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structures of which

which is used in the process or handicraft carried on Sect. 7. in such factory or workshop, and near to or over

dangerous which children or young persons (P) are liable to vats or pass or to be employed, is so dangerous, by reason of its being filled with hot liquid or molten metal notice is or otherwise, as to be likely to be a cause of bodily inspector. injury to any child or young person employed in the factory or workshop, he shall serve on the occupier of the factory or workshop a notice requiring him to fence such vat, pan, or other structure.

The provisions of this Act with respect to the fencing of machinery which an inspector considers not to be securely fenced and to be dangerous shall apply in like manner as if they were re-enacted in this section, with the substitution of the vat, pan, or other structure, for machinery, and with the addition of workshop, and if the occupier of a factory or workshop fails constantly to maintain the fencing required under this section in an efficient state, while such vat, pan, or other structure is so filled or otherwise dangerous as aforesaid, the factory or workshop shall be deemed not to be kept in conformity with this Act.

VIII. Where an inspector observes in a factory Sect. 8. that any grindstone, worked by steam, water, or Fixing of

grindstones other mechanical power is in itself so faulty, or is

securely and fixed in so faulty a manner as to be likely to cause replacing of bodily injury to the grinder using the same, he grindstone shall serve on the occupier of the factory a notice when notice requiring him to replace such faulty grindstone, or inspector. to properly fix the grindstone fixed in the faulty

manner.

The provisions of this Act with respect to the near to or over which children or young persons are liable to pass or to be employed. See n. (g), supra.

(p) The expression “child” means a person under the age of 14 years; and “young person a person of the age of 14 years, and under the age of 18 years. S. 96.

of ma

while in motion or

Sect. 8. fencing of machinery which an inspector considers

not to be securely fenced and to be dangerous shall apply in like manner as if they were re-enacted in this section with the necessary modifications.

Where the occupier of a factory fails to keep the grindstone mentioned in the notice or award in such a state and fixed in such manner as not to be dangerous, the factory shall be deemed not to be

kept in conformity with this Act. Sect. 9. IX. A child shall not be allowed to clean any Restriction part of the machinery in a factory while the same is on cleaning in motion by the aid of steam, water, or other chinery

mechanical power.

A young person or woman (2) shall not be working allowed to clean such part of the machinery in a parts of factory as is mill-gearing (r) while the same is in self-acting motion for the purpose of propelling any part of the

.
manufacturing machinery.

A child, young person, or woman shall not be allowed to work between the fixed and traversing part of any self-acting machine while the machine is in motion by the action of steam, water, or other mechanical power.

A child, young person, or woman allowed to clean or to work in contravention of this section shall be deemed to be employed contrary to the pro. visions of this Act (s).

(3.) Employment and Meal Hours. Sect. 10. X. A child, young person, or woman shall not

between

Period of employ

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woman

(9) The expression

means a woman of 18 years of age and upwards. S. 96.

(r) See n. (i), p. 5.

(3) For the offence of employing a child, young person, or woman, contrary to the provisions of the Act, the occupier renders himself liable to a fine of £3, or if the offence is committed during the night £5 for each child, young person, or woman so employed. S. 83.

be employed in a factory or workshop except Sect. 10. during the period of employment hereinafter men- ment of

children,

tioned (t).

young persons and women.

(t) See definitions of expressions “child," "young person,” and women.” S. 96. The employment of a child under ten years of age, in factories or workshops, is entirely prohibited. S. 20. A child of thirteen

years

who has attained a certain standard of education may be employed as a young person. S. 26.

By employment is meant working in a factory or workshop, whether for wages or not, either in a manufacturing process or handicraft, or in cleaning any part of the factory or workshop used for any manufacturing process or handicraft, or in cleaning or oiling any part of the machinery, or in any other kind of work whatsoever incidental to or connected with the manufacturing process or handicraft, or connected with the article made or otherwise the subject of the manufacturing process or handicraft therein. S. 94.

The period of employment must be specified in a notice affixed in the factory or workshop ; and the period so specified will be deemed to be the period of employment there. See s. 19. As to the use of a public clock for the purpose of regulating the period of employment, see s. 76.

For the penalties attached to the offence of employing persons contrary to the Act, see ss. 83, 84.

Section 11, infra, regulates the period of employment for young persons and women in textile factories ; s. 12, for children in textile factories ; s. 13, for young persons and women in non-textile factories and for women in workshops ; s. 14, for children in non-textile factories and workshops ; s. 15, for women in workshops, and s. 16, for children and young persons in what are called “domestic"workshops. Ss. 42—52, contain several special exceptions relaxing the law as to the period of employment in certain cases ; 8. 50 containing regulations in favour of Jews.

The Act contains several “special exceptions,” relaxing the general law as to the period of employment, ss. 42–51 ;-and as to meal hours, s. 52 ; and employment overtime, and night employment are allowed in some cases, subject to restrictions. Ss. 53-60.

for young

women in a textile

Sect. 11. XI. With respect to the employment of young Period of employ

persons and women in a textile factory (u) the ment, &c., following regulations shall be observed :

(1.) The period of employment, except on Saturpersons and

day, shall either begin at six o'clock in factory.

the morning and end at six o'clock in the evening, or begin at seven o'clock in the morning and end at seven o'clock in the

evening; and (2.) The period of employment on Saturday shall

begin either at six o'clock or at seven

o'clock in the morning (v); and
(3.) Where the period of employment on Satur-

days begins at six o'clock in the morning,
that period-
(a.) If not less than one hour is

allowed for meals, shall end at
one o'clock in the afternoon as
regards employment in any man-
ufacturing process, and at half-
past one o'clock in the afternoon
as regards employment for any
purpose

whatever; and
(6.) If less than one hour is allowed

for meals, shall end at half an
hour after noon as regards em-
ployment in any manufacturing
process, and at one o'clock in the
afternoon as regards employment
for
any purpose

whatever ; and
(4.) Where the period of employment on Satur-

(u) For the definition of “textile” factory, see s. 93; p. 84.

(v) In the factories and workshops specified in the third Schedule, pt. 1, the occupier has the option of fixing the period of employ. ment, except on Saturday, between eight a.m. and eight p.m. ; and on Saturday, between eight a.m. and four p.m., or between seven a.m. and three p.m. S. 42: pp. 44, 105.

day begins at seven o'clock in the Sect. 11.
morning, that period shall end at half-
past one o'clock in the

afternoon as
regards any manufacturing process, and
at two o'clock in the afternoon as regards
employment for any purpose whatever ;

and
(5.) There shall be allowed for meals during the

said period of employment in the fac-
tory (w)-
(a.) On every day except Saturday not

less than two hours, of which one
hour at the least, either at the
same time or at different times,
shall be before three o'clock in

the afternoon ; and
(b.) On Saturday not less than half an

hour; and
(6.) A young person or woman shall not be em-

ployed continuously for more than four
hours and a half, without an interval of

at least half-an-hour for a meal (x). XII. With respect to the employment of children Sect. 12. in a textile (y) factory the following regulations shall Period of be observed

employ(1.) Children shall not be employed except on children in

the system either of employment in morn- factory.
ing and afternoon sets, or of employment
on alternate days only; (x) and

ment for

(w) The times allowed for meals must be specified in a notice affixed in the factory or workshop, and the times so specified will be deemed to be the times allowed there. S. 19.

(a) In certain cases, between the first day of November and the last of March, employment is allowed to be continuous without this interval. S. 48.

(y) See n. (u), supra. (2) The occupier is required to specify in a notice affixed in the

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