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17. He wedded a wife of richest dower,

Who lived for fashion, as he for power.
Yet oft, in his marble hearth's bright glow,
He watched a picture come and

go; 18. And sweet Maud Muller's hazel eyes

Looked out in their innocent surprise.
Oft, when the wine in his glass was red,

He longed for the way-side well instead; 19. And closed his eyes on his garnished rooms,

To dream of meadows and clover-blooms.
And the proud man sighed, with a secret pain,

“Ah, that I were free again!
20. “Free as when I rode that day,

Where the barefoot maiden raked her hay.”
She wedded a man unlearned and poor,

And many children played round her door. 21. And oft, when the summer sun shone hot

On the new-mown hay in the meadow lot,
And she heard the little spring brook fall

Over the roadside, through the wall, 22. In the shade of the apple-tree again

She saw a rider draw his rein,
And, gazing down with timid grace,

She felt his pleased eyes read her face. 23. Sometimes her narrow kitchen walls

Stretched away into stately halls;
The weary wheel to a spinnet turned,
The tallow candle an astral burned,

24. And for him who sat by the chimney lug,

Dozing and grumbling o'er pipe and mug,
A manly form at her side she saw,
And joy was duty and love was law.

25. Then she took up her burden of life again,

Saying only, “It might have been."
Alas for maiden, alas for Judge,
For rich repiner and household drudge!

26. God pity them both! and pity us all,

Who vainly the dreams of youth recall.
For of all sad words of tongue or pen,

The saddest are these: “It might have been!”
27. Ah, well! for us all some sweet hope lies

Deeply buried from human eyes;
And in the hereafter angels may
Roll the stone from its grave av


QUESTIONS. 1. Will the perfect illustration and correct combination of the

Essential Elements alone give excellence to Expression ? 2. Why not? 3. Can there be the highest excellence without the proper use

of the Elements ? 4. To wliat in arithmetic do the Elements correspond ? 5. To what in music? 6. Define Grouping. 7. Is it a change of one or two Elements chiefly? 8. Which Elements are most frequently changed ? 9. What does Grouping correspond to in music? 10. What Element is chiefly varied in composing a tune ? 11. What is said of the importance of Grouping ? 12. What is said of singing ? 13. What must be done to attain excellence in Elocution ? 14. What combined powers does Booth exhibit in every personation

of Hamlet or other play? 15. If Grouping could be composed and set down, would Elocution

be easier or more difficult? 16. Why cannot Grouping be set down as a tune is ? 17. What is said of the Groupings of two different persons ? 18. Why cannot the pupil copy the Grouping of his teacher ? 19. What must the stndent rely upon in the study of Grouping ? 20. What principles and rules are there to guide liim ? 21. Explain and illustrate the first example given. 22. The second. 23. The third. 24. Are the examples given to be stricily followed in reading those

passages ? 25. How can we best learn Grouping ?


ACCIDENTS OF VOCAL EXPRESSION. The Accidents of Vocal Expression are those elements which are not absolutely essential in every utterance.

They are, Quantity, Inflection, Circumflex, Cadence, Emphasis, Pauses, Climax, and are simply special, unusual, peculiar combinations of two or more of the Essential Elements. An utterance may be given, or at least it may be conceived of, in which there will be no special Emphasis, Pauses, Cadence, Inflection, or Quantity, but we cannot even conceive of an utterance, much less illustrate it, in which there will not be Form, Quality, Force, Stress, Pitch, Movement, in some combination.

The Accidents are to utterance what vibrates or trills are to music, important, but not essential.

QUANTITY. Quantity is the length of time occupied in the utterance of syllables and words. It is a special combination of Form and Stress. Expulsive or Explosive Form, Radical Stress, will give Short Quantity; Effusive Form, Median or Thorough Stress, will invariably produce Long Quantity.

The power and beauty of vocal expression are dependent, to a great extent, on the proper use of Quantity. The music of the verse is sacrificed unless the nicest regard be paid to prolongation; without the observance of Long Quantity the grand and majestic passages of poetry and prose become flat and dry.

2. ā,

Long Quantity. Long Quantity is a prolongation of syllables and words greater than that in ordinary conversation. This prolongation will vary with the sentiment and emotion and the skill and power of the speaker.

To illustrate Long Quantity practice the following sounds, words, and sentences, prolonging each as much as possible, but being careful not to drawl the utterance,

EXERCISES. 1. ē, as in me.

66 ale. 3. ä,

66 father.
4. 7,

5. 00, ooze

calm, balm,
tolls, rolls, noble.
1. O the long and dreary winter!
2. Hear the tolling of the bells !
3. O change! O wondrous change!

Long QUANTITY-WHEN USED. Long Quantity should be given in the expression of pathos, solemnity, sublimity, grandeur, reverence, adoration, shouting, calling, commanding, and other similar emotions and passions.

EXAMPLE: GRANDEUR AND SUBLIMITY. Long Quantity, Effusive Form, Orotund Quality, Energetic Force,

Median Stress, Low Pitch, Slow Movement.

Apostrophe to the Ocean.


1. Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean, roll!

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain;
Man marks the earth with ruin--his control

Stops with the shore: upon the watery plain,

The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain
A shadow of man's ravage, save bis own
When for a moment, like a drop of rain,

He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown. 2. Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form

Glasses itself in tempests; in all time,
Calm or convulsed-in breeze, or gale, or storm,

Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime
Dark heaving; boundless, endless, and sublime-
The image of Eternity—the throne
Of the Invisible; even from out thy slime

The monsters of the deep are made; each zone
Obeys thee: thou go'st forth, dread, fathomless, alone.

QUESTIONS. 1. What is an Accident of Vocal Expression ? 2. What is the difference between an Accident and an Essential

Element of Vocal Expression ? 3. Detine Quantity. 4. Of what Essential Elements is it composed ? 5. What is said of the importance of Quantity ? 6. Define Long Quantity. 7. Is it fixed or variable ? 8. When is it used ? 9. Why does the selection require Long Quantity ?


Short Quantity. Short Quantity is short, quick utterance of syllables and words.

It is much shorter than the tones of ordinary conversation. It is a combination of Expulsive or Explosive Form, Radical or Final Stress.

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