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elements, and that the defects are found in an improper use of one or more of them. It determines the combination appropriate for the expression of the different styles of thought and feeling, classifies these combinations, and thus renders the art of Elocution as simple and easy as the art of music, mathematics, or language.
PROVINCE OF THE ART. The Art of Elocution cultivates the voice, perfects the articulation, improves the respiration, gives ease and grace to position and movement-propriety and power to gesture and attitude.' It teaches the practical illustration of the elements and their innumerable combinations. It applies these in the expression of the different styles of thought and feeling, thus embodying in delivery every accomplishment both of voice and action.
The proper study of Elocution will make the family circle more agreeable, the social circle more desirable, the business man more successful, the teacher more instructive, as well as the professional man more impressive. 'Is it so desirable that our musical instruments upon which we occasionally play be sweet-toned and in perfect tune, and of no importance that our own voices and our children's voices be clear and sweet and musical and pure ? Are easy, graceful positions and attitudes so important in pictures and statues and not desirable in ourselves? Pleasant tones of voice and agreeable manners gain friends, win confidence, secure customers, inspire pupils, and delight audiences. They are desirable and profitable every-where. It would be difficult to name a subject taught in school or college
that affords a culture so broad, so thorough, so practical as the study of Elocution. It most happily combines the cultivation of the physical, the mental, and the moral powers.
Physical Culture. The exercises in respiration, articulation, and vocalization strengthen the lungs, expand the chest, develop the muscles of the throat and neck, protecting them against cold and bronchial affections, call into action the abdominal, dorsal, and intercostal muscles, and thus promote digestion and, in fact, invigorate all the physical powers ; they cultivate sweetness, purity, power, and flexibility of voice. The exercises in action give ease and grace to position and movement. ''If, for its physical culture alone, Elocution were introduced into all our schools and colleges, it would more than compensate for all the expenditure of time and money. But its physical advantages are the least important. It furnishes no ordinary
To express thought and feeling appropriately and impressively they must be clearly comprehended. But the comprehension of the thought is not sufficient. The science of Elocntion must be mastered-a science exact, abstruse, exhaustless. The elements and principles of this science must be perfectly familiar to the mind. The adaption of the elements and the application of the principles in the expression of the different styles of thought and feeling 'cultivate the taste and judyment. To recite a selection, or present a scene impressively, it must be memorized. This strengthens the
. memory, that faculty so greatly neglected in our modern methods of education. Each character presented must be clearly conceived, must have an ideal existence. This exercises the imagination. In the combination of the elements, the conception of the characters, and the arrangement of the scenes, there must be a constant effort to produce those effects most pleasing both to eye and ear. This cultivates the æsthetic taste and develops the originating faculties."
But the study of Elocution stops not with the cultivation of the physical and mental faculties; it develops
The Moral Powers. "It brings us into intimate communion with the noblest thoughts of the wisest men of all ages. It makes us familiar with the sublimity of Shakespeare, the grandeur of Milton, the imagination of Scott, the pathos of Dickens, the purity of Longfellow, and the inspiration of the Bible. It cannot be but that the study and recitation of such writings will ennoble the moral nature.
QUESTIONS. 1. What is Elocution ? 2. Where used ? 3. What is the province of the Science of Elocution ? 4. How do we ascertain the elements and principles of expression? 5. How many essential elements of expression are there? 6. What is an essential element ? 7. How many of the essential elements are found in every utter
ance ? 8. What is an accident of expression ? 9. What constitutes excellence in expression ? 10. Where are the def cts found? 11. How do we determine the combinations appropriate for the es.
pression of the difit rent styles of thonglit and feeling? 12. Define the province of the art of Elocution. 13. Mention some of the plıysical advantages of Elocution. 14. Some of the mental. 15. Some of the moral.