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FORCE OF VOICE. Force is the degree of intensity with which sound is sent forth from the vocal organs.

Volume and loudness, though not identical with force, are dependent upon it. A full volume is produced by energetic or impassioned force with Pure Tone, or Orotund Quality in all forms; great loudness by impassioned force, Pure Tone, or Orotund, High Pitch, and in all forms.

No amount of force can give great volume or loudness to Aspirate Quality in any of its forms.

Volume relates to the amount of space filled with the sound; loudness to the distance at which a sound can be heard. "The low, deep tones of the organ fill a vast space, though they would not be heard at a long distance. The high, shrill notes of the fife can be heard at a long distance, yet they do not have great volume of sound.

Force may be divided into Subdued, Moderate, Energetic, and Impassioned.

These may again be subdivided at pleasure.

For convenience three subdivisions will be given under each general division, though they may be increased indefinitely.

ADVANTAGES OF FORCE. Perfect command of every degree of force is indispensable to excellence in expression.

In the expression of pathos, the force must be reduced to Subdued; in the utterance of bold and lofty thought, it rises to Impassioned; in the delivery of didactic thought, it is pleasingly modulated to Moderate; speaking in a small room, the degree of force should be

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so modulated as not to be painful to the hearers; addressing a vast assembly in the open air, the voice should be perfectly audible to the most distant hearer; speaking under the influence of strong excitement, the intensity of feeling should not hinder utterance, nor degenerate into ranting and vociferation."

Such are some of the advantages of perfect command of Force of Voice.

Exercises for cultivating Force of Voice will be presented with the lessons on the different divisions.

Subdued Force. Subdued is that degree of Force which ranges from the slightest sound which can be uttered in Pure Tone to the milder tones of ordinary conversation. To cultivate Subdued Force repeat each of the following elements, words, and sentences three times, beginning with the most subdued sound that can be uttered in Pure Tone, Effusive Form, increasing the force with each repetition, but retaining as nearly as possible the same pitch. After practicing for a few minutes on one pitch, change to a key two or three notes lower or higher.

THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARIES

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orb, arm,

low,
soft, hopes, sleep.
1. With lowly reverence bow.
2. Tread softly; bow the head.
3. O change! O wondrous change !

EXERCISES Combining Form, Quality, and Subdued Force. Repeat each of the above sounds, words, and sentences with

1. Effusive Form, Aspirate Quality, Subdued Force. (First Degree.)

2. Effusive Form, Oral Quality, Subdued Force. (Second Degree.)

3. Effusive Form, Pure Tone, Subdued Force. (Third Degree.)

SUBDUED FORCE-WHEN USED. Subdued Force is appropriately employed chiefly in the expression of pathetic, solemn, serious, and tranquil thought.

It is generally used in connection with Pure Tone, Effusive Form, but may be given with Oral, Aspirate, and Falsetto Qualities. It is doubtful whether Orotund, Pectoral, and Guttural can be given with Subdued Force, as a greater degree of force than Subdued will be required to produce those qualities.

EXAMPLES: SOLEMN AND PATHETIC.
Subdued Force, Pure Tone, Effusive Form.

The Death-Bed.

THOMAS HOOD.

1. We watched her breathing through the night,

Her breathing, soft and low,
As in her breast the wave of life

Kept heaving to and fro.

2. So silently we seemed to speak,

So slowly moved about,
As we had lent her half our powers

To eke her living out.
3. Our very hopes belied our fears,

Our fears our hopes belied;
We thought her dying when she slept,

And sleeping when she died.
4. For when the morn came, dim and sad,

And chill with early showers, Her quiet eyelids closed—she had

Another morn than ours.

The Burial of Arnold.

N. P. WILLIS.

1. Ye've gathered to your place of prayer

With slow and measured tread:
Your ranks are full, your mates all there!

But the soul of one has fled.
He was the proudest in his strength,

The manliest of ye all;
Why lies he at that fearful length,

around his pall ?
2. Ye reckon it in days since he

Strode up that foot-worn aisle, With his dark eye flashing gloriously,

And his lip wreathed with a smile.
O had it been but told you then

To mark whose lamp was dim,
From out yon rank of fresh-lipped men,
Would

ye

have singled him ?
3. Whose was the sinewy arm which flung

Defiance to the ring ?
Whose laugh of victory loudest rung

Yet not for glorying ?
Whose heart, in generous deed and thought,

No rivalry might brook,
And yet distinction claiming not ?

There lies he-go and look!

THE UNIVLASITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARIES

And ye

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5. Tread lightly, comrades, ye have laid

His dark locks on his brow;
Like life, save deeper light and shade,

We'll not disturb them now.
Tread lightly, for 'tis beautiful,

That blue-veined eyelid's sleep,
Hiding the eye death left so dull,

Ils slumber we will keep.

6. Rest now, his journeying is done,

Your feet are on his sod;
Death's chain is on your champion,

He waiteth here his God.
Ay, turn and weep, 'tis manliness

To be heart-broken here,
For the grave of earth's best nobleness

Is watered by the tear.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the element in this lesson ? 2. Define Force. 3. What is the difference between Force and loudness ? 4. Between Force and voluine? 5. What combination of elements will produce a full voluine ? 6. Will the same combination give great loudness? 7. What combination will produce loudness ? 8. Can great loudness be produced by Impassioned Force and

Aspirate Quality ? 9. What does volume relate tu? What loudness? 10. Give illustrations of each.

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