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periments; in the same year also appeared his Seraphic Love, a piece which had been written as early as 1648. In 1661 he issued certain physiological essays and other tracts; and in 1662 his Sceptical Chemist. All these were successful, and were reprinted--some of them more than once-within a few years. In 1663, on the incorporation of the Royal Society, he was appointed one of the council. In the same year he published Considerations touching the Usefulness of Experimental Natural Philosophy; Experiments upon Colours, a curious and useful work; and Considerations upon the Style of the Holy Scriptures. In the year 1665 appeared his Occasional Reflections upon Several Subjects, a work satirized by Swift, but which is said to have actually given that genius his first hint of Gulliver's Travels. In that year also was issued New Experiments and Observations on Cold. On the 8th March, 1666, he wrote his celebrated letter to Mr. Stubbe on the controversy as to Valentine Greatrakes, who professed to cure diseases by stroking. This letter is upwards of twenty octavo pages in length, "very learned and very judicious, wonderfully correct in diction and style, remarkably clear in method and form, highly exact in the observations and remarks, and abounding in pertinent and curious facts. Yet it appears it was written within the compass of a single morning." In this year also he published Hydrostatical Paradoxes and The Origin of Forms and Qualities.
Free Enquiry into the vulgarly received Notion of Nature, 1691; and finally, in same year, Experimenta et Observationes Physica.
In 1677 Boyle, who was a director of the East India Company, printed at Oxford and sent abroad 500 copies of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles in the Malayan tongue, and in November of this year he was appointed president of the Royal Society. In the early part of 1689 his health began to decline, and on the 18th of July, 1691, he made his will. In October of that year he grew worse, chiefly owing, it is supposed, to the illness of his favourite sister, who died on the 23d December. On the 30th he followed her, dying peacefully in the sixty-fifth year of his age.
Among the good deeds of Boyle's life we must not omit to mention his large contributions to the printing and publishing of Bibles for Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; his contributions towards propagating Christianity in America; his large expenditure over the publication and dispersal of an Arabic edition of Grotius, On the Truth of the Christian Religion; and above all, his establishment of the Boyle Lectures in Defence of Revealed Religion.
Boyle never married; but in early life it is said he loved a fair daughter of Cary, earl of Monmouth, and to this we owe the production of Seraphic Love.
As to Boyle's present position in the theological, philosophical, and scientific worlds we will say nothing. What it was in his own time, and for long after, is well indicated in the words of Boerhaave, who declares that "Boyle, the ornament of his age and country, succeeded to the genius and inquiries of the great Chancellor Verulam. To him we owe the secrets of fire, air, water, animals, vegetables, fossils: so that from his works may be deduced the whole system of natural knowledge."]
In 1668 Boyle settled permanently in London in the house of his beloved sister Lady Ranelagh, and from this until his death work after work appeared from his pen in rapid succession. We cannot do more than name the chief of them here:--Continuation of Experiments touching the Spring and Weight of Air, 1669; Tracts about the Cosmical Qualities of Things, 1670; Essay on the Origin and Virtue of Gems, 1672; Essays on the Strange Subtlety, &c., of Effluvia, 1673; The Excellence of Theology, 1673; The Saltness of the Sea, &c., 1674; Some Considerations about the Reconcilableness of Reason and Religion, 1675; Experiments
SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE
(FROM COLLECTED WORKS PUBLISHED IN 1772.)
about the Mechanical Origin or Production of POSSIBILITY OF THE RESURRECTION. Particular Qualities, 1676; Historical Account of a Degradation of Gold by an Anti-Elixir, 1678; Discourse of Things above Reason, 1681; Memoirs on the Natural History of Human Blood, 1684; Essay on the Great Effects of Even, Languid, and Unheeded Motion, 1690; Of the High Veneration Man's Intellect Owes to God, 1690; The Christian Virtuoso, 1690;
They who assent to the possibility of the resurrection of the same bodies, will, I presume, be much more easily induced to admit the possibility of the qualifications the Christian religion ascribes to the glorified bodies of
the raised saints. For, supposing the truth of the history of the Scriptures, we may observe that the power of God has already extended itself to the performance of such things as import as much as we need infer, sometimes by suspending the natural actings of bodies upon one another, and sometimes by endowing human and other bodies with preternatural qualities. And indeed, lightness, or rather agility, indifferent to gravity and levity, incorruption, transparency, and opacity, figure, colour, &c., being but mechanical affections of matter, it cannot be incredible that the most free and powerful Author of those laws of nature according to which all the phenomena of qualities are regulated, may (as he thinks fit) introduce, establish, or change them in any assigned portion of matter, and consequently in that whereof a human body consists. Thus, though iron be a body above eight times heavier, bulk for bulk, than water, yet in the case of Elisha's behest its native gravity was rendered ineffectual, and it emerged from the bottom to the top of the water: and the gravitation of St. Peter's body was suspended whilst his Master commanded him, and by that command enabled him to come to him walking on the sea. Thus the operation of the most active body in nature, flame, was suspended in Nebuchadnezzar's fiery furnace, whilst Daniel's three companions walked unharmed in those flames that, in a trice, consumed the kindlers of them. Thus did the Israelites' manna, which was of so perishable a nature that it would corrupt in a little above a day when gathered in any day of the week but that which preceded the Sabbath, keep good twice as long, and when laid up before the ark for a memorial would last whole ages uncorrupted. And to add a proof that comes more directly home to our purpose, the body of our Saviour after his resurrection, though it retained the very impressions that the nails of the cross had made in his hands and feet, and the wound that the spear had made in his side, and was still called in the Scripture his body, as indeed it was, and more so than according to our past discourse it is necessary that every body should be that is rejoined to the soul in the resurrection: and yet this glorified body had the same qualifications that are promised to the saints in their state of glory; St. Paul informing us "that our vile bodies shall be transformed into the likeness of his glorious body," which the history of the gospel assures us was endowed with far nobler qualities than before his death. And whereas
the apostle adds, as we formerly noted, that this great change of schematism in the saints' bodies will be effected by the irresistible power of Christ, we shall not much scruple at the admission of such an effect from such an agent, if we consider how much the bare, slight, mechanical alteration of the texture of a body may change its sensible qualities for the better. For without any visible additament, I have several times changed dark and opacous lead into finely-coloured transparent and specifically lighter glass. And there is another instance, which, though because of its obviousness it is less heeded, is yet more considerable, for who will distrust what advantageous changes such an agent as God can work by changing the texture of a portion of matter, if he but observe what happens merely upon the account of such a mechanical change in the lighting of a candle, that is newly blown out, by the applying another to the ascending smoke. For in the twinkling of an eye an opacous, dark, languid and stinking smoke loses all its smell and is changed into a most active, penetrant, and shining body.
THE CHRISTIAN VIRTUOSO.
(PUBLISHED IN 1690.)
I have taken notice of two other accounts upon which the experimental knowledge of God's works may, in a well-disposed mind, conduce to establish the belief of his providence, and therefore, though I shall not dwell long upon them, I must not altogether pretermit them.
First then, when our Virtuoso sees how many, and how various, and oftentimes how strange and how admirable structures, instincts, and other artifices the wise Opisicer hath furnished even brutes and plants withal, to purchase and assimilate their food, to defend or otherwise secure themselves from hostile things, and, to be short, to maintain their lives and propagate their species, it will very much conduce to persuade him that so wise an Agent, who has at command so many differing and excellent methods and tools to accomplish what he designs, and does oftentimes actually employ them for the preservation and welfare of beasts, and even of plants, can never want means to compass his most wise and just ends in relation to mankind, being able, by ways that we should never dream of, to execute his