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1. What are the general divisions of Force?

12. How many subdivisions are given?

13. Why is perfect command of all divisions of Force important? 14. How may Force of Voice be acquired? In what other way? 15. In practicing exercises in Force, what is important with reference to Pitch?

16. Define Subdued Force.

17. In the expression of what styles of thought and feeling will Subdued Force be chiefly employed?

18. With what qualities of voice?

19. Why cannot Orotund, Pectoral, and Gutteral be given with Subdued Force?

20. With what Form can Subdued Force be given? 21. Why do the selections require Subdued Force? 22. Why Pure Tone? Why Effusive Form?

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4. Selections. "The Death-Bed." "The Burial of Arnold."

LESSON XXVI.
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.

2, as in zone.
zeal,
rouse,

has,
Zion, zephyr, was.
1. Rouse, ye Romans, rouse !
2. The zephyr breathes calmly.
3. Zion, the joy of all the earth.
4. He hath reached the zenith of his glory.
5. The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up.

Moderate Force. Moderate is the degree of Force ranging from the mild to the more earnest conversational tones. To cultivate the Moderate Force practice the following sounds, words, and elements, repeating each six times, beginning with the most Subdued Force and gradually increasing, but retaining the pitch with which each is begur.. It is not necessary to begin each separate exercise with the same pitch, but simply to retain the pitch throughout with which you begin. It would be well to vary the key with each sound or word or sentence, so as to widen the compass of voice as much as possible. The primary object of the exercise is to increase the force on any key without changing the pitch. Every voice should have power to increase force at pleasure on two octaves at least.

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EXERCISES
Combining Form, Quality, and Moderate Force.
Repeat the sounds, words, and sentences with

1. Effusive Form, Pure Tone, Moderate Force. (First Degree.)

2. Expulsive Form, Pure Tone, Moderate Force. (Second Degree.)

3. Effusive Form, Orotund, Moderate Force. (Third Degree.)

4. Expulsive Form, Orotund, Moderate Force. (Third Degree.)

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MODERATE FORCE-WHEN USED. Moderate is the appropriate degree of Force combined with Pure Tone, Expulsive Form, for the expression of narrative, descriptive, didactic, unimpassioned thought; combined with the Orotund, Effusive Form, for the expression of the milder forms of sublimity, reverence, devotion, and adoration; with the Orotund, Expulsive Form, for introductory and unimpassioned parts of speeches, sermons, and orations.

EXAMPLE: DIDACTIC THOUGHT.
Moderate Force, Pure Tone, Espulsive Form.

Modulation,

LLOYD.

1. 'Tis not enough the voice be sound and clear,

'Tis modulation that must charm the ear.
That voice all modes of passion can express
Which marks the proper word with proper stress;
But none emphatic can that speaker call
Who lays an equal emphasis on all.
Some o'er the tongue the labored measures roll,
Slow and deliberate as the parting toll;
Point every stop, mark every pause so strong,
Their words, like stage processions, stalk along.

2. All affectation but creates disgust,

And e'en in speaking we may seem too just.
In vain for them the pleasing measure flows
Whose recitation runs it all to prose;
Repeating what the poet sets not down,
The verb disjointing from its favorite noun,
While pause and break and repetition join
To make a discord in each tuneful line.

3. Some placid natures fill the allotted scene

With lifeless drawls, insipid 'and serene;
While others thunder every couplet o'er,
And almost crack your ears with rant and roar.
More nature oft, and finer strokes are shown
In the low whisper than tempestuous tone;
And Hamlet's hollow voice and fixed amaze
More powerful terror to the mind conveys
Than he who, swollen with impetuous rage,
Bullies the balky phantom of the stage.

4. He who in earnest studies o'er his part,

Will find true nature cling about his heart.
The modes of grief are not included all
In the white handkerchief and mournful drawl;

A single look more marks the internal woe
Than all the windings of the lengthened O!
Up to the face the quick sensation flies,
And darts its meaning from the speaking eyes :
Love, transport, madness, anger, scorn, despair,
And all the passions of the soul are there.

EXAMPLE: INTRODUCTORY AND UNIMPASSIONED.

Moderute Force, Pure Tone, or Orotund, Expulsive Form.

Appeal in Behalf of Ireland.

S. 8. PRENTISS.

1. Fellow-citizens: It is no ordinary cause that has brought together this vast assemblage on the present occasion. We have met, not to prepare ourselves for political contests; we have met, not to celebrate the achievements of those gallant men who have planted our victorious standards in the heart of an enemy's country; we have assembled, not to respond to shouts of triumph from the West; but to answer the cry of want and suffering which comes from the East. The Old World stretches out her arms to the New. The starving parent supplicates the young and vigorous child for bread.

2. There lies upon the other side of the wide Atlantic a beautiful island, famous in story and in song. Its area is not so great as that of the State of Louisiana, while its population is almost half that of the Union. It has given to the world more than its share of genius and of greatness. It has been prolific in statesmen, warriors, and poets. Its brave and generous sons have fought successfully all battles but their own. In wit and humor it has no equal; while its harp, like its history, moves to tears by its sweet but melancholy pathos.

3. Into this fair region God has seen fit to send the most terrible of all those fearful ministers that fulfill his inscrutable decrees. The carth has failed to give her increase. The common mother has forgotten her offspring, and she no longer affords them their accustomed nourishment. Famine, gaunt and ghastly famine, has seized a nation with its strangling grasp. Unhappy Ireland, in the sad woes of the present, forgets, for a moment, the gloomy history of the past.

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