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hairs should secure him from insult. Much more, sir, is he to be abhorred who, as he has advanced in age, has receded from virtue, and become more wicked with less temptation; who prostitutes himself for money which he cannot enjoy, and spends the remains of his life in the ruin of his country.

3. But youth, sir, is not my only crime; I have been accused of acting a theatrical part. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarities of gesture, or a dissimulation of my real sentiments, and an adoption of the opinions and language of another man.

4. In the first sense, sir, the charge is too trifling to be confronted, and deserves only to be mentioned, that it may be despised: I am at liberty, like every other man, to use my own language; and though perhaps I may have some ambition to please this gentleman, I shall not lay myself under any restraint, nor very solicitously copy his diction or his mien, however matured by age or modeled by experience.

5. But if any man shall, by charging me with theatrical behavior, imply that I utter any sentiments but my own, I shall treat him as a calumniator and a villain; nor shall any protection shelter him from the treatment he deserves. I shall, on such an occasion, without scruple, trample upon all those forms with which wealth and dignity intrench themselves; nor shall any thing but age restrain my resentmentage, which always brings one privilege, that of being insolent and supercilious, without punishment.

6. But with regard, sir, to those whom I have offended, I am of opinion that, if I had acted a borrowed part, I should have avoided their censure; the heat that offended them is the ardor of conviction, and that zeal for the service of my country which neither hope nor fear shall influence me to suppress. I will not sit unconcerned while my liberty is invaded, nor look in silence upon public robbery. I will exert my endeavors, at whatever hazard, to repel the aggressor, and drag the thief to justice, whoever may protect him in his villainy, and whever may partake of his plunder.

QUESTIONS. 1. Define Circumflex. When is it used ? 2. What lines in the selection requires the Circumflex? Why?



Cadence is a smooth, gradual closing of the line in poetry or the sentence in prose which gives a pleasing and impressive effect to utterance. It is not like the Inflection, a simple change in Pitch through the Concrete Movement of the voice, but a diminution of the Force also, and a change of Pitch sometimes through the Concrete, sometimes through the Discrete Movement. These changes occur on the last three, four, or five syllables of the line or sentence.

A graceful, pleasing Cadence is one of the most impressive elements in the reading or recitation of solemn, serious, pathetic, sublime, and devotional thought and feeling.

It is difficult to acquire and more difficult to explain.

Practice the following sentences with special refer ence to the Cadence.


1. In teaching me the way to live,

It taught me how to die. 2. We'll all meet again in the morning. 3. I love it, I love it, and cannot tear

My soul from my mother's old arm-chair. 4. When the evening comes, with its beautiful

And our eyes are closing to slumber awhile,
May that “Greenwood ” of soul be in sight !

5. He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and

unknown. 6. The sorrow for the dead is the only sorrow from

which we refuse to be divorced.


Efusive Form, Pure Tone, Subdued and Moderate Force, Median

Stress, Low Pitch, Slow Movement.

Over the River.


1. Over the river they beckon to me;

Loved ones, who have passed to the farther side;
The gleam of their snowy robes I see-

But their voices are lost in the dashing tide.
There was one with ringlets of sunny gold,

And eyes the reflection of heaven's own blue;
He passed in the twilight gray and cold,

And the pale mist hid him from mortal view.
We saw not the angels who met himn there,

The gates of the city we could not see-
Over the river, over the river,

My brother stands waiting to welcome me.

2. Over the river the boatman pale

Carried another, our household pet;
Her brown curls waved in the gentle gale,

Darling Minnie! I see her yet.
She crossed on her bossom her dimpled hands,

And fearlessly entered the phantom bark;
We felt it glide from the silver sands,

And all our sunshine grew strangely dark.
We know she is safe on the farther side,

Where all the angels and ransomed be-
Over the river, the mystic river,

Our household pet is waiting for me.

3. For none return from those quiet shores

Who pass with the boatman cold and pale;
We hear the dip of the golden vars,

We catch a glimpse of their snowy sail;
And, lo! they have passed from our yearning heart,

They have crossed the stream, and are gone for ayeWe may not sunder the vail apart,

That hides from our vision the gates of day.
We only know that their barks no more

Will glide with us o'er life's stormy sea;
But somewhere, I know, on that unseen shore,

They watch and beckon and wait for me. 4. And I sit and think, when the sunset's gold

Is flushing river and hill and shore,
I shall one day stand by the water cold

And list to the sound of the boatman's oar.
I shall catch a gleam of the snowy sail,

I shall hear the boat as it nears the strand,
I shall pass with the boatman cold and pale

To the better shore of the spirit-land.
I shall know the loved who have gone before,

And joyfully sweet will the meeting be-
When over the river, the peaceful river,

The angel of Death shall carry me.

QUESTIONS. 1. Define Cadence. 2. Wherein does Cadence differ from Inflection? 3. Is there an Inflection with every Cadence ? 4. What Inflection generally? 5. What styles of thought and feeling will specially require the



EMPHASIS. Emphasis is special prominence given to words and phrases. This may be done by an increase or decrease of Force, a change of Stress, Form, Quality, Pitch, or Movement, or a change in the combination of two or more of these elements. The kind and degree of Emphasis can be determined only by the speaker and the sentiment. Two persons may emphasize the same sentiment in an entirely different way and yet both be correct.

· Emphasis is to speech what coloring is to painting.” It admits of all possible degrees and must, to indicate a particular degree of distinction, be mild or intense, according to the ground-work or general utterance of the discourse.

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Emphasis of Force. Emphasis of Force is the utterance of certain words or phrases with an increase or decrease of the prevailing force.

This style of Emphasis is usually employed in unimpassioned discourse to direct special attention to certain words and phrases.

EXERCISES IN EMPHASIS OF FORCE. 1. I come not here to talk. 2. Study to show thyself a man. 3. Ignorance is the mother of error. 4. The repose of the soul is exercise, not rest.

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