consequently matter, if he but observe what happens merely in that whereof a human body consists. Thus, upon the account of such a mechanical change though iron be a body above eight times in the lighting of a candle, that is newly blown heavier, bulk for bulk, than water, yet in the out, by the applying another to the ascending case of Elisha's behest its native gravity was smoke. For in the twinkling of an eye an rendered ineffectual, and it emerged from the opacous, dark, languid and stinking smoke bottom to the top of the water: and the loses all its smell and is changed into a most gravitation of St. Peter's body was suspended active, penetrant, and shining body. whilst his Master commanded him, and by that command enabled him to come to him walking on the sea. Thus the operation of the most active body in nature, flame, was sus

THE CHRISTIAN VIRTUOSO. pended in Nebuchadnezzar's fiery furnace, whilst Daniel's three companions walked un

(PUBLISHED IN 1690.) harmed in those flames that, in a trice, consumed the kindlers of them. Thus did the I have taken notice of two other accounts Israelites' manna, which was of so perishable upon which the experimental knowledge of a nature that it would corrupt in a little above God's works may, in a well-disposed mind, a day when gathered in any day of the week conduce to establish the belief of his provibut that which preceded the Sabbath, keep dence, and therefore, though I shall not dwell good twice as long, and when laid up before long upon them, I must not altogether preterthe ark for a memorial would last whole ages mit them. uncorrupted. And to add a proof that comes First then, when our Virtuoso sees how more directly home to our purpose, the body many, and how various, and oftentimes how of our Saviour after his resurrection, though strange and how admirable structures, instincts, it retained the very impressions that the nails and other artifices the wise Opisicer hath furof the cross had made in his hands and feet, nished even brutes and plants withal, to purand the wound that the spear had made in his chase and assimilate their food, to defend or side, and was still called in the Scripture his otherwise secure themselves from hostile things, body, as indeed it was, and more so than and, to be short, to maintain their lives and accorling to our past discourse it is necessary propagate their species, it will very much conthat every body should be that is rejoined to duce to persuade him that so wise an Agent, the soul in the resurrection : and yet this who has at command so many differing and glorified body had the same qualifications excellent methods and tools to accomplish that are promised to the saints in their state what he designs, and does oftentimes actually of glory; St. Paul informing us“ that our vile employ them for the preservation and welfare bodies shall be transformed into the likeness of beasts, and even of plants, can never want of his glorious body,” which the history of the means to compass his most wise and just ends gospel assures us was endowed with far nobler in relation to mankind, being able, by ways qualities than before his death. And whereas that we should never dream of, to execute bis menaces and fulfil his promises. But of these | able to him, and to encourage man to both rare structures, instincts, and other methods, these by explicit promises of that felicity that and, if I may so style some of them with man without them can but faintly hope for, he reverence, stratagems and fetches of divine would be ready then thankfully to acknowledge skill, that God is pleased to employ in the con- that this way of procuring beseems the transduct of the visible world, especially animals, cendent goodness of God, without derogating I have already elsewhere purposely discoursed, from his majesty and wisdom. And by these and therefore shall now proceed, and observe, and the like reflections, whereof some were in the second place, that when we duly consider formerly intimated, a philosopher that takes the very different ends to which many of God's notice of the wonderful providence that God particular works, especially those that are descends to exercise for the welfare of inferior animated, seem designed, in reference both to and irrational creatures, will have an advantage their own welfare and the utility of man, and above men not versed in the works and course with how much wisdom, and, I had almost of nature to believe upon the historical and said care, the glorious Creator has been pleased other proofs that Christianity offers, that God to supply them with means admirably fit for has actually vouchsafed to man, his noblest the attainment of these respective ends, we and only rational visible creature, an explicit cannot but think it highly probable that so and positive law, enforced by threatening wise and so benign a Being has not left his severe penalties to the stubborn transgressors, noblest visible creature man unfurnished with and promising to the sincere obeyers rewards means to procure his own welfare, and obtain suitable to his own greatness and goodness. his true end, if he be not culpably wanting to And thus the consideration of God's providence, himself. And since man is endowed with in the conduct of things corporeal, may prove, reason, which may convince him (of what to a well-disposed contemplator, a bridge neither a plant nor brute animal is capable of whereon he may pass from natural to revealed knowing, namely) that God is both his maker religion. and his continual benefactor, since his reason likewise teacheth him, that upon both those accounts, besides others, God may justly expect and require worship and obedience from him; FISHING WITH A COUNTERFEIT FLY.' since also the same rational faculty may persuade him, that it may well become the majesty Being at length come to the river-side we and wisdom of God, as the sovereign rector of quickly began to fall to the sport for which the world, to give a law to man, who is a we came thither, and Eugenius finding the rational creature capable of understanding and fish forward enough to bite, thought fit to obeying it, and thereby glorifying the author spare his flies till he might have more need of of it; since (farthermore), finding in his own them, and therefore tied to his line a hook, mind (if it be not depraved by vice or lusts) a furnished with one of those counterfeit flies principle that dictates to him that he owes a which in some neighbouring countries are veneration and other suitable sentiment to the much used, and which, being made of the divinely excellent Author of his being, and his feathers of wild fowl, are not subject to be continual and munificent benefactor; since, drenched by the water, whereon those birds on these scores, his conscience will convince are wont to swim. This fly being for a pretty him of his obligation to all the essential duties while scarce any oftener thrown in than the of natural religion; and since, lastly, his reason hook it hid was drawn up again with a fish may convince him that his soul is immortal, fastened to it: Eugenius looking on us with and is therefore capable as well as desirous to a smiling countenance seemed to be very be everlastingly happy, after it has left the proud of his success, which Eusebius taking body, he must in reason be strongly inclined notice of, Whilst (says he) we smile to see to wish for a supernatural discovery of what how easily you beguile these silly fishes, that God would have him believe and do. And you catch so fast with this false bait, possibly therefore, if being thus prepared he shall be we are not much less unwary ourselves, and very credibly informed that God hath actually the world's treacherous pleasures do little less been pleased to discover by supernatural revela delude both me and you: for Eugenius (contion (what by reason without it he can either not at all, or but roughly guess at) what kind

