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The horse rears. Trees live. Cats scratch. The wind ceased. The girls played. The boy talked. The child learned. Charles has played. The bells have tolled. A lamb has bleated. Jane has studied. The carriage had passed. Monkeys will mimic. The dogs had growled. Horses will neigh. A man will have dined. Money will corrupt. Boys will play. The man will have gone.

TENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

WHEN TWO OR MORE WORDS, IN THE SINGULAR NUMBER, ARE JOINED TOGETHER BY THE CONJUNCTION and, THE VERBS, NOUNS, AND PRONOUNS, AGREEING WITH THEM, MUST BE IN THE PLURAL NUMBER.

Parse the following sentences, and apply the above rule.

John, James, and Joseph, have arrived. Ignorance and negligence are not commendable. Wisdom, virtue, and happiness, dwell with the golden mediocrity. The learned and the ignorant may be exposed to misfortunes. The time and place for the conference were determined. Precept and discipline are important to youth. Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time, are imperative on all. The boy and the girl were present. His father, mother, brother, sister, and cousin, went into the country with him. Air and exercise were found useful.

ELEVENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

NEUTER AND PASSIVE VERBS MAY HAVE THE SAME CASE AFTER THEM AS BEFORE THEM, WHEN BOTH WORDS REPRESENT THE SAME THING.

Parse the following sentences, and apply the above rule.

John is an industrious scholar. Washington was the first president of the United States. Thoinas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence. Geography is a description of the earth. Grammar is the art of speaking and writing correctly. The man shall be called the protector of innocence. She was named Mary. Homer is styled the prince of poets. James was created a duke. He died a martyr to the cause. He shall return the ornament of his company. George appears the best scholar in his class. He was called Cæsar. Physiologists are the students of nature's laws. Youth is the season of improvement. Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time, are material duties

of the young

TWELFTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

ACTIVE VERBS GOVERN THE OBJECTIVE CASE.

Parse the following sentences, and apply the above rule.

John struck Charles. George followed Mary. Caroline has called John. A robber had killed the traveller. The lamp-lighter will light the lamps. The carriage shall pass the school-house. The children had deserted the mall. John will have gathered the apples. The clock marks the hours. The artist has finished his painting. Earth completes her yearly course. We descry Jupiter's orb. Mars makes his revolution. Jupiter takes greater limits. Twelve long years declare his bounds.

Fair star of eve, thy lucid ray
Directs my thoughts to realms on high.
The sun, vicegerent of his power,
Shall rend the veil of parting night.

PARTICIPLES.

89. Participles are words derived from verbs. They have no number nor person ; but, like verbs, they have tenses, and, like adjectives, they belong to some noun, or pronoun.

90. There are three Participles; the Present Participle, the Perfect Participle, and the Compound Perfect Participle; as:

Present Active,
Perfect,
Compound Perfect,

Loving.
Loved.
Having loved.

Present Passive,
Perfect,
Compound Perfect,

Being loved.
Loved.
Having been loved.

91. The participle is distinguished from the adjective by expressing the idea of time, and generally signifying an action, while the adjective expresses only a quality; as, À wheel moving rapidly. Here the word moving is a participle, because it signifies an action. But in the expression, A moving wheel, the word moving is an adjective, because it tells the kind of wheel.

THIRTEENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

PARTICIPLES BELONG TO NOUNS OR PRONOUNS, EXPRESSED OR UNDERSTOOD.

Tell the participles in the following sentences, and which of

them are used as adjectives. A boy reading his book. A book read by the boy. George having read his book. The book being read. The note having been read. Henry moving in haste. A moving carriage. The lesson having been recited, and the boys being dismissed. The note brought by the boy. The ship sailing in the river. The carriage drawn by four horses. The piece spoken by Charles. The garment made by the tailor. A walking image. A painted picture. A picture painted by the artist

. A running fight. The boys were running. A writing-book, and a girl writing in it. А speaking figure, of which the boy was speaking.

FOURTEENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

THE PRESENT AND COMPOUND PERFECT PARTICIPLES OF ACTIVE VERBS GOVERN THE OBJECTIVE CASE.

Parse the following sentences, and apply the above rule.

John, having finished the book, returned it to George. Dlary was writing a letter. The water was wearing the

stones. The master was hearing the lesson.

The boys, having recited their lessons, were dismissed. The soldiers were forming a line. The commander was watching their motions. The girls were reading useful books.

92. Participles are frequently, used as nouns. They are then called Verbal, or Participial Nouns; as, Reading is useful,

FIFTEENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

A PAKT/CIPIAL NOUN, DERIVED FROM AN ACTIVE VERB, MAY GOVERN THE OBJECTIVE CASE.

Parse the following sentences, and apply the above rule.

John was sent to prepare the way, by preaching repentauce. He is employed in writing letters. Good pupils take delight in studying their lessons. The master is pleased with teach. ing such pupils. Writing composition is not so difficult as many are fond of representing it. Playing ball is a healthy and agreeable exercise. The commander was watching their motions. The boys were employed in reciting their declamations. The girls were occupied in dressing their dolls. The cars on the rail-road were used for transporting merchandise. It is not on account of having killed the Lerneán serpent, that Cadmus boasted of having benefited Greece. You should honour them for presenting so noble a recreation to heroes,

ADVERBS,

93. Adverbs are words joined to verbs, and sometimes to other words, to express some quality or circumstance of time, place, or manner, respecting them; as, Ann speaks distinctly. John came quickly. Whence comest thou ?

94. Some adverbs, like adjectives, have three degrees of comparison, namely, the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative; as,

Positive, Soon; Comparative, Sooner ; Superlative, Soonest. Positive, Often; Comparative, Oftener; Superlative, Oftenest. Positive, Far; Comparative, Farther; Superlative, Farthest. Positive, Well; Comparative, Better; Superlative, Best. Positive, Much ; Comparative, More; Superlative, Most.

95. Adverbs ending in ly are compared by placing more and most before them; as, Positive, Wisely;

Comparative, More Wisely;
Superlative, Most Wisely.

96. An adverb may be known by its ans

nswering the question, How? How much? When? or Where? as, She dances gracefully. Now, if any one asks the question, Howo does she dance ? the answer is, Gracefully. Therefore the word gracefully is an adverb.

SIXTEENTH RULE OF SYNTAX.

ADVERBS QUALIFY VERBS, PARTICIPLES, ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND SOMETIMES OTHER WORDS.

[To parse an adverb is to compare it, to tell what word it

qualifies, and to give the rule.]

Parse the adverbs in the following sentences. Peter wept bitterly. She went away yesterday. They came to-day. You shall know hereafter. She sung most sweetly. Mary rose up hastily. Cain wickedly slew his brother. He is a very good man. He speaks more correctly. He was most attentively meditating. He conducted very improperly. He is nearly upon the top of the hill. You read too little. The ship was driven ashore. Let him speak freely. The oftener you read attentively, the more you will improve. Then they were glad. They talk too much. James acted wisely. All must die, sooner or later. I saw him long ago. Henry sleeps soundly. George, running hastily, fell down and hurt himself severely. I see him often, but my brother sees him oftener. He swam quite across the river.

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