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fessor of thee, even unto death: I beseech thee, Lord God, take mercy upon this realm of England, and deliver the same from all her enemies."

Then the smith took a chain of iron and brought the same about both Doctor Ridley's and Master Latimer's middles; and as he was knocking in a staple, Doctor Ridley took the chain in his hand and shaked the same, for it did gird in his belly, and looked aside to the smith, said, “ Good fellow, knock it in hard, for the flesh will have his course.” Then his brother did bring him gunpowder in a bag, and would have tied the same about his neck; Master Ridley asked what it was; his brother said, “ Gunpowder;" then, said he, “ I will take it to be sent of God, therefore I will receive it as sent of him. And have you any,” said he, “ for my brother ?” meaning Master Latimer.

Yea, that I have,” (quoth his brother)" then give it unto him," said he," betime, lest ye come too late.” So his brother went and carried of the same gunpowder unto Master Latimer.

In the mean time, Doctor Ridley spake unto my Lord Williams, and said, My lord, I must be a suiter unto your lordship in the behalf of divers poor men, and especially in the cause of my poor sister. I have made a supplication to the queen's majesty in their behalves. I beseech your lordship, for Christ's sake, to be a mean to her grace for them. My brother here hath the supplication, and will resort to your lordship to certify you hereof. There is nothing in all the world that troubleth my conscience, (I praise God,) this only excepted. Whilst I was in the Tower of London, divers old men took leases of me, and agreed with me for the same; now I hear say, the bishop, that now. occupieth the same room, will not allow my grants unto them made, but contrary to all law and conscience hath taken from them their livings, and will not suffer them to enjoy the same. I beseech you, my lord, be a mean for them, you shall do a good deed, and God will re

ward you.

.

Then they brought a faggot kindled with fire, and laid the same down at Dr. Ridley's feet. To whom M. Latimer spake in this manner : “Be of good comfort D. Ridley, and play the man, we shall this day, light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as, I trust, shall never be put out.”.

And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr. Ridley saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful loud voice, In manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum; Domine recipe spiritum meum! And after repeating this latter part often in English, “ Lord, Lord, receive my spirit !” Master Latimer erying on the other side, Oh, Father of heaven receive my soul ! who received the flame, as it were embracing of it. After that he had stroaked his face with his hands, and as it were

bathed them a little in the fire, he soon 'died, as it appeareth, with very little pain or none. And thus much concerning the end of this old and blessed servant of God, Master Latimer, for whose laborious travel, fruitful life, and constant death, the whole realm hath cause to give thanks to God.

But Master Ridley, by reason of the evil making of the fire unto him, because the wooden faggots were laid about the gosse, and over high built, the fire burned first beneath, being kept down by the wood, which, when he felt, he desired them for Christ's sake, to let the fire come unto him; which, when his brother-in-law heard, but not well understood, intending to rid him out of his pain, (for the which cause he gave attendance,) as one in such sorrow, not well advised what he did, heaped faggots upon him, so that he clean covered him, which made the fire more vehement beneath, that it burned clean all his nether parts, before it once touched the upper, and that made him leap up and down under the faggots, and often desire them to let the fire come unto him, saying, I cannot burn; which, indeed, appeared well, for after his legs were consumed, by reason of his struggling through the pain, (whereof he had no release but only his contentation in God, he showed that side towards us clean, shirt and all untouched with flame. Yet, in all this torment, he forgot not to call unto God, still having in his mouth, “ Lord, have mercy upon me!" intermingling his cry, "Let the fire come unto me, I cannot burn.” In which pain, he laboured till one of the standers by, with his bill, pulled off the faggots above, and where he saw the fire flame up, he pressed himself into that side; and when the flame touched the gunpowder, he was seen to stir no more, but burned on the other side, falling down at Master Latimer's feet. Which, some said, happened by reason that the chain loosed :, others said that he fell over the chain by reason of the poise of his body, and the weakness of the limbs. Some said, that before he was like to fall from the stake, he desired them to hold him to it with their bills. However it was, surely it moved hundreds to tears, in beholding the horrible sight. For I think there was none that had not clean exiled all humanity and mercy, which would not have lamented to behold the fury of the fire so to rage upon their bodies. Signs there were of sorrow on every side. Some took it grievously to see their deaths, whose lives they had held full dear. Some pitied their persons, that thought their souls had no need thereof. His brother moved many men, seeing his miserable case, seeing (I say) him compelled to 'such infelicity, that he thought then to do him best service when he hastened his end. Some cried, out of the luck to see his endeavour who' most dearly loved him, and sought his release, turn to his greater vexation and increase of pain. But whoso considered their preferment in time past, the places of honour that they sometime occupied in this commonwealth, the favour they were in with their princes, and the opinion of learning they had, could not choose but sorrow with tears, to see so great dignity, honour, and estimation, so necessary members sometime accounted, so many godly virtues, the study of so many years, such excellent learning, to be put into the fire and consumed in one moment. Well, dead they are, and the reward of this world they have already. What reward remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lord's glory, when he cometh with his saints, shall shortly, I trust, declare.

Art. VIII.-Memoirs of the Duke of Sully, Prime Minister of

Henry the Great ; with the Trial of Francis Ravaillac, for the Murder of Henry the Great. 1649.

