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Teachers of elocution make no greater mistake than that of requiring all pupils to take the same key. Voices differ so much that what is Low Pitch for one may be simply middle for another. Nothing in the practice of elocution is more offensive to a cultivated taste than the ridiculous efforts of pupils to imitate some favorite teacher's tones. It cannot be too firmly impressed upon the minds of pupils that in Pitch each voice is its own guide. If, however, the voice, from some external cause, has been changed from its natural key, it should as soon as possible be restored.

Again, Pitch in elocution differs from Pitch in music in the manner of passing from one division or note to another. In elocution the changes are generally by the concrete movement or glides, in music by the discrete or steps. That which is an excellence in elocution is an error in music; that which is an accomplishment in singing is a fault in reading or recitation. To pass with measured accuracy from one word to another in elocutionary efforts is drawling and intolerable; to glide into the notes in singing is dragging and disagreeable. I* Hence persons who sing a great deal are not likely to read or speak well, because they have become accustomed to the discrete movement; and those who practice elocution are rarely successful singers. Music and elocution, though not incompatible, are rarely combined in a high degree of excellence in the same person. Indeed, it is a significant fact that in all ages of the world those who have excelled as readers, actors, or orators have been singularly deficient in musical talents and attainments, and those who have been distinguished singers have not been applauded for their oratorical efforts. Exercises in elocution may strengthen the singing voice, and practice in vocal

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music may give sweetness and purity to the speaking tones, but further than this they are not mutual helpers. No one should be deterred from the study of elocution because he cannot illustrate the notes of the scale or distinguish Yankee Doodle from Old Hundred. To read well it is not necessary that you should sing even the simplest tune.

ADVANTAGES OF Pitch. Both in music and elocution perfect control of Pitch is essential. Without it there can be no natural, pleasing, or impressive utterance. More public speakers fail from an incorrect use of Pitch than from any other

Often the voice rises to a high, unnatural tone, nearly an octave above the natural key or that which the sentiment demands, and upon this unpleasant tone the utterance is continued until the voice is injured and the hearers wearied. But again, control of Pitch is important because different tones express and awaken different thoughts and emotions. The Author of our being has so attuned our natures that a low, deep tone suggests reverence or devotion, High Pitch joyous feelings, the middle key unimpassioned thought, and the lowest tones awe and dread. To properly express these emotions the Pitch must be varied at pleasure.


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DIVISIONS OF Pitch. Instead of the eight exact notes in music, elocution presents five general divisions of Pitch: VERY HIGH, lligs, MIDDLE, Low, and VERY Low. These divisions are not limited to any particular notes of the scale, but vary in compass with different voices, some being limited to a single octave, while others range over three or four. Each voice is its own guide, and from the Middle Pitch all the other divisions are determined.

Middle Pitch.

Middle Pitch may be defined as the three, four, or five notes over which the voice naturally and easily ranges in ordinary conversation." To cultivate Middle Pitch practice the following sounds, words, and sentences upon the conversation or natural key.


1. a, as heard in ale, pale.

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ask, dance.

5. ȧ,

1. Speak the speech as I pronounced it to you.
2. Talk to the point, and stop when you reach it.
3. A voice soft and sweet as a tune one loves.


Combining Form, Quality, Force, Stress, and Middle Pitch.

Repeat each of the above sentences with

Expulsive Form, Pure Tone, Moderate Force, Radical Stress, and Middle Pitch.


The Middle Pitch is the appropriate key for the delivery of narrative, didactic, and descriptive thought in the form of scientific and literary lectures, introductions to speeches, orations, and sermons.


Middle Pilch, Rudical Stress, Moderate Force, Pure Tone, Expulsive



1. There is no one quality that so much attaches man to his fellow-man as cheerfulness. Talents may excite more respect, and virtue more esteem, but the respect is apt to be distant

and the esteem cold. It is far otherwise with cheerfulnesss. It endears a man to the heart, not the intellect or the imagination. There is a kind of reciprocal diffusiveness about this quality that recommends its possessor by the very effect it produces. There is a mellow radiance in the light it sheds on all social intercourse which pervades the soul to a depth that the blaze of intellect can never reach.

2. The cheerful man is a double blessing—a blessing to himself and to the world around him. In his own character his good nature is the clear blue sky of his own heart, on which every star of talent shines out more clearly. To others he carries an atmosphere of joy and hope and encouragement wherever he moves. His own cheerfulness becomes infectious, and his associates lose their moroseness and their gloom in the amber-colored light of the benevolence he casts around him.

3. It is true that cheerfulness is not always happiness. The face may glow in smiles while the heart “runs in coldness and darkness below, but cheerfulness is the best external indication of happiness that we have, and it enjoys this advantage over almost every other good quality, that the counterfeit is as va'uable to society as the reality. It answers as a medium of public circulation fully as well as the true coin.

4. A man is worthy of all praise, whatever may be his private griefs, who does not intrude them on the happiness of his friends, but constantly contributes his quota of cheerfulness to the general public enjoyment. “Every heart knows its own bitterness," but let the possessor of that heart take heed that he does not distill it into his neighbor's cup, and thus poison his felicity.

5. There is no sight more commendable and more agreeable than a man whom we know fortune has dealt with badly smothering his own peculiar griefs in his own bosom, and doing his duty in society with an unruffled brow and a cheerful mien. It is duty which society has a right to demand-a portion of that great chain which binds humanity together, the links of which every one should preserve bright and unsullied.

6. It may be asked, what shall that man do whose burdens of grief are heavy, and made still heavier by the tears he has shed over them in private; shall he leave society ? Certainly, until he has learned to bear his own burden. Shall he not seek the sympathy of his friends ? He had better not. Sympathy would only weaken the masculine strength of mind which enables us to endure. Besides, sympathy unsought for is much more readily given, and sinks deeper in its healing effects into the heart. No, no, cheerfulness is a duty which every man owes. Let him faithfully discharge the debt.

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QUESTIONS. 1. Define Pitch. 2. What is said with reference to the Pitch of sounds ? 3. What is the difference between Pitch in elocution and Pitch

in music? 4. Explain the discrete and concrete movements of the voice. 5. What is our guide in Pitch in music? 6. What in elocution ? 7. Should pupils in reading in concert have the same key? Why? 8. Are persons who read or speak well generally good singers ?

Why? 9. Are elocution and music mutual helpers ? 10. If you cannot sing should you be discouraged from studying

elocution ? 11. What is said of the importance of control of Pitch? 12. Mention some of the emotions expressed and awakened by

the different divisions of Pitch. 13. What are the divisions of Pitch in elocution ? 14. Are they fixed or flexible ? 15. What is the guide in Pitch in elocution? In music? 16. How are the different divisions ascertained ? 17. Define Middle Pitch. . 18. Is it the same in all voices ? 19. When is Middle Pitch used ? 20. Why does the selection require Middle Pitch ?

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