1 This and the following piece are from Occasional Reof worship and obedience will be most accept- Nections.

tinues he), as the apostles were fishers of men pretty while withdrew that luminous liquor, in a good sense, so their and our grand adver- that is as it were the candle to this dark lansary is a skilful fisher of men in a bad sense, thorn, he had continued to forbear the disclosand too often in his attempts to cheat fonding of it, he might have deluded my search mortals meets with a success as great and

easy

and escaped his present confinement. as you now find yours. And certainly that Rare qualities may sometimes be prerogatempter, as the Scripture calls him, does sadly tives without being advantages. And though delude us, even when we rise at his best baits, a needless ostentation of one's excellencies and, as it were, his true flies: for, alas! the may be more glorious, yet a modest concealbest things he can give are very worthless, ment of them is usually more safe, and an unmost of them in their own nature, and all of seasonable disclosure of flashes of wit may them in comparison of what they must cost us sometimes do a man no other service than to to enjoy them. But however riches, power, direct his adversaries how they may do him a and the delights of the senses are real goods mischief. in their kind, though they be not of the best And as though this worm be lodged in a kind, yet, alas! many of us are so fitted for crystalline prison, through which it has the deceits that we do not put this subtle angler honour to be gazed at by many eyes, and to make use of his true baits to catch us. We among them are some that are said to shine suffer him to abuse us much more grossly, and far more in the day than this creature does in to cheat us with empty titles of honour, or the the night, yet no doubt, if he could express ensnaring smiles of great ones, or disquieting a sense of the condition he is in, he would drudgeries dignified with the specious names bewail it, and think himself unhappy in an of great employments, and though these, when excellency which procures hin at once admirthey must be obtained by sin, or are proposed ation and captivity, by the former of which as the recompenses for it, be, as I was going he does but give others a pleasure, while in to say, but the devil's counterfeit flies, yet, as

the latter he himself resents a misery. if we were fond of being deceived, we greedily

This ofttimes is the fate of a great wit, swallow the hook for flies that do but look whom the advantage he has of ordinary men like such, so dim-sighted are we as well to in knowledge, the light of the mind exposes what vice shows as to what it hides.

to so many effects of other men's importunate not then (concludes Eusebius) rise at baits, curiosity as to turn his prerogative into a whereby we may be sure to be either grossly trouble; the light that ennobles him tempts or at least exceedingly deceived; for, whoever inquisitive men to keep him as upon the score ventures to commit a sin, to taste the luscious we do this glow-worm from sleeping, and his sweets that the fruition of it seems to promise, conspicuousness is not more a friend to his certainly is so far deceived as to swallow a fame than an enemy to his quiet, for men true hook for a bait, which either proves but allow such much praise but little rest. They a counterfeit fly or hides that under its allur- attract the eye of others but are not suffered ing show which makes it not need to be a

to shut their own, and find that by a very discounterfeit one to deceive him.

advantageous bargain they are reduced for that imaginary good called fame to pay

that real blessing liberty.

And as though this luminous creature be

himself imprisoned in so close a body as glass, ON A GLOW.WORM IN A PHIAL. yet the light that ennobles him is not thereby

restrained from diffusing itself, so there are If this unhappy worm had been as despic- certain truths that have in them so much of able as the other reptiles that crept up and native light or evidence, that by the personal down the hedge whence I took him, he might distresses of the proposer it cannot be hidden as well as they have been left there still, and or restrained, but in spite of prisons it shines his own obscurity as well as that of the night freely, and procures the teachers of it adhad preserved him from the confinement he miration even when it cannot procure them now suffers. And if, as he sometimes for a liberty.

Let us

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