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emotion or passion thus speaks, its language is often confined to no particular part of the body, but the living frame as a whole sympathizes in the action.”
TRANQUILLITY. Tranquillity appears by the composure of the countenance and general repose of the whole body, without the exertion of any one muscle. The countenance open, the forehead smooth, the eyebrows arched, the mouth not quite shut, and the eyes passing with an easy motion from object to object, but not dwelling long upon
How beautiful this night! The balmiest sigh,
CHEERFULNESS. When joy is settled into a habit, or flows from a placid temper of mind, desiring to please and be pleased, it is called gayety, good humor, or cheerfulness. Cheerfulness adds a smile to tranquillity, and opens the mouth a little more.
Now, my co-mates and brothers in exile,
-As You Like It.
When joy arises from ludicrous or fugitive amuse·ments in which others share with us it is called merriment or mirth.
Mirth or laughter opens the mouth horizontally, raises the cheeks high, lessens the aperture of the eyes, and, when violent, shakes and convulses the whole frame, fills the eyes with tears, and occasions holiling the sides from the pain the convulsive laughter gives them.
Jaq. A fool, a fool! I met a fool i' the forest,
And then he drew a dial from his poke:
A pleasing elation of mind on the actual or assured attainment of good, or deliverance from evil, is called joy.
Joy, when moderate, opens the countenance with smiles, and throws, as it were, a sunshine of delectation over the whole frame. When it is sudden and violent' it expresses itself by clapping the hands, raising the eyes toward heaven, and giving such a spring to the body as to make it attempt to mount up as if it could fly. When joy is extreme, and goes into transport, rapture, and ecstasy, it has a wildness of look and gesture that borders on folly, madness, and sorrow.
- Romeo and Juliet.
Joy Approaching to Transport.
Pity is benevolence to the afflicted. It is a mixture of love for an ohject that suffers, and a grief that we are not able to remove those sufferings. It shows itself in a compassionate tenderness of voice, a feeling of pain in the countenance, and a gentle raising and falling of the hands and eyes, as if mourning over the unhappy object. The mouth is open, the eyebrows are drawn down, and the features contracted or drawn together.
Pity for a Departed friend. Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy. He hath borne me on his back a thousand times, and now how abhorred in my imagination it is; my gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft. Where be your gibes now? your gambols? your songs? your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the table on a roar? Not one now to mock your own grinding! Quite chop-fallen! Now get thee to my lady's chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favor she must come; make her laugh at that.—Hamlet.
Hope is a mixture of desire and joy agitating the mind and anticipating its enjoyment. It erects and brightens the countenance, spreads the arms and hards open as to receive the object of its wishes. The voice is plaintive and inclined to eagerness, the breath drawn inward more forcibly than usual in order to express our desire more strongly, and our earnest expectation of receiving the object of them.
Collins, in his “Ode on the Passions,” gives us a beautiful picture of
What was thy delighted measure?
Still it whispered promised pleasure,
Still would her touch the strain prolong,
And, where her sweetest theme she chose,
A soft responsive voice was heard at every close,
HATRED, AVERSION. Hatred or Aversion draws back the body as if to avoid the hatel object, the hands at the same time thrown outspread as if to keep it off. The face is
from that side toward which the bands are thrown out, the eyes looking angrily and obliquely the same way the hands are directed; the eyebrows are contracted, the upper lip disdainfully drawn up, and the teeth set; the pitch of the voice is low, but loud and harsh, the tone chiding, unequal, surly, and vehement.
Hatred and Revenge.