If we except those solemn inquiries connected with his future existence, there is no subject of research or consideration so interesting and important to man as that of history. It is the golden chain by which we fathom the depths of time, and obtain the lessons of experience

every link, however remote, is full of vitality—the errors and sufferings, the melancholy degradations, and the glorious capabilities of our nature, pass in procession before us; and we feel a conscious relationship to every performer in the great drama of human life, of which we cannot be sensible in any other branch of philosophic pursuit, or scientific examination.

To the historian we are indebted not only for distant records and insulated facts, but that developement of the progress of existence, which renders recollections of the past a code of instruction for the future; through every gradation of intellect, every impulse of passion, and peculiarity of situation, he traces the slowly-forming organizations of civilized legislature, the duties of social life, and the virtues which belong to its complicated and extended claims. Philanthropy, patriotism, the love of liberty, the approbation of order, the energies of valour, the attachments of loyalty, the affections of humanity, spring successively in the bosom, as we peruse the page which unites us in the trials, conduct, and feelings of our departed brethren; and even when, sickened with the review of crime and suffering, we turn from the scene, yet we are rendered rather humble than misanthropic, from the contemplation of errors seen through the ameliorating vista of intervena ing years; and we gladly press forward to meet some brilliant emanation of a better nature, some gloriously redeeming character or circumstance, which restores us to the sweetest perceptions and the loftiest emotions of our nature.

Next to the author who devotes genius and learning to the wearisome occupation of historic research, and the laborious task of pursuing truth through the labyrinths which time, language, and custom, have interwoven around her; we apprehend one of the greatest benefits a public character can bestow upon his countrymen (and we may say upon his species), is transmitting to posterity a well-digested detail of those scenes which he has witnessed, and those transactions in which he has borne a part. We find all nations are agreed in holding such memoirs in especial estimation, and the labours of Thucydides and Lord Clarendon are alike standard works, that pass on from age to age, uninjured by the oblivious hand of time, as things which, appertaining to man's nature, adhere to him in despite of the mutabilities which affect his situation. Thus the work before us will go down to posterity, valued alike by the historian, biographer, and financier, and held in high respect by the general reader, for the accuracy and simplicity of its details, the importance and variety of its facts; and, above all, the honesty and unvarnished integrity by which it is dictated, on which the mind reposes with an unquestioning security.

Few men have existed whose account of passing events, and whose personal share in controlling and influencing the circle of public affairs, could offer equal interest with the Memoirs of the Duke of Sully. His determined courage, unbending integrity, and energetic perseverance, peculiarly fitted him for the times in which he began his honourable career, the confusion which arose out of them, and the prosperity that eventually ensued. He seemed born to be the minister of a king whose manifold difficulties, splendid qualities, and unhappy foibles, alike demanded the valour, the investigation, and the inflexibility of this most devoted servant-who, as a general, a minister, and a personal friend, was alike invaluable to the monarch and the people.

This important work, we are informed by the editor, is collected from the papers of the Duke of Sully, Baron de Rosny, principally written by his own hands, but occasionally by those of his secretaries, during the period of his public life. The Memoirs are divided into thirty books, which contain the history of the author and his own times, including, of course, that of the king, his master. This, which may be pro

VOL. VI. PART II.

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perly termed his own work, is succeeded by a memoir of the remainder of his life, his death and burial; after which, we have the trial of Francis Ravaillac, the assassin of Henry the great, and the dreadful, we may say diabolical, sentence passed upon him. These, with a copious index, constitute five thick octavo volumes, admirably translated by an English lady. In making the copious extracts which we propose to transfer to our pages, we shall select such only as are rendered peculiarly interesting from the important historical circumstances they relate, or the private anecdotes they record; that tend to display the manners of an age which blended ferocity with politeness, cruelty and bigotry with valour and elegance, in a manner which nothing less than the most authentic records could induce us to believe.

For the better understanding the commencement of these Memoirs, which naturally enter on their subject as if the reader were well acquainted with the previous history of France, we shall recapitulate the affairs of that country for so many years previous, as to render the names and parties, hereafter alluded to, familiar to recollection.

Catherine de Medicis, the most cruel, intriguing, violent, but accomplished princess of her time, on the death of her husband Henry II. (who was killed at a tournament) procured herself the title of regent, during the minority of her son, Francis II., now only sixteen (the husband of the unfortunate Queen Mary of Scotland). At this time, the oppressions practised by the court against the Calvinists or Huguenots, had driven them to seek redress by taking up arms, being secretly aided by the Queen of England, and more openly by the Prince of Condé, and the young King of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV.

The Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine, who were joined with the queen in the government, gave battle to these unhappy people, and having conquered, pursued their victory rather as murderers than soldiers, and the Prince of Condé, falling into their hands, was sentenced to be beheaded; but the sudden death of the king, and the well known circumstance, that the Protestants, headed by Admiral Coligny, were about to rise in far more formidable numbers, suspended his fate.

Charles IX., the second son of Catherine (likewise a minor), succeeded, and the ambitious queen retaining the power she loved, and fearing the open force of the Protestants, began to practise those underhand means of aggrandizement in which she was already too well skilled; though, abhorring the Huguenots, and perpetually practising against them, she affected the utmost candour, liberated the Prince of Condé, and

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